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EPIC Alert 20.18 [2013] EPICAlert 18

EPIC Alert 20.18

======================================================================= E P I C A l e r t ======================================================================= Volume 20.18 September 17, 2013 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Published by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) Washington, D.C. "Defend Privacy. Support EPIC." ========================================================================= Table of Contents ========================================================================= [1] Federal Court Upholds Privacy Protection for Wi-Fi Communications [2] Pressure Mounts on Facebook to Withdraw Proposed Policy Changes [3] EPIC Files FOIA Suit to Determine If Tor Is Compromised [4] EPIC Considers Next Steps re: NSA Response to Surveillance Petition [5] European Parliament Begins Hearings on NSA Surveillance [6] News in Brief [7] EPIC in the News [8] EPIC Bookstore [9] Upcoming Conferences and Events TAKE ACTION: Tell Facebook: "Stop Changing Our Privacy Settings!" - READ about the Changes: - LEARN More about Facebook Privacy: - SUPPORT EPIC: ======================================================================== [1] Federal Court Upholds Privacy Protection for Wi-Fi Communications ======================================================================== The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit has upheld a lower court ruling against Google's collection of private Wi-Fi communications in the company's "Street View" program. The lawsuit, Joffe v. Google, alleges that Google's ongoing interception of Wi-Fi payload data as Street View trucks roamed the US violated several laws, including the federal Wiretap Act. The lower court rejected Google's argument that interception of communications sent over "open" Wi-Fi networks was allowed under the Wiretap Act. Specifically, the court rejected Google's theory that such communications were "readily accessible to the general public" simply because they were unencrypted. The Ninth Circuit's ruling and emphasized the importance of protecting the privacy of electronic communications. The Ninth Circuit decision made clear that unencrypted Wi-Fi communications are not "readily accessible to the general public" under the ordinary meaning of the phrase. These communications are "geographically limited and fail to travel far beyond the walls of the home or office where the access point is located." And for nearby devices, the "payload" data transmitted over a Wi-Fi network is only accessible "with some difficulty." Even in locations where individuals can connect to certain unencrypted networks, "members of the general public do not typically mistakenly intercept, store, and decode data transmitted by other devices on the network." EPIC filed a "friend of the court" brief in the case, urging the court to uphold legal protections for Wi-Fi communications, and discussing both the intent of the federal law and the operation of a typical home Wi-Fi network. Many of EPIC's technical arguments, including key sources, were discussed in the court's opinion. This landmark opinion resolves a fundamental issue of electronic privacy law in favor of everyday Wi-Fi users. Google has not announced whether will appeal the case to the US Supreme Court. EPIC: Joffe v. Google Ninth Circuit Court: Opinion in Joffe v. Google (Sep. 10, 2013) EPIC: "Friend of the Court" Brief in Joffe v. Google (Mar. 30, 2012) EPIC: Google Street View ======================================================================== [2] Pressure Mounts on Facebook to Withdraw Proposed Policy Changes ======================================================================== Facebook has announced it will delay proposed changes allowing it to use the names, images, and content of Facebook users for advertising without consent. After EPIC and several privacy groups wrote to the Federal Trade Commission that the changes violate a 2011 Consent Order, the Commission has opened an investigation in the privacy changes, and Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) has written to the company, stating that Facebook's changes "raise[] a number of questions about whether Facebook is improperly altering its privacy policy without proper user consent and, if the changes go into effect, the degree to which Facebook users will lose control over their personal information." Facebook's announcement of the proposed changes state that the company may "use your name, profile picture, content, and information in connection with commercial, sponsored, or related content (such as a brand you like) served or enhanced by us." EPIC's letter explained that these changes violate a "cornerstone of modern privacy law": the right of an individual to control the use of their image for commercial purposes. Furthermore, the letter states, Facebook's changes violate the terms of a 2011 consent order with the Federal Trade Commission, which requires that, "prior to any sharing of a user's nonpublic user information by [Facebook] with any third party, which materially exceeds the restrictions imposed by a user's privacy setting(s)," Facebook must make a "clear[] and prominent[]" disclosure and obtain a user's "affirmative express consent." "The urgency of FTC action is underscored also by specific actions taken by Facebook to deprive users of the opportunity to express their views on proposed changes and even to organize with other users," EPIC wrote, referring to Facebook's decision to removing the voting component of site governance and to shut down certain Facebook groups. EPIC is a leading advocate of the rights of Facebook users and has helped organize several of the campaigns and investigations to safeguard user privacy. In 2007, EPIC organized objections to Facebook's "Beacon" program, which disclosed users' personal information, including their online purchases and video rentals, similarly without their knowledge or consent. Facebook ultimately abandoned "Beacon" after 50,000 users signed a petition protesting the program. Facebook once more updated the site's privacy policy and changed users' privacy settings in 2009. Facebook made several categories of personal data "publicly available information," including users' names, profile photos, lists of friends, fan pages and networks to which they belonged. However, Facebook withdrew proposed changes to the Terms of Service after 150,000 users, in collaboration with EPIC, formed the group "FB Users Against the New TOS." EPIC's complaints to the FTC in 2009 and 2010 were instrumental in the agency's 2011 settlement with Facebook. Facebook users may comment on the settlement via the EPIC website at Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA): Press Release Facebook Letter (Sep. 11, 2013) EPIC et al.: Letter to FTC re: Facebook Privacy Changes (Sep. 4, 2013) Facebook: Proposed Changes to Governing Documents (Aug. 29, 2013) EPIC et al.: Letter to Judge re: Fraley v. Facebook (Jul. 12, 2012) US District Court, SF: Decision in Fraley v. Facebook (Aug. 17, 2012) Federal Trade Commission: Facebook Settlement (Jul. 27, 2013) EPIC: Federal Trade Commission EPIC: Facebook Privacy EPIC: Social Networking Privacy ========================================================================= [3] EPIC Files FOIA Suit to Determine If Tor Is Compromised ========================================================================= EPIC has filed a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit against the Broadcasting Board of Governors, a federal agency that oversees all US civilian international media. EPIC seeks information about the federal government's interest in the Tor network, a privacy-enhancing network. EPIC has been interested in the NSA's involvement in the development of cryptographic standards since EPIC's inception. In 1993, EPIC (then the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility) initiated FOIA litigation over the NSA's use of the "Clipper Chip," an encryption protocol that was developed to ensure government access to encrypted information. The NSA developed the technical basis for the Clipper Chip. Public opposition to the Clipper Chip eventually led to the Chip's withdrawal. The Guardian, The New York Times, and Pro Publica have recently reported that the NSA compromised many of the encryption technologies available for public use, raising many of the same concerns that drove opposition to Clipper. Through covert partnerships with Internet providers and software developers, the NSA has built in secret "backdoors," or deliberate network vulnerabilities, that allow the agency to surveil, decrypt, collect, and even control the flow of user data. According to top-secret NSA documents, "For the past decade, NSA has lead an aggressive, multi-pronged effort to break widely-used Internet encryption technologies . . . Vast amounts of encrypted Internet data which have up till now been discarded are now exploitable." Wired reported that the FBI was using Tor to spread malware that could identify Tor users. Another story in The Washington Post highlighted the likelihood that the malware originated in the federal government for the purpose of surveiling encrypted communications. The Post also noted that 60 percent of Tor's funding comes from the Federal government, prompting the paper to ask whether the network suffered from similar backdoors and vulnerabilities. EPIC is pursuing the FOIA case against the Broadcasting Board of Governors to determine whether the NSA or the FBI may have compromised Tor. Tor is software currently maintained by The Tor Project. Internet users around the world use Tor to maintain anonymity and circumvent Internet restrictions. Tor is used by academics, political dissidents, law enforcement, journalists, whistleblowers, NGOs, the U.S. Navy, and everyday individuals. Tor adheres to a policy of openness and transparency in its own management while working to protect the anonymity of its users. To that end, Tor publishes its list of sponsors, its open-source software, its financial reports, documentation, and lists of projects. Tor provides an invaluable tool for encrypted web use. EPIC: EPIC v. BBG Wired: Kevin Poulsen, "FBI Admits It Controlled Tor Servers Behind Mass Malware Attack" (Sep. 13, 2013) The Washington Post: Brian Fung, "The feds pay for 60 percent of Tor's development. Can users trust it?" (Sep. 6, 2013) feds-pays-for-60-percent-of-tors-development-can-users-trust-it The Guardian: James Ball, Julian Borger, and Glen Greenwald, "Revealed: how US and UK spy agencies defeat internet privacy and security" (Sep. 5, 2013) codes-security The New York Times: Nicole Perlroth, Jeff Larson, and Scott Shane, "N.S.A. Able to Foil Basic Safeguards of Privacy on Web" (Sep. 5, 2013) encryption.html?hp&_r=0 The Washington Post: Brian Fung, "We've all practically given up on internet privacy. Here's how not to" (Sep. 5, 2013) all-practically-given-up-on-internet-privacy-heres-how-not-to/ ========================================================================= [4] EPIC Considers Next Steps re: NSA Response to Surveillance Petition ========================================================================= Two months after EPIC formally petitioned the National Security Agency to suspend the agency's domestic surveillance programs, the NSA has responded. EPIC's petition stated that "NSA's collection of domestic communications contravenes the First and Fourth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and violates several federal privacy laws, including the Privacy Act of 1974, and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 as amended." The petition further stated that the NSA's domestic surveillance "substantively affects the public to a degree sufficient to implicate the policy interests" that require public comment. EPIC is now reviewing potential next steps in response to the NSA's refusal to provide opportunity for public comment. The NSA's response argued that "any NSA activities involving the collection of communications that may meet the description set forth in your letter, if any, would not constitute Agency actions that are subject to notice-and-comment requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act, such as the issuance, amendment, or repeal of rules or regulations." The letter from the NSA Associate Director for Policy and Records also stated that the "NSA operates in accordance with the Constitution and the laws of the United States, under the direction of the President" and that the NSA "will continue to work within the confines of the law and the oversight of both the U.S. Congress and the Judiciary." EPIC, joined by leading privacy experts including James Bamford, Whitfield Diffie, and Bruce Schneier, first petitioned the agency on June 17. The petition now has been signed by other distinguished privacy scholars, law professors, and computer scientists, and by over 3,000 members of the public representing all 50 states and the District of Columbia. EPIC renewed the petition weekly for over two months until the NSA responded. EPIC: Petition to the NSA re: Domestic Surveillance (Jun. 17, 2013) EPIC: Text of FISC Order to Verizon (Apr. 25, 2013) EPIC: NSA Petition Response to EPIC (Aug. 26, 2013) EPIC: Petition to the Supreme Court re: Verizon Order (Jul. 8, 2013) EPIC: In re EPIC - NSA Telephone Records Surveillance EPIC: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) EPIC: USA PATRIOT Act EPIC: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) ======================================================================== [5] European Parliament Begins Hearings on NSA Surveillance ======================================================================== The European Parliament held a September 5 hearing on "Electronic Mass Surveillance of EU Citizens," hosted by the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice, and Home Affairs ("LIBE Committee"). The LIBE Committee "is in charge of most of the legislation and democratic oversight for policies linked to the transformation of the European Union in the area of freedom, security and justice." LIBE's functions include "legislation in the areas of transparency and of the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data." Witnesses at the hearing included journalists, the Editor in Chief of the UK's Guardian newspaper, and current and former government officials. The hearing focused on surveillance conducted by the US, but also addressed surveillance by member EU states. The hearings are the first in a series mandated by a resolution of the European Parliament to assess the impact of international surveillance programs on member citizens, particularly "the right to respect for private life and communications, freedom of expression, the presumption of innocence and the right to an effective remedy." The hearings were also conducted to determine the extent of the actual data collection programs and to consider the appropriateness of those programs in the face of any international terrorist threats. EPIC Executive Director Marc Rotenberg has been invited to speak before the European Parliament on September 30, 2013. European Parliament: LIBE Hearing Information (Sep. 5, 2013) European Parliament: LIBE Committee European Parliament: LIBE Committee Inquiry (Sep. 5, 2013) European Parliament: LIBE Hearing Video Stream (Sep. 5, 2013) ======================================================================== [6] News in Brief ======================================================================== OECD Releases Updated Privacy Guidelines The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has released the 2013 revisions to its privacy guidelines. The revisions build from the original guidelines, developed in 1980, and retain the core set of Fair Information Practices while updating the framework to address new challenges, such as national implementation and cross-border enforcement. The OECD explains that the revisions aim to "focus on the practical implementation of privacy protection" and to "address the global dimension of privacy through improved interoperability." EPIC Executive Director Marc Rotenberg, a member of the expert review group, has said that "the OECD Privacy Guidelines are the most influential international framework for privacy ever established." OECD: Privacy Framework (2013) 1980 OECD Privacy Guidelines Marc Rotenberg: "The Impact of the OECD Privacy Guidelines" (2010) EPIC: International Privacy Standards EPIC Meets with President's Intelligence Review Group EPIC President Marc Rotenberg and EPIC Advisory Board Member Steve Aftergood met September 9 with the President's Review Group on Intelligence and Communication Technology. President Obama has tasked the panel with the responsibility to assess whether the "United States employs its technical collection capabilities in a manner that optimally protects our national security and advances our foreign policy while appropriately accounting for other policy considerations, such as the risk of unauthorized disclosure and our need to maintain the public trust." EPIC submitted detailed recommendations to the Board and included copies of EPIC's Supreme Court petition, which argues that the current domestic surveillance program is unlawful, as well as EPIC's 2012 Congressional testimony on the FISA Amendments Act and EPIC's 2010 letter to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court on reform of FISA procedures. The panel will accept comments from the public until October 4, 2013. Comments are to be sent to, which, oddly, is the domain of the current Director of National Intelligence. The White House: Statement on Review Group (Aug. 27, 2013) EPIC: Letter to Intelligence Review Board (Aug. 29, 2013) EPIC: Petition to US Supreme Court re: Surveillance (Jul. 8, 2013) EPIC: Congressional Testimony on FISA Amendments Act (May 31, 2013) EPIC: Comments to FISA Court on Amended Rules (Oct. 4, 2010) EPIC: FISA Reform Office of National Intelligence Releases New Docs on NSA Surveillance The Office of the Director of National Intelligence has released new documents about the NSA's surveillance programs. The documents, which include numerous filings with the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, date back to 2006 and specifically relate to the government's collection of information under Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act. In a petition to the US Supreme Court, EPIC has argued that the FISA Court exceeded statutory authority under Section 215 when it authorized Verizon's bulk collection of US telephone records. Under Section 215, the FISA Court may order businesses to produce records that are "relevant" to an authorized national security investigation, but the Verizon Order requires production of all domestic telephone records on an ongoing basis. ODNI: Press Release on Declassified Documents (Sep. 10, 2013) Cornell Legal Information Institute: Text of Patriot Act Section 215 EPIC: USA PATRIOT Act EPIC: Petition to US Supreme Court re: Surveillance (Jul. 8, 2013) EPIC: In re EPIC - NSA Telephone Records Surveillance Pew Survey: Vast Majority of Americans Try to Maintain Privacy Online A new survey by the Pew Research Center's Internet Project has found that 86 percent of Americans surveyed take steps to conceal their actions or identities while online. The survey also found that 21 percent had an email or social networking account compromised or taken over by someone else without permission. The majority of survey respondents told Pew that "current laws are not good enough in protecting people's privacy online." Other Pew surveys have found that most teens were taking steps to protect their privacy, that a majority of parents were concerned about their children's online privacy, and that users were becoming more active in managing their social media accounts. Pew Internet: Survey on Online Privacy (Sep. 5, 2013) Pew Internet: "Where Teens Seek Privacy Advice" (Aug. 15, 2013) Pew Internet: "Teens, Social Media, and Privacy" (May 21, 2013) Pew Internet: "Parents, Teens, and Online Privacy" (Nov. 20,2012) Pew Internet: "Privacy management on social media sites" (Feb. 24, 2012) EPIC: Public Opinion on Privacy ======================================================================== [7] EPIC in the News ======================================================================== "Facebook Privacy Change Is Subject of F.T.C. Inquiry." The New York Times, Sept. 11, 2013. looking-into-facebook-privacy-policy.html?_r=0 "Court Says Privacy Case Can Proceed vs. Google." The New York Times, Sept. 10, 2013. case-can-proceed-vs-google.html?_r=0 "Google Loses Appeal in Street View Snooping Case." ABC News/AP, Sept. 10, 2013. street-view-snooping-case-20215264 "NSA Surveillance And The Legacy Of 9/11." WAMU's "The Kojo Nnamde Show," Sept. 11, 2013. and-legacy-911 "Explaining the latest NSA revelations - Q&A with internet privacy experts." The Guardian, Sept. 6, 2013. surveillance-revelations-encryption-expert-chat "Facebook Delays New Privacy Policy." The New York Times, Sept. 5, 2013. privacy-policy/?hpw&_r=0 "NSA has made strides in thwarting encryption used to protect Internet communication." The Washington Post, Sept. 5, 2013. made-strides-in-thwarting-encryption-used-to-protect-internet- communication/2013/09/05/0ec08efc-1669-11e3-a2ec-b47e45e6f8ef_ story.html "Privacy Groups Complain to FTC About Facebook's New Privacy Policy." The Wall Street Journal, Sept. 4, 2013. ftc-about-facebooks-new-privacy-policy/ "Facebook under fire from privacy watchdogs over 'Sponsored Stories' ads." Los Angeles Times, Sept. 4, 2013. under-fire-from-privacy-watchdogs-over-sponsored-stories-ads- 20130904,0,6708428.story "Privacy Groups Ask F.T.C. to Block Facebook Policy Changes." The New York Times, Sept. 4, 2013. to-block-facebook-policy-changes/?_r=0 Letter to the Editor: "Better Privacy Laws: Priority for America and Germany," by EPIC President Marc Rotenberg. The New York Times, Sept. 3, 2013. priority-for-america-and-germany.html For More EPIC in the News: ======================================================================== [8] EPIC Bookstore ======================================================================== "Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws 2010," edited by Harry A. Hammitt, Marc Rotenberg, John A. Verdi, Ginger McCall, and Mark S. Zaid (EPIC 2010). Price: $75. Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws is the most comprehensive, authoritative discussion of the federal open access laws. This updated version includes new material regarding President Obama's 2009 memo on Open Government, Attorney General Holder's March 2009 memo on FOIA Guidance, and the new executive order on declassification. The standard reference work includes in-depth analysis of litigation under: the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Federal Advisory Committee Act, and the Government in the Sunshine Act. The fully updated 2010 volume is the 25th edition of the manual that lawyers, journalists and researchers have relied on for more than 25 years. ================================ "Information Privacy Law: Cases and Materials, Second Edition" Daniel J. Solove, Marc Rotenberg, and Paul Schwartz. (Aspen 2005). Price: $98. This clear, comprehensive introduction to the field of information privacy law allows instructors to enliven their teaching of fundamental concepts by addressing both enduring and emerging controversies. The Second Edition addresses numerous rapidly developing areas of privacy law, including: identity theft, government data mining and electronic surveillance law, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, intelligence sharing, RFID tags, GPS, spyware, web bugs, and more. Information Privacy Law, Second Edition, builds a cohesive foundation for an exciting course in this rapidly evolving area of law. ================================ "Privacy & Human Rights 2006: An International Survey of Privacy Laws and Developments" (EPIC 2007). Price: $75. This annual report by EPIC and Privacy International provides an overview of key privacy topics and reviews the state of privacy in over 75 countries around the world. The report outlines legal protections, new challenges, and important issues and events relating to privacy. Privacy & Human Rights 2006 is the most comprehensive report on privacy and data protection ever published. ================================ "The Public Voice WSIS Sourcebook: Perspectives on the World Summit on the Information Society" (EPIC 2004). Price: $40. This resource promotes a dialogue on the issues, the outcomes, and the process of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). This reference guide provides the official UN documents, regional and issue-oriented perspectives, and recommendations and proposals for future action, as well as a useful list of resources and contacts for individuals and organizations that wish to become more involved in the WSIS process. ================================ "The Privacy Law Sourcebook 2004: United States Law, International Law, and Recent Developments," Marc Rotenberg, editor (EPIC 2005). Price: $40. The Privacy Law Sourcebook, which has been called the "Physician's Desk Reference" of the privacy world, is the leading resource for students, attorneys, researchers, and journalists interested in pursuing privacy law in the United States and around the world. It includes the full texts of major privacy laws and directives such as the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Privacy Act, and the OECD Privacy Guidelines, as well as an up-to-date section on recent developments. New materials include the APEC Privacy Framework, the Video Voyeurism Prevention Act, and the CAN-SPAM Act. ================================ "Filters and Freedom 2.0: Free Speech Perspectives on Internet Content Controls" (EPIC 2001). Price: $20. A collection of essays, studies, and critiques of Internet content filtering. These papers are instrumental in explaining why filtering threatens free expression. ================================ EPIC publications and other books on privacy, open government, free expression, and constitutional values can be ordered at: EPIC Bookstore: ================================ EPIC also publishes EPIC FOIA Notes, which provides brief summaries of interesting documents obtained from government agencies under the Freedom of Information Act. Subscribe to EPIC FOIA Notes at: ======================================================================= [9] Upcoming Conferences and Events ======================================================================= EPIC: "The EPIC Challenge to the NSA Domestic Surveillance Program." Washington, DC, 19 September 2013. For More Information: The Public Voice Conference: "Our Data, Our Lives." Warsaw, Poland, 23 September 2013. For More Information: The Cato Institute: "NSA Surveillance: What We Know; What to do About It." Washington, DC, 9 October 2013. For More Information: about-it. Drone and Aerial Robotics Conference. Speaker: EPIC Domestic Surveillance Counsel Amie Stepanovich. NYU Law Engelberg Center on Innovation Law and Policy, New York, NY, 11-13 October 2013. For More Information: Surveillance Conference, Sponsored by the Chicago Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights. Speaker: EPIC Domestic Surveillance Counsel Amie Stepanovich. Northwestern University School of Law, Evanston, IL, 19 October 2013. For More Information: American Civil Liberties Union of Rhode Island 2013 Annual Dinner Celebration. Keynote Speaker: EPIC Domestic Surveillance Counsel Amie Stepanovich. Providence, RI, 8 November 8, 2013. For More Information: ======================================================================= Join EPIC on Facebook and Twitter ======================================================================= Join the Electronic Privacy Information Center on Facebook and Twitter: Join us on Twitter for #privchat, Tuesdays, 11:00am ET. Start a discussion on privacy. Let us know your thoughts. Stay up to date with EPIC's events. Support EPIC. ======================================================================= Privacy Policy ======================================================================= The EPIC Alert mailing list is used only to mail the EPIC Alert and to send notices about EPIC activities. We do not sell, rent or share our mailing list. We also intend to challenge any subpoena or other legal process seeking access to our mailing list. We do not enhance (link to other databases) our mailing list or require your actual name. In the event you wish to subscribe or unsubscribe your e-mail address from this list, please follow the above instructions under "subscription information." ======================================================================= About EPIC ======================================================================= The Electronic Privacy Information Center is a public interest research center in Washington, DC. It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging privacy issues such as the Clipper Chip, the Digital Telephony proposal, national ID cards, medical record privacy, and the collection and sale of personal information. EPIC publishes the EPIC Alert, pursues Freedom of Information Act litigation, and conducts policy research. For more information, see or write EPIC, 1718 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. +1 202 483 1140 (tel), +1 202 483 1248 (fax). ======================================================================= Donate to EPIC ======================================================================= If you'd like to support the work of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, contributions are welcome and fully tax-deductible. Checks should be made out to "EPIC" and sent to 1718 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. Or you can contribute online at: Your contributions will help support Freedom of Information Act and First Amendment litigation, strong and effective advocacy for the right of privacy and efforts to oppose government and private-sector infringement on constitutional values. Thank you for your support. ======================================================================= Subscription Information ======================================================================= Subscribe/unsubscribe via web interface: Back issues are available at: The EPIC Alert displays best in a fixed-width font, such as Courier. ------------------------- END EPIC Alert 20.18------------------------

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