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- David Lyon From Big Brother to Electronic Panopticon (Chapter Four of David Lyon's The Electronic Eye: The Rise of Surveillance Society, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994 : 57-80) [Search]
Canadian sociologist David Lyon surveys the history of theories of surveillance with emphasis on George Orwell's vision in 1984, and Foucault's interpretation of Bentham's Panopticon.
- James Boyle, "Foucault In Cyberspace: Surveillance, Sovereignty, and Hard-Wired Censors" (pre-publication version) - [Search]
Boyle's paper is a valuable general analysis of the relationship between law and cyberspace and the centrality of `surveillance' (in Foucault's sense) to this reltionship.
- Roger Clarke's Dataveillance and Information Privacy Pages [Search]
- Roger Clarke, "Information Technology and Dataveillance" Comm. ACM 31,5, 1988 (Re-published in C. Dunlop and R. Kling (Eds.), 'Controversies in Computing', Academic Press, 1991.) [Search]
Roger Clarke has made a significant international contribution to analysis of the techniques of data surveillance - or `dataveillance' as he called it. Although this paper by Clarke predates the significance of the Internet for surveillance (1988) its analysis of the forms of dataveillance remains valuable.
- Roger Clarke, "Information Technology: Weapon of Authoritarianism or Tool of Democracy?" Proc. World Congress, Int'l Fed. of Info. Processing, Hamburg, September 1994 [Search]
Strong tendencies exist to apply information technology to support centralist, authoritarian world views. It is argued that alternative architectures can be readily created, which are more attuned to the openness and freedoms which are supposed to be the hallmarks of democratic government.