WorldLII Home | Databases | WorldLII | Search | Feedback

EPIC Alert

You are here:  WorldLII >> Databases >> EPIC Alert >> 2005 >> [2005] EPICAlert 3

Database Search | Name Search | Recent Articles | Noteup | LawCite | Help

EPIC Alert 12.02 [2005] EPICAlert 3


Volume 12.02 January 27, 2005

Published by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
Washington, D.C.

Table of Contents

[1] EPIC Hosts Annual Privacy Coalition Summit
[2] EPIC FOIA Suit Reveals FBI Kept Millions of Passenger Records
[3] Inauguration Day Puts DC Under Unprecedented Surveillance
[4] Acxiom Lobbied for Broad Exemptions to Privacy Law After 9/11
[5] EPIC Urges Privacy Protections for Federal Employee ID Card
[6] News in Brief
[7] EPIC Bookstore: Prying Eyes
[8] Upcoming Conferences and Events

[1] EPIC Hosts Annual Privacy Coalition Summit

The Privacy Coalition's annual meeting took place in Washington, DC onJanuary 20-22. Over 30 state and national organizations comprised ofprivacy, civil rights and civil liberties experts gathered to assessthe impact of emerging technology on privacy, government policy, andbusiness activity over the past year. The group also assessed theprivacy climate for 2005.

Panel discussions covered a wide range of challenges to civilliberties, consumer rights, new technology and internationaldevelopments in privacy policy. The challenges faced by civil rights,civil liberties, and privacy advocates are not just domestic butinternational. It is anticipated that as technology is introduced inthe form of radio frequency identification (RFID), biometricidentification systems, and the incorporation of global positioningsystems (GPS) in consumer products the lines between public andprivate activity will continue to blur. The goal of many governmentactions post 9/11 has been to make surveillance more efficient and toencourage the mutual exchange of data on citizens among nations.

The meeting was an opportunity for privacy experts specializing in awide range of areas to teach and learn from each other in an intensemini-course environment. Those invited to join this annual gatheringare experts in their fields, which makes the summit unique and ahighly valued experience. For more information on the PrivacyCoalition or joining this distinguished group, send your request

Privacy Coalition web site:

EPIC 2004 Privacy Year in Review/Issues to Watch:

[2] EPIC FOIA Suit Reveals FBI Kept Millions of Passenger Records

EPIC's Freedom of Information litigation has revealed that the FBI iskeeping 257.5 million records on people who flew on commercialairlines prior to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in its permanentinvestigative database. The data retained by the FBI come fromPassenger Name Records (PNR), which may include credit card numbers,travel itineraries, and meal requests.

In a sworn declaration explaining why the FBI made heavy redactions indocuments released to EPIC in September, the Bureau noted that itobtained the passenger records from a number of airlines shortly afterSeptember 11, 2001. The FBI also obtained passenger data from oneairline through a federal grand jury subpoena. Citing privacyconcerns, the FBI refused to name the airlines that turned overpassenger records, the airline employees who disclosed it or the FBIspecial agents who collected it.

The declaration explains the data were stored and combined with otherinformation from PENTTBOMB, the FBI's investigation into the 9/11attacks. "[T]he Airline Data Sets have been entered by the CyberDivision into a 'Data Warehouse' and have been intertwined foranalytical purposes with the information from several other PENTTBOMBData Sets," the declaration stated.

Another EPIC FOIA lawsuit revealed last year that the FBI obtained onefull year's worth of passenger data from Northwest Airlines after9/11. The document revealed that the amount of personal data was sovast that the airline provided it to the FBI on 6000 CDs. In anarticle based upon this information, the New York Times confirmed thatthe Bureau had acquired passenger data not only from Northwest, butfrom other U.S. air carriers, as well.

Declaration from the FBI:

FBI documents on collection of passenger data from airlines:

For more information on privacy of passenger data, see EPIC'sPassenger Profiling Page:

[3] Inauguration Day Puts DC Under Unprecedented Surveillance

President Bush's Inauguration on January 20 took Washington, DC to anew level of surveillance. Law enforcement conducted live videosurveillance from helicopters and used hundreds of video camerasinstalled around the U.S. Capitol and along the parade route tomonitor the crowd and demonstrators.

Most of the video surveillance monitoring technology in DC wasdeployed well before 9/11, prior to any threat of potential terroristattacks. The DC Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) originallyinstalled cameras throughout the city to monitor demonstrators withoutnotifying the DC Council until the cameras were installed, therebydenying the public a meaningful opportunity to comment. In 2002, EPICobtained documentary evidence under the Freedom of Information Actthat DC's surveillance equipment is mainly directed towarddemonstrators. In the last few years the MPD, FBI, and other lawenforcement agencies used live video surveillance from helicoptersmainly to control peaceful demonstrations.

In 2004, a DC Council report found that the MPD maintained widespreadand extensive spying operations on political advocacy organizationsbased on their political philosophies and conduct protected under theFirst Amendment, even in the absence of allegations of criminalactivity. The Council recommended legislation to restrict MPDsurveillance of political organizations and preemptive arrests ofprotesters.

These findings underscore the need for public vigilance and oversightto make sure that new tools of surveillance do not impinge ondemonstrators' civil liberties, are used for proper purposes and notsubsequently used for illegitimate objectives. The remotesurveillance of political demonstrators raises important FirstAmendment issues: although police surveillance of protestors does notconstitute a direct ban on demonstration activities, images could beused in retaliation against individuals for their political views andchill protestors' freedom of speech, assembly and association.

Although the use of surveillance cameras raises far-reachingconstitutional questions that implicate the rights of people whoengage in peaceful public protest, video surveillance is notregulated. In DC, the U.S. Park Police and the MPD use video camerasonly subject to two weak guidelines, one of which was not evensubmitted to the public for comment. In testimony before Congress andthe DC Council, EPIC and other civil liberties groups haveconsistently advocated that better privacy safeguards are necessary,and that the use of video surveillance, if it sweeps broadly acrossinnocent activity and has an impact on First Amendment rights, must beregulated at least as stringently as surveillance of electroniccommunications.

EPIC has documented the growing expansion of video surveillance inWashington through its Observing Surveillance Project:

For more information about law enforcement use of video surveillance,see EPIC's Video Surveillance Page:

For more information about surveillance of protestors, see EPIC'sProtestor Privacy and Free Expression Rights Page:

[4] Acxiom Lobbied for Broad Exemptions to Privacy Law After 9/11

EPIC has obtained documents showing that commercial data broker Acxiomlobbied to water down key federal privacy laws immediately after theSeptember 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Acxiom sought broader access to"credit headers" and drivers information to develop a system for"identity and information verification that can be used byorganizations such as airlines, airports, cruise ships, and largebuildings and other applications to better determine whether a personis actually who they say they are."

The documents consist mainly of notes prepared by Department ofJustice staff detailing conversations and communications between thenAttorney General John Ashcroft and Acxiom president Charles Morgan andcompany attorney Jerry Jones. According to the documents, Morgan andJones approached the Department of Justice on several occasions todiscuss "amendments to the Gramm Leach Bliley (GLB) and the DriversPrivacy Protection Act (DPPA)" to accommodate a developing system for"identity and information verification." The documents also reference107 H.R. 1447, the Aviation Security Act, which ultimately became lawwithout Acxiom's proposed amendments. It also appears that Acxiomcourted Senator Blanche Lincoln (D-AR) and former Senator TimHutchinson (R-AR) to support the amendments.

The Acxiom amendments would have created large loopholes in federalprivacy legislation. For instance, Acxiom's amendments to the DPPAwould have allowed state motor vehicle administrations to releaseSocial Security numbers, photographs, and possibly biometricinformation to any government agency or business "in order toauthenticate the identity or information relating to an individual."
That language is broad enough to justify release of drivers'
information for almost any transaction, down to opening an account ata video rental store.

The Acxiom language to amend the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act would havecreated a broad exemption allowing disclosure of non-public personalinformation not only for anti-terrorism purposes, but also toauthenticate "information provided by or concerning a consumer." Theprovision would have superceded state law, and information fallingwithin this exemption would not have been subject to the Fair CreditReporting Act. Because the proposed amendments allowed authenticationfor "legitimate commercial purposes," the language would havepermitted use of "credit headers," compilations of personalidentification information, for even minor transactions.

EPIC documents on Acxiom's lobbying and proposed amendments:

EPIC staff publication, Big Brother's Little Helpers:

[5] EPIC Urges Privacy Protections for Federal Employee ID Card

In response to a Department of Homeland Security directive, theNational Institute for Science and Technology (NIST) is developing anID system for federal employees and contractors. The directive callsfor the development of a mandatory, government-wide standard forsecure and reliable forms of identification issued by the federalgovernment to its employees and contractors. In response, NIST hascreated a set of Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS 201)
known as the Personal Identity Verification Project. Outcry by thepublic and federal employee unions prompted NIST to hold a publicmeeting on January 19 to discuss privacy concerns in theimplementation of federal employee ID cards.

At the meeting, EPIC Policy Analyst Frannie Wellings told NIST and theOffice of Management and Budget that while one of the functionalobjectives of the proposal is to "protect the privacy of thecardholder," the standard they have developed does not includeadequate safeguards to accomplish this goal. Wellings urged that aprivacy impact assessment must be performed for the proposalimmediately, and that Fair Information Practices should be a minimalbaseline for protecting employee information. She argued that NISTmust incorporate privacy protections into the decisionmaking processnow rather than awkwardly and inefficiently adjusting the standardlater.

Wellings noted that the standard's problems are numerous, including anoverextensive scope of data collection and storage. Data minimizationwould reduce the likelihood that the card will be used for unrelatedor potentially risky purposes. The standard also involves contactlesscards that use radio frequency identification (RFID). RFID poses asecurity risk, allowing for remote and covert monitoring. Thesecurity of the information collected, displayed and made accessibleon the card requires a high level of security on the card itself aswell as oversight and privacy training for all employees accessing,controlling, and storing the data.

Wellings also stated that the proposal must include explicit policieslimiting the collection, access and use of the data by governmentagencies and the private sector. This standard could lead to thedevelopment of a large centralized bank of personal information, withno guarantees on how government agencies or private contractors willuse the data. Federal employees and other cardholders will not knowhow each agency is using this information. Furthermore, dataaggregated for specific security purposes intended to combat terrorismmight be used for unrelated purposes.

Wellings also pointed out that the standard creates the potential foragencies to track employee movement within federal buildings,including visits to other offices or possibly to a union office. Asthe cardholder uses the card to access various areas, a record ofthese movements can be retained, creating a high volume of data aboutthe movements of federal employees, which could be exploited. Inaddition, if an employee is wrongly identified as a terrorist or ifher information is used inappropriately, the proposal currentlyprovides no methods of redress.

Wellings recommended that before this standard is further developed,NIST must conduct a privacy impact assessment, reduce the datacollected and stored in accordance with Fair Information Practices,and cardholders must be provided with legally enforceable rights. Inorder to protect the privacy of federal employees who are dedicatingthemselves to public service, legislation will be necessary to enforceemployees' rights under the proposal.

For more information on employees' privacy rights, see EPIC'sWorkplace Privacy Page:

More Information on biometrics, see EPIC's Biometrics Page:

Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD-12) requiring thedevelopment of an ID system for federal employees and contractors:

Personal Identity Verification Project:

[6] News in Brief

HOMELAND SECURITY ABANDONS SWEEPING NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENTSSecrecy News reports that the Department of Homeland Security hasdecided to stop making its employees sign non-disclosure agreements togain access to unclassified information that is marked "for officialuse only" or "sensitive but unclassified." The non-disclosureagreements drew opposition from employees' unions and others partlybecause they gave the government extraordinary power to "conductinspections at any time or place for the purpose of ensuringcompliance."

Department of Homeland Security Management Directive 11042.1,
"Safeguarding Sensitive by Unclassified (For Official Use Only)

Intra-agency memorandum on Management Directive 11042.1, "SafeguardingSensitive by Unclassified (For Official Use Only) Information":

COALITION CALLS FOR POSTAL PRIVACY REFORMAs the annual volume of junk mail approaches that of normal, firstclass missives, Private Citizen and a coalition of privacy groups havecalled upon legislators to reform privacy protections against unwantedcommercial postal mail. The groups wrote: "While American residentsnow enjoy substantial federal protection from telemarketing salescalls . . . the U.S. Postal Service has not made significant stridesto reduce unwanted junk mail." The groups continued: "To illustratethe environmental, and privacy impact of . . . one segment of the junkmail industry last year, consider that if each of the 5,340,243,500 .
. . trashed credit card mailings weighed just two-thirds of an ounce.
The aggregate wasted tonnage of those trashed mailings would exceedthe weight of a battle ready NIMITZ Class aircraft carrier."

The groups called for a national do-not-mail list, similar to theregistry now running for telemarketing; a no junk mail sticker formailboxes that would allow individuals to mark their preference not toreceive "saturation" junk mail; improvements to existing methods ofblocking mail from a certain company; an opt-out under the "NationalChange of Address" program, which would stop junk mailers from gettingaddresses of movers; and a change to the "Cooperative Mail Rule,"
which allows for-profit mailers to partner with non-profitorganizations to send mail at a lower postage rate.

Coalition letter calling for do-not-mail postal privacy reform:

USPS 2004 Annual Report, showing the volume of junk mail and standardmail:

For more information about junk mail, see EPIC's Postal Privacy Page:

HIGH-LEVEL OFFICIALS RESIGN FROM THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSIONFederal Communications Commission Chairman Michael Powell,Commissioner Kathleen Abernathy, and Media Bureau Chief Kenneth Ferreehave all announced they are stepping down from their posts. In thecoming year, the Commission will continue to deal with questions ofwiretapping, broadband access and privacy, and restrictions ontelemarketing. It remains to be seen whether the White House andCongress will select a Chairman and Commissioner who will respond tothe strong public support for freedom of expression withoutsurveillance and for non-commercial use and public ownership ofcommunications channels. Such public support has been demonstrated inrecent months by hundreds of thousands of comments filed on variousissues and public attendance at hearings held around the country.

More information about public opinion on privacy is available at:

GOOGLE WATCH WARNS LIBRARIES ABOUT GOOGLE'S TRACKING POTENTIALIn a letter to the American Association of Libraries, Google Watch hasnoted that Google's agreement to digitize material for certainlibraries creates enormous potential for tracking. Google Watchurged, "those librarians who contract with Google for access to theirbooks and documents for purposes of digitization should require thatany future searches done on Google that produce this material, mustrespect the anonymity of the searcher. This would mean that Googlecannot record the IP address or unique ID from the cookie for suchsearches. Short of this, another alternative would be for librariesto deny Google access to any literature that has political content orrelevance." Google Watch continued, "the ALA is already involved withdiscovery and lobbying on this issue with the Justice Department overpractices that grew out of the USA Patriot Act. But keep in mind thatthe scale of anything Google does is a million times larger than thescale of anything that involves discrete libraries, access to paperhard copy, and occasional subpoenas for specific information."

The letter also noted that Google has made commitments to five majorlibraries to digitize much of the material in their catalogs -- andhas insisted that the libraries sign nondisclosure agreements inexchange for the service.

Google Watch appeal to the American Library Association:

KOREAN MEDIATION COMMITTEE RELEASES REPORT ON MAJOR PRIVACY ISSUESThe Korean Personal Information Dispute Mediation Committee releasedits 2004 Annual Report. The report identifies the major privacyissues as the release and sale of customers' personal information by amobile telecom company; the database-marketing of customers' personalinformation; the enactment of the Fundamental Law on Protection ofPersonal Information; the increased use of blogs and the opening ofprivate life to the public; and the leaking of personal informationthrough P2P and data retrieval sites.

The report is available online in English:

For more information on privacy issues in Korea, see Privacy and HumanRights 2004:

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT TO HOLD HEARING ON DATA PROTECTION AND TERRORISMThe European Parliament's Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice andHome Affairs will hold a public seminar on January 31 to discuss thenecessary steps and data for law enforcement activities, commonprinciples of protection for data used for security purposes, accessand re-use of private data for security purposes in the specific caseof air passengers, Internet users' data, and financial data. Thehearing will feature many high level officials from European Uniondata protection and security agencies.

European Parliament's Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice, and HomeAffairs:

NEW ON THE EPIC SITE: VICTORIA'S SECRET AND FINANCIAL PRIVACYOutside the Beltway, it is not well known that a Victoria's Secretcatalog is one of the key reasons that Congress included privacyprotections for financial information when passing theGramm-Leach-Bliley Act. A new web page on explains how oneMember of Congress was very upset that he started receiving Victoria'sSecret catalogs at his home in Washington. He was convinced that hiscredit union sold his new address to Victoria's Secret, and as aresult, he supported an amendment to add privacy protections tofederal financial services law.

EPIC's Victoria's Secret and Financial Privacy Page:

[7] EPIC Bookstore: Prying Eyes

Eric Gertler, Prying Eyes: Protect Your Privacy From People Who Sellto You, Snoop on You, or Steal From You (Random House Reference 2004).

"You leave an electronic trail every time you use a credit card, renta DVD, mail in a rebate form, go to the doctor, open a bank account,or surf the Internet at home and at work.

"News stories about identity theft, anti-terrorist legislation,cyber-stalking, marketing databases, and employer surveillancepractices are evidence that your privacy is violated more and moreevery day. Using examples from real-life situations, Prying Eyesreveals how, often without your knowledge, people use your personalinformation to sell to you, snoop on you, and steal from you.

"Eric Gertler reveals how to minimize your exposure in every facet oflife­at home, at the office, on vacation, at the store, at thedoctor's office, online, and on your cell phone. Beyond reporting andspeculation, Prying Eyes will empower you to take charge of yourpersonal information before someone else does.

"You will learn:

* How information about your bank account, credit, and purchases istracked, stored, and accessed -- and how to limit your exposure.

* How to protect yourself from identity theft­and how to recover ifyou've been a victim.

* Risks to your privacy at work -- why it is important to separateyour personal life from your business life.

* Threats to your medical files -- who has access to them how they'recommonly mishandled, and how to prevent information from getting intothe wrong hands."

"The Public Voice WSIS Sourcebook: Perspectives on the World Summit onthe Information Society" (EPIC 2004). Price: $40.

This resource promotes a dialogue on the issues, the outcomes, and theprocess of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). Thisreference guide provides the official UN documents, regional andissue-oriented perspectives, as well as recommendations and proposalsfor future action, as well as a useful list of resources and contactsfor individuals and organizations that wish to become more involved inthe WSIS process.

"The Privacy Law Sourcebook 2003: United States Law, InternationalLaw, and Recent Developments," Marc Rotenberg, editor (EPIC 2003).
Price: $40.

The "Physicians Desk Reference of the privacy world." An invaluableresource for students, attorneys, researchers and journalists who needan up-to-date collection of U.S. and International privacy law, aswell as a comprehensive listing of privacy resources.

"Filters and Freedom 2.0: Free Speech Perspectives on Internet ContentControls" (EPIC 2001). Price: $20.

A collection of essays, studies, and critiques of Internet contentfiltering. These papers are instrumental in explaining why filteringthreatens free expression.

"The Consumer Law Sourcebook 2000: Electronic Commerce and the GlobalEconomy," Sarah Andrews, editor (EPIC 2000). Price: $40.
The Consumer Law Sourcebook provides a basic set of materials forconsumers, policy makers, practitioners and researchers who areinterested in the emerging field of electronic commerce. The focus ison framework legislation that articulates basic rights for consumersand the basic responsibilities for businesses in the online economy.

"Cryptography and Liberty 2000: An International Survey of EncryptionPolicy," Wayne Madsen and David Banisar, authors (EPIC 2000). Price:

EPIC's third survey of encryption policies around the world. Theresults indicate that the efforts to reduce export controls on strongencryption products have largely succeeded, although severalgovernments are gaining new powers to combat the perceived threats ofencryption to law enforcement.

EPIC publications and other books on privacy, open government, freeexpression, crypto and governance can be ordered at:

EPIC Bookstore

"EPIC Bookshelf" at Powell's Books target="new">

[8] Upcoming Conferences and Events

12th Annual Network and Distributed System Security Symposium. TheInternet Society. February 3-4, 2005. San Diego, CA. For moreinformation: target="new">

14th Annual RSA Conference. RSA Security. February 14-18, 2005. SanFrancisco, CA. For more information:

The World Summit on the Information Society PrepCom 2. February17-25, 2005. Geneva, Switzerland. For more information:

3rd International Conference of Information Commissioners. FederalInstitute of Access to Information. February 20-23, 2005. Cancun,Mexico. For more information:

The Concealed I: Anonymity, Identity, and the Prospect of Privacy. Onthe Identity Trail and the Law and Technology Program at theUniversity of Ottawa. March 4-5, 2005. Ottawa, Canada. For moreinformation: target="new">

The Health Information Technology Summit West. eHealth Initiative.
March 6-8, 2005. San Francisco. For more information:

IAPP National Privacy Summit 2005. International Association ofPrivacy Professionals. March 9-11, 2005. Washington, DC. For moreinformation:

O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference. March 14-17, 2005. SanDiego, CA. For more Information:

Policy Options and Models for Bridging Digital Divides: Freedom,Sharing and Sustainability in the Global Network Society. March14-15, 2005. Project on Global Challenges of eDevelopment, HypermediaLaboratory, University of Tampere. Tampere, Finland. For moreinformation:

7th International General Online Research Conference. GermanSociety for Online Research. March 22-23, 2005. Zurich, Switzerland.
For more information: target="new">

The 2005 Nonprofit Technology Conference. Nonprofit TechnologyEnterprise Network. March 23-25, 2005. Chicago, IL. For moreinformation: target="new">

Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Meeting.
April 4-8, 2005. Mar del Plata, Argentina. For more information:

VoIP World Africa 2005. April 5-7, 2005. Terrapinn. Johannesburg,South Africa. For more information:

5th Annual Future of Music Policy Summit. Future of MusicCoalition. April 10-11, 2005. Washington DC. For more information:

CFP2005: Fifteenth Annual Conference on Computers, Freedom andPrivacy. April 12-15, 2005. Seattle, WA. For more information:

2005 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE Computer SocietyTechnical Committee on Security and Privacy in cooperation with TheInternational Association for Cryptologic Research. May 8-11, 2005.
Berkeley, CA. For more information:

SEC2005: Security and Privacy in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing.
Technical Committee on Security & Protection in Information ProcessingSystems with the support of Information Processing Society of Japan.
May 30-June 1, 2005. Chiba, Japan. For more information:

Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Meeting.
July 11-15, 2005. Luxembourg City, Luxenbourg. For more information:

3rd International Human.SocietyInternet Conference. July 27-29,
2005. Tokyo, Japan. For more information:

The World Summit on the Information Society. Government of Tunisia.
November 16-18, 2005. Tunis, Tunisia. For more information:

Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Meeting.
November 30-December 4, 2005. Vancouver, Canada. For moreinformation: target="new">

Subscription Information

Subscribe/unsubscribe via web interface:


Back issues are available at:

The EPIC Alert displays best in a fixed-width font, such as Courier.

Privacy Policy

The EPIC Alert mailing list is used only to mail the EPIC Alert and tosend notices about EPIC activities. We do not sell, rent or share ourmailing list. We also intend to challenge any subpoena or other legalprocess seeking access to our mailing list. We do not enhance (linkto other databases) our mailing list or require your actual name.

In the event you wish to subscribe or unsubscribe your e-mail addressfrom this list, please follow the above instructions under"subscription information."

About EPIC

The Electronic Privacy Information Center is a public interestresearch center in Washington, DC. It was established in 1994 tofocus public attention on emerging privacy issues such as the ClipperChip, the Digital Telephony proposal, national ID cards, medicalrecord privacy, and the collection and sale of personal information.
EPIC publishes the EPIC Alert, pursues Freedom of Information Actlitigation, and conducts policy research. For more information, see or write EPIC, 1718 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite200, Washington, DC 20009. +1 202 483 1140 (tel), +1 202 483 1248(fax).

If you'd like to support the work of the Electronic PrivacyInformation Center, contributions are welcome and fullytax-deductible. Checks should be made out to "EPIC" and sent to 1718Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. Or you cancontribute online at:

Your contributions will help support Freedom of Information Act andFirst Amendment litigation, strong and effective advocacy for theright of privacy and efforts to oppose government regulation ofencryption and expanding wiretapping powers.

Thank you for your support.


WorldLII: Copyright Policy | Disclaimers | Privacy Policy | Feedback