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EPIC Alert 20.11 [2013] EPICAlert 11

EPIC Alert 20.11

======================================================================= E P I C A l e r t ======================================================================= Volume 20.11 June 12, 2013 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Published by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) Washington, D.C. "Defend Privacy. Support EPIC." ======================================================================== Table of Contents ======================================================================== [1] White House Acknowledges NSA Domestic Surveillance Program, Role of Internet Companies in 'PRISM' [2] EPIC to Congress: 'NSA Domestic Surveillance Program is Unlawful' [3] EPIC Seeks Legal Justification for NSA Surveillance Program [4] Congress Begins Investigation of NSA Domestic Surveillance Program [5] US Supreme Court Rules Against DNA Privacy [6] News in Brief [7] EPIC in the News [8] EPIC Book Review: 'To Save Everything, Click Here' [9] Upcoming Conferences and Events TAKE ACTION: Comment on the TSA's 'Nude' Airport Body Scanners! - COMMENTS to the TSA: - LEARN More: - SUPPORT EPIC: ======================================================================== [1] White House Acknowledges NSA Domestic Surveillance Program, Role of Internet Companies in 'PRISM' ======================================================================== An unprecedented order from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court indicates that the FBI and the NSA obtained vast amounts of data on Verizon customers without any ties to a foreign intelligence investigation. Last year, in testimony for the House Judiciary Committee, EPIC urged Congress not to renew the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act without first establishing appropriate oversight mechanisms. EPIC warned, "[T]here is simply too little known about the operation of the FISA today to determine whether it is effective and whether the privacy interests of Americans are adequately protected." Asked to respond to reports about secret US government surveillance of phones and the Internet, President Obama has acknowledged the NSA's collection of domestic phone records of US citizens and the surveillance of the Internet via the PRISM program. Disclosed classified documents revealed a Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) order requiring Verizon to produce all telephony metadata to the NSA. The documents also revealed an NSA program called PRISM, which collects data from leading Internet companies. President Obama maintained that "what the intelligence community is doing is looking at phone numbers and duration of calls . . . they are not looking at people's names, and they're not looking at content." He also pointed out that PRISM is "consistent with the Constitution and rule of law," and that it "does not apply to US citizens, and it does not apply to people living in the United States." The President stated he "set up an audit process when [he] came into office to make . . . absolutely certain that all the safeguards are being properly observed." The White House: Video of President Obama's Remarks (Jun. 7, 2013) EPIC: Slides on PRISM (Jun. 7, 2013) FISC: Order to Verizon (Apr. 25, 2013) EPIC: Letter to Congress re: NSA Domestic Surveillance (Jun. 7, 2013) EPIC: Statement on the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 (May 31, 2012) EPIC: Domestic Surveillance ======================================================================== [2] EPIC to Congress: 'NSA Domestic Surveillance Program is Unlawful' ======================================================================== EPIC has sent a letter to Congress charging that the National Security Agency's classified demand for domestic telephone records is unlawful. The secret order, issued by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), instructs Verizon to turn over all telephone metadata for all communications "wholly within the United States." The order explicitly excludes foreign communications. EPIC's letter states, "The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court ordered an American telephone company to disclose to the NSA records of wholly domestic communications. The FISC lacks the legal authority to grant this order." The FISC was created by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) in order to authorize foreign intelligence-gathering investigations. Wiretaps for domestic investigations are handled by regular US courts under other statutes. This order was issued under FISA, as amended by Section 215 of the Patriot Act. EPIC's letter calls on Congress to: "* Immediately hold oversight hearings to determine whether the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court exceeded its legal authority when it authorized surveillance of solely domestic communications; "* Instruct the Inspector General of the Intelligence Community to investigate domestic surveillance under the FISA and Patriot Act and produce a public, unclassified report of his findings; "* Publish all substantive legal interpretations of the FISA and the Patriot Act, specifically sections 215 and 702; and "* Publish past orders and opinions of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, interpreting the FISA and Patriot Act." The metadata acquired by NSA includes telephone numbers, time and duration of calls, and unique device numbers capable of individually identifying specific cell phones. The metadata also includes cell-site location information of the caller. EPIC: Letter to Congress re: NSA and Verizon (Jun. 7, 2013) FISC: Verizon Order (Apr. 25, 2013) EPIC: NSA Verizon Phone Record Monitoring EPIC: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act EPIC: Clapper v. Amnesty Int'l EPIC: USA Patriot Act EPIC: Domestic Surveillance ======================================================================== [3] EPIC Seeks Legal Justification for NSA Surveillance Program ======================================================================== EPIC has filed a Freedom of Information Act request with the US Department of Justice, seeking the agency's justification for the NSA's domestic surveillance program. Documents published in the UK's The Guardian reveal that The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) authorized a request from the FBI for "all call detail records or 'telephony metadata' created by Verizon for communications . . . (ii) wholly within the United States, including local telephone calls." The Department of Justice and President Obama have acknowledged that the agency conveyed information to Congress about the program. EPIC's FOIA request states, "the Justice Department's interpretation of section 215 has been a matter of concern for many members of Congress. Senators Ron Wyden and Mark Udall have stated that there is a 'significant gap' between the public's perception of the scope of the Patriot Act and the government's interpretation of that scope." Following the release of information about the NSA's surveillance program, US Attorney General Eric Holder and several members of the House and Senate Committees on the Judiciary and Intelligence confirmed that they were familiar with the program and had known about it for the past seven years. EPIC's FOIA request seeks "all records consisting of communications between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and any member of Congress or Congressional staff regarding the Justice Department's interpretation of section 215 of the Patriot Act," and states that these communications have serious privacy implications, including not only the specific use of section 215 to authorize a comprehensive domestic surveillance program, "but also the secrecy of the process by which American law is interpreted and applied." In addition to filing the FOIA request, EPIC has written a letter to members of the US House and Senate Committees on the Judiciary and Intelligence, asking for a determination whether the FISC exceeded authority when it compelled Verizon to turn over the records of millions of telephone customers. EPIC: FOIA Request re: NSA Surveillance (Jun. 7, 2013) EPIC: Letter to Congress re: NSA Surveillance (Jun. 7, 2013) FISC: Verizon Order (Apr. 25, 2013) EPIC: FISA EPIC: Clapper v. Amnesty International EPIC: USA Patriot Act ======================================================================== [4] Congress Begins Investigation of NSA Domestic Surveillance Program ======================================================================== Following the revelation of that the National Security Agency is monitoring domestic communications, members of Congress are initiating new oversight proceedings. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV), has announced that Senate Intelligence Committee Chair Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) intends to review both the provisions of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act under which the Justice Department obtained the Verizon Order, and the domestic surveillance program in general. Many members of Congress of both parties have spoken out about the domestic surveillance program, asserting that they either were unaware of the program's scope, or that they had gone on record opposing the Justice Department's interpretation of the law under which the Order was granted. Several members of the House Judiciary Committee have written to President Obama, stating, "We believe this type of program is far too broad and inconsistent with our nation's founding principles." In a separate statement, Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR) stated, "This type of secret bulk data collection is an outrageous breach of Americans' privacy. I have had significant concerns about the intelligence community over-collecting information about Americans' telephone calls, emails, and other records." During a hearing of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Sen. Mark Kirk (R-IL) asked Attorney General Eric Holder whether the NSA has spied on members of Congress. Sen. Kirk asked specifically if the NSA could access Congressional phone lines, potentially giving the executive branch an unfair advantage over legislators. EPIC has sent a letter to Congressional leaders, calling for an investigation into the NSA's activities, and alleging that the FISC's authorization of the Verizon search was unlawful. EPIC also has filed a FOIA request with the Department of Justice, seeking all communications between the DOJ and members of Congress about the Verizon Order. The Hill: "Congress to Review NSA's Surveillance" (Jun. 7, 2013) Politico: "Key House Democrats Want Hearing on NSA" (Jun. 6, 2013) Talking Points Memo Livewire: Article on NSA Surveillance (Jun. 6, 2013) EPIC: Letter to Congress re: NSA Surveillance (Jun. 7, 2013) EPIC: FISA EPIC: Clapper v. Amnesty International EPIC: USA Patriot Act ======================================================================== [5] US Supreme Court Rules Against DNA Privacy ======================================================================== A deeply divided US Supreme Court has ruled that law enforcement may warrantlessly collect DNA samples from people arrested, but not yet convicted, of crimes. In the case Maryland v. King, the Court held 5-4 that when police have probable cause for arrest, the collection of DNA is analogous to fingerprinting or photographing. The FBI maintains a nationwide database, called CODIS, that catalogues DNA profiles from millions of "offenders." While all states take DNA samples from convicted felons, 28 states also take DNA samples from individuals who are merely arrested and charged, rather than convicted, with a felony. Unlike fingerprints, which can be used to only identify an individual, DNA is a blueprint for a person's entire physiology and familial history. Despite the fact that CODIS only requires a limited DNA profile, most states indefinitely retain entire copies of an arrestee's DNA. Writing in dissent, Justice Antonin Scalia, joined by Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Elana Kagan, and Sonia Sotomayor, stated, "Make no mistake about it: . . . your DNA can be taken and entered into a national database if you are ever arrested, rightly or wrongly, and for whatever reason." EPIC wrote a "friend of the court" brief in Maryland v. King, arguing against warrantless DNA searches after conducting a comprehensive survey of the DNA laws of all 50 states. "The routine CODIS profiling of arrestees is an unreasonable search and seizure under the Fourth Amendment," EPIC stated. EPIC's brief also described the rapid expansion of DNA collection in the US and the lack of sufficient safeguards for private genetic information. US Supreme Court: Opinion in Maryland v. King (Jun. 3, 2013) EPIC: "Friend of the Court" Brief in Maryland v. King (Feb. 1, 2013) EPIC: Maryland v. King EPIC: Genetic Privacy ======================================================================== [6] News in Brief ======================================================================== Classified NSA Cyber Directive Sought by EPIC Is Disclosed Presidential Policy Directive 20 orders the creation of potential targets for the NSA's Offensive Cyber Effects Operations. According to an unclassified version of the Directive, the "Government shall identify potential targets of national importance where [cyberattacks] can offer a favorable balance of effectiveness and risk . . ." The Directive was signed in October 2012 and EPIC immediately filed a Freedom of Information request seeking public release of the policy, which affects the privacy of domestic communications. The NSA refused to release the Directive. The White House released a summary of the Directive, but failed to disclose information about the NSA's proposed cyberattacks. On June 7, Glenn Greenwald, a reporter for UK newspaper The Guardian, published PPD-20 in its entirety. The White House: Text of PPD 20 (Oct. 2012) EPIC: FOIA Request on PPD 20 (Oct. 12, 2012) The White House: Fact Sheet on PPD 20 (Jan. 2013) EPIC: Presidential Directives and Cybersecurity EPIC: EPIC v. NSA - Cybersecurity Authority EPIC: Cybersecurity Privacy Practical Implications EPIC Submits Comments on the 'Internet of Things' EPIC has submitted comments to the Federal Trade Commission in advance of a November 2013 workshop on the so-called "Internet of Things," which refers to the growing number of electronic devices capable of communicating with one another over the Internet. EPIC's comments listed several privacy and security risks posed by the Internet of Things, including data collection that "[m]ay reveal sensitive behavior patterns that consumers wish to keep private" and the potential to exacerbate "the power imbalance between consumers and the companies with which they conduct business." EPIC's recommendations to the FTC include requiring companies to adopt Privacy Enhancing Techniques; respect a consumer's choice not to be tracked, profiled, or monitored; minimize data collection; and ensure transparency in both design and operation of Internet-connected devices. EPIC: Comments to FTC on "Internet of Things" (Jun. 1, 2013) FTC: Press Release on "Internet of Things" Workshop (Apr. 17, 2013) EPIC: Federal Trade Commission Google Bans Facial Recognition Glass Apps Google has announced that it will not approve any facial recognition apps for Google Glass, pending the development of privacy safeguards. "[W]e won't add facial recognition features to our products without having strong privacy protections in place," the company said in a May 31 blog post. In January 2012 comments to the Federal Trade Commission on facial recognition, EPIC recommended that the FTC enforce Fair Information Practices against commercial actors when collecting, using, or storing facial recognition data. EPIC wrote, "In the absence of guidelines and legal standards, EPIC recommends a moratorium on the commercial deployment of facial recognition techniques." Google: Announcement on Google Glass (May 31, 2013) EPIC: Comments to FTC on Facial Recognition (Jan. 31, 2012) EPIC: Facial Recognition EPIC: Federal Trade Commission EPIC Urges Federal Health Agency to Safeguard Mental Health Records In comments to the US Department of Health and Human Services, EPIC underscored the importance of medical privacy, particularly concerning mental illness. In response to President Obama's plan to reduce gun violence, the agency is considering allowing states to report certain mental illness information to the FBI for inclusion in National Instant Criminal Background Check System. EPIC warned that the proposal could result in incorrect determinations and may also discourage people from receiving medical care. EPIC recommended that DHHS: (1) require states to be held accountable for disclosing excess medical information; (2) require states to notify the FBI of incorrect or outdated mental illness records; and (3) encourage states to maintain mental health record accuracy. EPIC: Comments to DHHS on Mental Health Privacy (Jun. 7, 2013) The White House: Plan to Reduce Gun Violence Web Page DHHS: Proposed Rulemaking on HIPAA Privacy (Apr. 23, 2013) FBI: Fact Sheet on National Instant Criminal Background Check System EPIC: Medical Privacy EPIC: Gun Owners' Privacy ======================================================================== [7] EPIC in the News ======================================================================== "Cited by a Justice, but Feeling Less Than Honored." The New York Times, June 10, 2013. feeling-less-than-honored.html "Congress Enacted the NSA Laws, But Will They Change Them Now?" US News & World Report, June 10, 2013. the-nsa-laws-but-will-they-change-them-now Opinion: "STEPANOVICH: Can you hear me now?: The surveillance state must be reined in." The Washington Times, June 10, 2013. now-361885657/ "Secret Court's Oversight Gets Scrutiny." The Wall Street Journal, June 9, 2013. SB10001424127887324904004578535670310514616.html "How the U.S. Uses Technology to Mine More Data More Quickly." The New York Times, June 8, 2013. agencys-wider-reach.html Opinion: "The Corporate Roots of the NSA Spying Controversy." US News & World Report, June 8, 2013. nsa-prism-phone-records-spying-are-built-on-corporate-surveillance "Government surveillance programs renew debate about oversight." The Washington Post, June 8, 2013. programs-renew-debate-about-oversight/2013/06/08/7f5e6dc4-d06d- 11e2-8f6b-67f40e176f03_story.html "NSA's Phone Surveillance Is Illegal, Says EPIC." Reason, June 7, 2013. illegal-says "Tech frets public outcry: Is my email still private?" Politico, June 7, 2013. silicon-valley-92417.html?hp=t1_3 "EPIC presses Congress, administration for more information on Verizon case." Daily Kos, June 7, 2013. Congress-administration-for-more-information-on-Verizon-nbsp-case "NSA taps data from 9 major Net firms." USA Today, June 7, 2013. internet-companies/2398345/ "Australians at risk in US electronic surveillance program." The Sydney Morning Herald, June 7, 2013. electronic-surveillance-program-20130607-2ntwj.html "Dare I Make A Phone Call." The Huffington Post, June 6, 2013. "Americans split over claims of online privacy violations." Euro News, June 6, 2013. online-privacy-violations/ "Pulitzer Winner: DOJ Sting Has Had 'Chilling Effect' At AP." US News, June 4, 2013. justice-department-sting-has-had-chilling-effect-at-associated-press "Supreme Court OKs DNA Collection on Arrest." The Scientist, June 4, 2013. Supreme-Court-OKs-DNA-Collection-on-Arrest/ "Google Glass's Scary Vision." Bloomberg News, June 3, 2013. glass.html "Privacy Groups Urge FTC To Regulate 'Internet of Things'." Law360, June 3, 2013. urge-ftc-to-regulate-internet-of-things- "At the Airport: Scanner or Pat-Down?" The New York Times, June 2, 2013. or-pat-down.html?_r=0 "Fliers shed few tears for demise of TSA's invasive X-rays." NBC, May 31, 2013. invasive-x-rays-6C10153220 For More EPIC in the News: ======================================================================== [8] EPIC Book Review: 'To Save Everything, Click Here' ======================================================================== "To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism," Evgeny Morozov Technology research scientist and writer Evgeny Morozov dares to take on the idea that technology can address all our problems. Even more damaging to our sacrosanct myths of the Internet, he denies that "the Internet" is the great revolutionizing and democratizing technology it has been portrayed to be. Morozov claims that society as a whole (and Silicon Valley in particular) is generally guilty of two dominant ideologies - "solutionism" and "Internet-centrism" - that lead us to look at everything as a problem that needs fixing. According to Morozov, solutionism is an ideology that recasts "all complex social situations either as neatly defined problems with definite, computable solutions or as transparent and self-evident processes that can be easily optimized." Morozov maintains that not everything is suited for quick and easy answers; moreover, some of the problems are not problems at all, and that a more extensive examination of a supposed "problem" might reveal that the inefficiency or ambiguity we seek to remove is actually a "feature." In fact, Morozov says, adherence to solutionism may actually create more problems than it solves. Morozov similarly rails against "Internet-centrism" - the use of "the Internet" as a catchall term - undermines serious debate about specific technologies and diminishes our ability to create suitable policies and regulations. "To Save Everything, Click Here" argues that "[i]nternet-centrism's totality of vision, its false universalism, and its reductionism prevent us from a more robust debate about digital technologies." In other words, the book finds serious fault with talking about the "Internet" as a solution, as opposed to specific and more definable technologies. The heart of the book discusses how solutionism and Internet-centrism interact in practice. Morozov takes on the idea that Internet-enabled transparency will improve civic affairs; rather, blind allegiance to transparency is a mistake, and information should be made available but "in full awareness of the social and cultural complexity of the institutional environment in which it is gathered." Similarly, he argues against assuming the "Internet" is a solution to fix politics and that algorithms can and should make all our decisions for us. "To Save Everything, Click Here" provides an important critique of society's blind adherence to technology, but may go too far in its claims; Morozov seems to argue that solutionism and Internet-centrism should not even exist Morozov's post-Internet framework - an approach that is perhaps overly cautious about technology's ability to solve problems. According to Morozov, "more often than not, these technologies are not the causes of the world we live in but rather its consequences." Maybe so, but technology can solve problems; maybe we just need to get better at defining the problems themselves. --Jeramie D. Scott ================================ EPIC Publications: "Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws 2010," edited by Harry A. Hammitt, Marc Rotenberg, John A. Verdi, Ginger McCall, and Mark S. Zaid (EPIC 2010). Price: $75. Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws is the most comprehensive, authoritative discussion of the federal open access laws. This updated version includes new material regarding President Obama's 2009 memo on Open Government, Attorney General Holder's March 2009 memo on FOIA Guidance, and the new executive order on declassification. The standard reference work includes in-depth analysis of litigation under: the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Federal Advisory Committee Act, and the Government in the Sunshine Act. The fully updated 2010 volume is the 25th edition of the manual that lawyers, journalists and researchers have relied on for more than 25 years. ================================ "Information Privacy Law: Cases and Materials, Second Edition" Daniel J. Solove, Marc Rotenberg, and Paul Schwartz. (Aspen 2005). Price: $98. This clear, comprehensive introduction to the field of information privacy law allows instructors to enliven their teaching of fundamental concepts by addressing both enduring and emerging controversies. The Second Edition addresses numerous rapidly developing areas of privacy law, including: identity theft, government data mining and electronic surveillance law, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, intelligence sharing, RFID tags, GPS, spyware, web bugs, and more. Information Privacy Law, Second Edition, builds a cohesive foundation for an exciting course in this rapidly evolving area of law. ================================ "Privacy & Human Rights 2006: An International Survey of Privacy Laws and Developments" (EPIC 2007). Price: $75. This annual report by EPIC and Privacy International provides an overview of key privacy topics and reviews the state of privacy in over 75 countries around the world. The report outlines legal protections, new challenges, and important issues and events relating to privacy. Privacy & Human Rights 2006 is the most comprehensive report on privacy and data protection ever published. ================================ "The Public Voice WSIS Sourcebook: Perspectives on the World Summit on the Information Society" (EPIC 2004). Price: $40. This resource promotes a dialogue on the issues, the outcomes, and the process of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). This reference guide provides the official UN documents, regional and issue-oriented perspectives, and recommendations and proposals for future action, as well as a useful list of resources and contacts for individuals and organizations that wish to become more involved in the WSIS process. ================================ "The Privacy Law Sourcebook 2004: United States Law, International Law, and Recent Developments," Marc Rotenberg, editor (EPIC 2005). Price: $40. The Privacy Law Sourcebook, which has been called the "Physician's Desk Reference" of the privacy world, is the leading resource for students, attorneys, researchers, and journalists interested in pursuing privacy law in the United States and around the world. It includes the full texts of major privacy laws and directives such as the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Privacy Act, and the OECD Privacy Guidelines, as well as an up-to-date section on recent developments. New materials include the APEC Privacy Framework, the Video Voyeurism Prevention Act, and the CAN-SPAM Act. ================================ "Filters and Freedom 2.0: Free Speech Perspectives on Internet Content Controls" (EPIC 2001). Price: $20. A collection of essays, studies, and critiques of Internet content filtering. These papers are instrumental in explaining why filtering threatens free expression. ================================ EPIC publications and other books on privacy, open government, free expression, and constitutional values can be ordered at: EPIC Bookstore ================================ EPIC also publishes EPIC FOIA Notes, which provides brief summaries of interesting documents obtained from government agencies under the Freedom of Information Act. Subscribe to EPIC FOIA Notes at: ======================================================================= [9] Upcoming Conferences and Events ======================================================================= "All Eyes on Privacy: Transparency in the New Economy." Speaker: Marc Rotenberg. 13 June 2013, Washington, DC. For More Information: in-the-new-economy. 22nd Annual Computers, Freedom, & Privacy Conference. 25-26 June 2013, Washington, DC. For More Information: Contact Chris Calabrese at ======================================================================= Join EPIC on Facebook and Twitter ======================================================================= Join the Electronic Privacy Information Center on Facebook and Twitter: Join us on Twitter for #privchat, Tuesdays, 11:00am ET. Start a discussion on privacy. Let us know your thoughts. Stay up to date with EPIC's events. Support EPIC. ======================================================================= Privacy Policy ======================================================================= The EPIC Alert mailing list is used only to mail the EPIC Alert and to send notices about EPIC activities. We do not sell, rent or share our mailing list. We also intend to challenge any subpoena or other legal process seeking access to our mailing list. We do not enhance (link to other databases) our mailing list or require your actual name. In the event you wish to subscribe or unsubscribe your e-mail address from this list, please follow the above instructions under "subscription information." ======================================================================= About EPIC ======================================================================= The Electronic Privacy Information Center is a public interest research center in Washington, DC. It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging privacy issues such as the Clipper Chip, the Digital Telephony proposal, national ID cards, medical record privacy, and the collection and sale of personal information. EPIC publishes the EPIC Alert, pursues Freedom of Information Act litigation, and conducts policy research. For more information, see or write EPIC, 1718 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. +1 202 483 1140 (tel), +1 202 483 1248 (fax). ======================================================================= Donate to EPIC ======================================================================= If you'd like to support the work of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, contributions are welcome and fully tax-deductible. Checks should be made out to "EPIC" and sent to 1718 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. Or you can contribute online at: Your contributions will help support Freedom of Information Act and First Amendment litigation, strong and effective advocacy for the right of privacy and efforts to oppose government and private-sector infringement on constitutional values. Thank you for your support. ======================================================================= Subscription Information ======================================================================= Subscribe/unsubscribe via web interface: Back issues are available at: The EPIC Alert displays best in a fixed-width font, such as Courier. ------------------------- END EPIC Alert 20.11------------------------

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