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EPIC --- Privacy and Human Rights Report 2006

Title Page Previous Next Contents | Country Reports >Republic of Singapore

Republic of Singapore

Constitutional Privacy Framework

The Singapore Constitution is based on the British system and does not contain any explicit right to privacy.[4438] The High Court has ruled that personal information may be protected from disclosure under a duty of confidences.[4439]

Statutory Rules Related to Privacy

There is no general data protection or privacy law in Singapore.[4440] The government has been aggressive in using surveillance to promote social control and limit domestic opposition.[4441] Singapore has no governmental authority affiliated with privacy or data protection, except for a small privacy division within the Ministry of Finance.[4442] The idea of data protection legislation has been officially "under review" by the government for 13 years. However, some organizations believe that personal data protection laws will be in place by June 2008.[4443] A Straits Times survey revealed that 80 percent of readers feel that personal information contained in databases is too freely accessible.[4444] For purposes of e-commerce, the National Internet Advisory Committee proposed the Model Data Protection Code (MDPC) for the Private Sector in February 2002[4445] and the National Trust Council implemented it in 2003,[4446] though businesses will not be required to adopt its provisions.[4447] The MDPC spells out certain standards for the collection and use of customer data by merchants that the National Trust Council certifies.[4448]

In September 1998, the National Internet Advisory Committee released an industry-based self-regulatory "E-Commerce Code for the Protection of Personal Information and Communications of Consumers of Internet Commerce" ("Code").[4449] The Code encourages providers to ensure the confidentiality of business records and personal information of users, including details of usage or transactions. It prohibits the disclosure of personal information, and requires providers not to intercept communications unless required by law. The Code also limits information collection, prohibits the disclosure of personal information without informing consumers and giving them an option to stop the transfer, ensures accuracy of records, and provides a right to correct or delete data.[4450] In 1999, the Code was adopted by CaseTrust – a joint project operated by the Consumers Association of Singapore, CommerceNet Singapore Limited and the Retail Promotion Centre in Singapore – and incorporated into its code of practice as part of an accreditation scheme promoting good business practices among store-based and web-based retailers (CaseTrust is).[4451] The Info-Communications Development Authority (IDA), the lead agency in charge of e-commerce regulation, announced in March 2000 that it would endorse the TRUSTe system as "an industry 'trustmark' seal."[4452]

Development of anti-spam legislation was initiated in May 2004. IDA announced a multifaceted approach including legislation, public education and self-regulation of the marketing industry.[4453] IDA and the Attorney General's Chambers of Singapore (AGC) issued a joint report proposing the legislative strategy for anti-spam legislation and recommended an opt-out approach. The report also recommends requiring advertisers to label marketing e-mail as such and prohibiting fake return e-mail addresses.[4454] On April 13, 2007, a new law was passed requiring businesses to add the tag “ADV” on all advertisement email and SMS messages that they send to individuals.[4455]

The Singapore AntiSpam Resource Centre web site was launched in May 2004 "to provide a central anti-spam repository for the public and industry."[4456] The site includes information for consumers, including reviews of anti-spam software and free software downloads, and information about Singapore's anti-spam legislation and consumers comments. The Singapore Information Technology Federation, a group of technology security companies such as Brightmail and Symantec, held an anti-spam forum on June 22, 2004, bringing together government, industry and trade associations, IT companies and academics to discuss legal, policy and technical anti-spam solutions.

In early 2005, the Internet Industry Association of Singapore (IIAS) was launched and kicked off two nationwide initiatives regarding privacy and offensive content on the Internet. IIAS, a non-profit organization representing the views of the Internet industry, established a privacy portal for consumers about spam, phishing and other security issues.[4457]

Employer monitoring of employee phone calls, e-mails, and Internet usage is also permissible under Singapore law. Under Singapore property law, workplace e-mail, telephone and computer contents are the property of the employer. Thus, if an employee loses his job because of the contents of his communications technology, he has no grounds for defense based on an invasion of privacy.[4458]

The Banking Act prohibits disclosure of financial information without the permission of the customer.[4459] Numbered accounts can also be opened with the permission of the authority. The High Court can require the disclosure of records to investigate drug trafficking and other serious crimes. The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) issued new "Know Your Customer" guidelines to banks in May 1998 on money laundering. Banks are required to clarify the economic background and purpose of any transactions of which the form or amount appear unusual in relation to the customer, finance company or branch office concerned, or whenever the economic purpose and the legality of the transaction are not immediately evident.[4460] Banks must report suspicious transactions to MAS. However, there are no reporting requirements for large monetary transactions, and no reporting requirements on currency amounts brought into or taken out of the country. The government is considering legal changes that would require either a declaration or disclosure system to monitor cross-border movement.[4461]

Homosexual acts are crimes under the Penal Code.[4462] Singapore also has laws against sodomy. However, authorities rarely enforce them.[4463] Gay activists in the country have long called for their repeal. Although attitudes towards gays have become more tolerant over the years, including in the workplace, the discussion of such issues in public fora and mass media remains highly sensitive.[4464]

Limitations to Freedom of Speech and Censorship Rules

The Singaporean Constitution protects the freedom of speech but permits restrictions.[4465] The government significantly restricted freedom of speech and the press in practice through intimidations and pressures, leading to the practice of self-censorship among journalists. The U.S. State Department Report on Human Rights Practices on Singapore states, "there continued to be some limited progress towards greater openness in 2004, including a moderate level of ongoing debate in newspapers and on the Internet on various public issues."[4466]

In 2002, the Singapore government created the Media Development Authority (MDA) to regulate media content – including Internet, radio, television, and radio.[4467] MDA formed through a merger of the existing Singapore Broadcasting Authority (SBA), the Films and Publications Department (FPD), and the Singapore Film Commission (SFC) with the goal of uniting various forms of media under a single authority.[4468] Like its predecessor SBA, MDA has assumed the strict approach towards regulating the Internet. All Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and Internet Content Providers (ICPs) are required to comply with the Internet Code of Practice[4469] and the Class License Provisions.[4470] ISPs are required to register with the MDA, along with ICPs who promote the discussion of political or religious topics relating to Singapore.[4471] ISPs are required to deny access to sites identified by MDA as containing prohibited material.[4472] Likewise, ICPs may not broadcast prohibited material or entertain discussion on prohibited themes.[4473] Prohibited material includes pornography, material that "advocates homosexuality or lesbianism," and material that "glorifies, incites or endorses ethnic, racial or religious hatred, strife or intolerance," among other prohibitions.[4474] Political content, especially during elections, is regulated.[4475] "Over the boundary markers" – religion, race and government criticism – is strictly enforced while other issues, though still subject to regulation, have not traditionally been enforced as strictly.[4476]

The Minister of Information, Communication, and the Arts appointed a Censorship Review Committee in 2002 to examine censorship policies related to broadcast media and to make recommendations.[4477] The committee released their report in July 2003. The findings recognized that young and artistic communities are restricted by current censorship rules, but reported that the majority of Singaporeans are satisfied with the censorship regime.[4478] The report recommended increased access to films under a more granular rating system and additional television programming allowing relaxed content restrictions after prime time.[4479] Although the report recognized that the Internet has wrought significant changes to access to media, it recommended that ISPs "should develop and subscribe to a code of conduct and put greater effort in protecting the young by developing an effective filtering system within a period of two years."[4480] Prominent members of the arts community call the recommendations "cosmetic," demanding a shift away from censorship – through editing or banning – and towards regulation of the audience permitted to view the work.[4481]

Wiretapping and Other Government Surveillance

Law enforcement authorities have extensive networks to gather information and conduct surveillance, as well as sophisticated capabilities to monitor telephone and other private conversations. Court warrants are not required for such surveillance. The law allows the government to monitor Internet use.[4482] Authorities are believed to routinely monitor telephone conversations and Internet use, as well as monitor opposition politicians and government critics. According to the US State Department Report on Human Rights Practices of Singapore, there were no confirmed reports of such practices in 2004.[4483]

In July 1998, the Singapore government enacted three major bills concerning computer networks. They are the Computer Misuse (Amendment) Act (CMA), the Electronic Transactions Act and the National Computer Board (Amendment) Act. CMA prohibits the unauthorized interception of computer communications.[4484] It also provides the police with additional powers of investigation, and makes it an offense to refuse to assist the police in an investigation. CMA also grants law enforcement broad power to access data and encrypted material when conducting an investigation. In November 2003, CMA was revised, allowing the government to arrest an individual on suspicion of computer hacking, with penalties up to SGD 10,000 (~USD 5,950) or up to three years' imprisonment.[4485] This power of access requires the consent of the Public Prosecutor. The Electronic Transactions Act (ETA) was enacted in July 1998 to create a legislative framework for electronic transactions. It imposes a duty of confidentiality on records obtained under the act and imposes a maximum SGD 10,000 fine and 12-month jail sentence for disclosing those records without authorization. In 2005, IDA and AGC updated ETA[4486] in order to cover new services and technologies, including biometrics, radio frequency identification (RFID), Wi-Fi, WiMax and others.[4487] Police have broad powers to search any computer and to require disclosure of documents for an offense related to the act without a warrant.[4488] More broadly, the government has wide discretionary powers under the Internal Security Act, the Criminal Law Act, the Misuse of Drugs Act, and the Undesirable Publications Act to conduct searches without warrants, as is normally required, if it determines that national security, public safety or order, or the public interest are at issue.[4489] Defendants have the right to request judicial review of such searches.

The Telecommunications Authority of Singapore (TAS) governed electronic surveillance of communications until it was merged with the National Computer Board in the late 1990s and eventually became part of IDA.[4490] The government has extensive powers under the Internal Security Act and other acts to monitor anything that is considered a threat to "national security."

Government-owned or government-controlled companies operate all ISPs.[4491] Each person in Singapore wishing to obtain an Internet account must show his national ID card to the provider to obtain an account.[4492] ISPs reportedly provide, on a regular basis, information on users to government officials without complying with legal requirements. In 1994, Technet – then the only Internet provider in the country serving the academic and technical community – scanned through e-mail of its members looking for pornographic files. According to Technet, they scanned the files without opening the mails, looking for clues like large file sizes. In September 1996, a man was fined USD 43,000 for downloading sex films from the Internet. It was the first enforcement of Singapore's Internet regulation. The raid followed a tip-off from Interpol, which was investigating people exchanging pornography online. Afterwards, SBA told citizens that it does not monitor e-mail messages, chat groups, sites people access, or what they download.[4493]

A recent MDA survey found that 65 percent of Singaporeans between 15 – 49 years old use the Internet.[4494] The findings were used to announce the line-up of public events under the MediAction! Campaign for 2006. MediAction! is a public outreach program that engages Singaporeans on Internet use in order to show the excitement, benefit, and ease of use that media can provide individuals.[4495]

Although the Constitution gives citizens the right to move freely throughout the country, the government has limited this right in a few instances. For example, it requires all citizens and permanent residents over the age of 15 to register and carry identification cards.[4496] The government is also active in some areas normally considered private, in pursuit of what it considers the public interest. For example, the government continues to enforce ethnic ratios for publicly subsidized housing, where the majority of citizens live and own their own units, designed to achieve an ethnic mix more or less in proportion to that in the society at large.[4497]

Video surveillance cameras are commonly used for monitoring roads and preventing littering in many areas.[4498] In 1995, the government proposed that cameras be placed in all public spaces in Tampines, a neighborhood in Singapore, including corridors, lifts, and open areas such as public parks, car parks and neighborhood centers, and that the cameras broadcast on the public cable television channel.[4499] Authorities increasingly have installed closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras in areas chosen because of residents' complaints about illegal prostitution and fights.[4500] They plan on installing more over time based on consultation with residents and tenants about where they are most needed.[4501] Recently, authorities called for the use of cameras in the streets to beef up security against terrorism, especially in places with a higher incidence of crime and those popular with the public.[4502] After the July 2005 terrorist bombings in London, authorities began testing CCTV on buses and trains, as well as other public areas.[4503] Despite the extensive and arguably invasive monitoring, most Singaporeans support placing surveillance cameras in public places, according to a 2000 survey conducted by the Straits Times.

Efforts against Terrorism

The Internal Security Act (ISA) is legislation aimed at countering the perceived threats to national security, including international terrorism.[4504] ISA has provisions for arrest and detention without warrant or judicial review if police authorities determine that national security, public safety and order, or the public interest is at risk. It has been used to deal with security threats, and, recently, the government employed it against suspected terrorists. The opposition called for its abolition many times, which the government rejected every time.[4505] The minister of Home Affairs, at the direction of the president, has broad discretion under ISA to order detention without filing charges, if the president determines that a person poses a threat to national security. At the end of 2006, 26 detainees were being held as suspected terrorists.

In response to the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, Singapore strengthened its anti-terrorist efforts by passing laws that codified United Nations resolutions to punish criminally the funding of terrorist activities and the making of false terrorist threats.[4506] In this respect, Parliament passed the Terrorism (Suppression of Financing) Act in July 2002, which punishes those found sheltering or dealing with the property of terrorists, and withholding financial information of terrorist acts.[4507]

In June 2002, Singapore proposed that Asian and European law enforcement agencies organize a system to share intelligence information to combat terrorism and organized crime.[4508] In November 2003, the Computer Misuse Act was amended to allow authorities to launch pre-emptive actions against suspected hackers based on "credible information" linking the suspect to planned attacks on sensitive information networks.[4509] Reporters Without Borders warned against potential abuses, because the amendment allows continuous surveillance of suspects through real-time monitoring software.[4510]

In late 2003, Singapore's Home Affairs Minister urged countries to develop biometric-enabled passports in order to "prevent terrorist from moving freely."[4511] During his five-nation tour of Asia in 2004, US Secretary for Homeland Security Tom Ridge met with Singapore defense officials to "explore opportunities for closer cooperation as part of the international exchange and sharing of information and knowledge."[4512]

In 2006, Singapore introduced the BioPass, a biometric e-passport embedded with a chip featuring fingerprint and facial identifiers.[4513] The BioPass also has enhanced security features, like multiple laser images that are tamper-resistant.[4514]

Miscellaneous Developments

In March 2003, the Ministry of Finance and the Central Provident Fund Board created "SingPass," the "online equivalent of the Identity Card."[4515] SingPass is a single, user-created password Singaporeans must use to access electronic government services.[4516] Individuals over the age of 15 may apply for SingPass, and it will be automatically issued to individuals who register for a national identity card.[4517] Singaporeans can access electronic government services through the "eCitizen portal."[4518]

In early 2001, the Ministry of Health launched, an Internet-accessible medical database.[4519] holds all patients' records from all hospitals and clinics in Singapore and is available to government and private doctors in Singapore and abroad. Because records are accessible only with a patient's username and password, physicians must obtain a patient's permission before obtaining medical information.

An extensive Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system for monitoring road usage went into effect in 1998. The system collects information on an automobile's travel from smart cards ("CashCards") plugged into transmitters in every car (in-vehicle units, or IUs) and in video surveillance cameras.[4520] ERP collects tolls. Video surveillance cameras monitor drivers attempting to circumvent the system. About 1,500 summonses were issued in a six-month period in 2003-2004 for such violations.[4521] The service claims that the data will only be kept for 24 hours and does not maintain a central accounting system. In 2005, a new generation of smarter ERP IUs was evaluated. The new system functions without insertion of cash cards, any time a vehicle passes under a gantry or enters into an ERP-equipped carpark.[4522] A similar program, the Electronic Parking System, is now being adopted in parking garages throughout Singapore as well.[4523]

In April 2003, Singapore added SARS to the Quarantine Act, a law that had previously been dormant for 27 years.[4524] Measures taken to combat SARS included contact tracing and the thermal-imaging detection of body temperatures in public places.[4525] To prevent violation of quarantine orders, the government ordered a 10-day quarantine of individuals suspected of having SARS. Security officials installed cameras into the home of individuals who had received quarantine orders and required them to appear before the camera at specific intervals.[4526] Also, officials would call the suspected individual's home as an additional check to enforce the quarantine, and his telephone company would be ordered to block any attempt to forward home phone calls to mobile phones to make sure that the individual does not leave the home.[4527] The government also planned to use electronic wristbands if suspected individuals did not answer phone calls.[4528] One man in Singapore was sentenced to six months in prison for "repeatedly flouting home quarantine orders."[4529]

Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags first appeared in Singapore in 1988, when the Electronic Library Management System deployed a book management and checkout system featuring 120,000 RFID tags.[4530] Later, in 2000, the National University of Singapore Library unveiled a multi-library system utilizing more than two million RFID tags, making it the largest library RFID project in the world.[4531] In 2004, IDA announced a three-year USD 10 million plan to spur greater RFID use,[4532] which was later matched by the industry to invest in RFID trial projects and infrastructure development.[4533] IDA committed itself to developing international RFID standards, aligning the frequency spectrum, and initiated talks with United States RFID development leaders, including Auto-ID Labs at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[4534] In 2005, RFID increasingly attracted the attention of the major technology players of the region that consider RFID as a huge revenue generator in years to come in several areas, such as airports, seaports and retail logistics applications. However, major concerns remain such as cost, lack of common standards and privacy.[4535]

IDA launched a trial program in February 2004 to stimulate the development of ultra-wideband technology. This will be used in products that "can see through walls and track vehicles or objects."[4536]

The Economic Review Committee of Singapore has identified nanotechnology as a key area for competitive advantage and development.[4537] The police force is currently testing a new fingerprint dusting technique which uses “nanoparticles to lift trace chemicals” from fingerprints.[4538] This technology allows for identification of suspects who have recently used illegal substances, or handed explosives. In the future, the technology should allow for identification of ethnicity, diet, and gender as well.[4539]

Late in 2004, the government launched a giant e-government project. The project introduced a portal ( that draws together around 1,600 different services through various ministry Web sites. It offers everything from sports ground bookings to collecting payments for traffic fines, credit card bills and TV licenses.[4540] In 2004, the government also introduced the national electronic payment hub plan.[4541] The hub enables people to pay their government bills, town council fees, or even mobile phone subscriptions by going to a single Web site.[4542] The government has said that its data privacy protection code – which controls how the government processes, uses and shares information – would apply to any public-private sector project. The code restricts the sharing of information among government agencies to the specific purpose for which the information was collected. It also prohibits agencies from disclosing data to commercial companies without explicit approval from the individual concerned. Private companies that would connect with the government to provide services on the Web site have to comply with the same rules.[4543] However, the government has not determined yet what penalties would apply for breach of these rules. Most importantly, there are still critical concerns about the potential information security risks these projects raise. They involve data access, sharing and management, the integrity and accuracy of the data, and the potential for hacking and fraud.[4544]

The Bioethics Advisory Committee of Singapore (BAC) drew up guidelines to ensure that individuals undertake genetic testing voluntarily and to protect their privacy and the confidentiality of their information. Among the 24 recommendations BAC issued, one is that the results of genetic tests should not be disclosed to third parties, unless the person concerned consents.[4545] The group has also conducted studies on the ethics of stem cell research, as well as the use of human tissue for research. In 2007, they also developed new guidelines for the use of personal information in biomedical research.[4546]

International Obligations

Singapore became a member of the United Nations (UN) Organization on September 21, 1965[4547] and enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in its Constitution.[4548] In spite of this, it has not yet ratified the two primary UN human rights instruments: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.[4549]

[4438] Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, September 1963, available at <>.
[4439] X v. CDE1992 2 SLR 996.

[4440] See <>.
[4441] See Christophen Tremewan, The Political Economy of Social Control in Singapore (St. Martin's Press, 1994).
[4442] Report of the National Internet Advisory Board 1997/1998, September 1998; see also Susan Long, "Guess Who's Reading Your Personal Data Today?" Singapore Press Holdings, May 18, 2002.
[4443] “Singapore likely to have personal data protection in two years,” People’s Daily Online, May 22, 2006 <>.
[4444] Long, supra.
[4445] "Consultation on Protection Regime," BNA World Data Protection Report, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2002.
[4446] Chua Hian Hou, "By 2009, No One Will Have Any Secrets...," Straits Times, June 11, 2005.
[4447] "Voluntary Singapore Web Codes to Protect Privacy," Reuters, February 5, 2002.
[4448] National Trust Council, “Model Data Protection Code” Version 1.3 available at <>.

[4449] Kien Keong Wong and Ken Chia (Baker & McKenzie Singapore), "E-com Legal Guide, Singapore," January 2001, available at <>.
[4450] Id.
[4451] Id.
[4452] "Infocomm Development Authority Helping Singaporeans Go Online," March 2000, available at <>.

[4453] See Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, "Multi-Pronged Measures Developed to Curb E-Mail Spam in Singapore," Press Release, May 25, 2004, available at <>.
[4454] Id.
[4455] Asia Media,“Singapore: Anti-spam Law Means Culprits Face Civil Action,” April 13, 2007, available at <>.

[4456] See <>.

[4457] Internet Industry Association of Singapore, “Security Overview,” <>.

[4458] "Boss is Spying on You – And He Has the Right," Straits Times, October 10, 2000.

[4459] Banking Act, Chapter 19, available at <>.
[4460] "Guidelines on Prevention of Money Laundering," Monetary Authority of Singapore, May 26, 1999, available at <>.
[4461] Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, “International Narcotics Control Strategy Report – 2007,” <>.

[4462] Sections 377 and 377A of the Penal Code classify them as sexual acts "against the order of nature" and "outrages on decency" respectively. Available at <>.
[4463] In recent memory, no homosexual has been prosecuted for what he does in the privacy of his home. Lydia Lim, "Time to Reach out and Talk?" Straits Times, March 19, 2005.
[4464] Id.

[4465] Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, supra.
[4466] US Department of State, Report on Singapore, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2004, February 28, 2005, available at <>.

[4467] Media Development Authority of Singapore Act (Act 34 of 2002), available at <>. This statutory board operates under the authority of the Ministry of Information and the Arts.
[4468] <>.
[4469] Internet Code of Practice, available at <>.
[4470] Class License Provisions, available at <>.
[4471] Media Development Authority, “Internet Service Providers,” available at <>.
[4472] Internet Code of Practice, supra, at § 3.
[4473] Id. at § 3(3).
[4474] Id. at § 4.
[4475] John O'Callaghan, "Singapore Calls November 3 Election," Reuters, October 24, 2001, available at <>.
[4476] E-mail from Milagros Rivera to Patrick Mueller, IPIOP clerk, Electronic Privacy Information Center, July 2, 2004 (on file with EPIC).

[4477] See the Censorship Review Committee's web page <>.
[4478] "Report of the Censorship Review Committee 2003," July 2003, available at <> .
[4479] Id.
[4480] Id.
[4481] "Arts Community Says Proposed Changes to Censorship Are Largely Cosmetic," Channel NewsAsia, September 5, 2003.

[4482] U.S. Department of State, Report on Singapore 2006, supra.
[4483] Id.

[4484] Computer Misuse Act (Chapter 50A), available at <>.
[4485] E-mail from Sinapan Samydorai, President, Thin Centre, to Patrick Mueller, IPIOP Clerk, Electronic Privacy Information Center, July 2, 2004 (on file with EPIC); see "Computer Misuse [Amendment] Act," ThinkCentre, November 13, 2004 <>.
[4486] IDA, “What is the ETA,” available at <>.
[4487] Raju Chellam, "Electronic Trading Law Ready to Be Upgraded; Law not Updated since Coming into Effect during Dotcom Boom," Straits Times, June 23, 2005.
[4488] Electronic Transactions Act (Act 25 of 1998), available at <>.
[4489] U.S. Department of State, Report on Singapore 2006, supra.

[4490] E-mail from Milagros Rivera to Patrick Mueller, IPIOP Clerk, Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), July 2, 2004 (on file with EPIC).

[4491] Garry Roday, "The Internet and Social Control in Singapore," Pol. Sci. Q. Volume 113, No. 1, Spring 1998.
[4492] Id.
[4493] Straits Times, September 27, 1996.

[4494] New Media Institute, “65% of Singaporeans Use Internet in Their Daily Lives,” November 9, 2006, <>.
[4495] Id.

[4496] U.S. Department of State - Report on Singapore 2006, available at <>.
[4497] Id.

[4498] "Video Cameras To Monitor Traffic at 15 Junctions," Straits Times, March 12, 1995; "Surveillance System Set Up in Jurong East," Straits Times, July 16, 1996.
[4499] "Do We Really Want an All-Seeing Camera?" Straits Times, July 13, 1995.
[4500] Tanya Fong, "Anti-Crime Cameras to Go up in more Areas; Success in Boat Quay, Little India and Newton. Next on the List is Geylang," Straits Times, February 23, 2005.
[4501] Id.
[4502] Li Xueying, "More 'Eyes' to Help Fight Terror; Public Areas and Streets to Have more CCTV Cameras – They Will Help Defuse Potential Terrorist Activities as well as Deter Crimes," Strait Times, November 7, 2004.
[4503] Channel NewsAsia, “LTA Begins Study on Installation of CCTVs in Public Buses,” <>.

[4504] Internal Security Act (Chapter 143), available at <>.
[4505] Id.

[4506] "Singapore Tightens Anti-Terrorist Laws," BBC News, November 13, 2001, available at <>.
[4507] Terrorism (Suppression of Financing) Act (No. 16 of 2002), available at <>.

[4508] "European Union/ASEM – Calls For Restraint in Middle East and Kashmir," European Report, June 12, 2002.
[4509] Amit Chanda, "New Singaporean Law to Enable 'Pre-Emptive' Action against Cyber-Terrorists," World Markets Analysis, November 11, 2003.
[4510] Reporters Without Borders, "The Internet Under Surveillance" (October 13, 2003).

[4511] Johnson Choo, "Singapore Urges Use of Biometric Passports to Restrict Terrorists' Movements," Channel News Asia, November 21, 2003, available at <>.
[4512] "Singapore, US Officials Hold Talks on Terrorism," Xinhua General News Service, March 8, 2004.

[4513], “Singapore Unveils Biometric Passport,” March 31, 2006, available at <>.
[4514] Id.

[4515] eCitizen, , “Singapore Personal Access,” March 7, 2007, available at <>.
[4516] Id.
[4517] Id.
[4518] Id.

[4519] Edmund Tee, "Get All Your Medical Data Online," Straits Times, February 17, 2001.

[4520] "You're on Candid Camera," Straits Times, September 2, 1998.
[4521] "Surveillance Cameras Pick Up More Motorists Trying to Avoid ERP Charges," Channel NewsAsia, April 27, 2004.
[4522] Christopher Tan, "Plans for Smarter and Sleeker ERP Device; It Works even if CashCard Is not Inserted in in-Vehicle Unit," Straits Times, August 1, 2005. A government official hinted that the ERP system may one day be satellite-tracked, which would enable authorities to charge ERP fees based on the distance a driver travels and may replace the fixed road tax in place today.
[4523] Obata, Takayasu, et al, “Electronic Parking System for Singapore,” Technical Review 40, 1, June 2003.

[4524] Julie Robotham, "Tougher Laws to Keep SARS Under Control," Sydney Morning Herald. April 7, 2003, available at <>.
[4525] Richard Paddock and Sonni Effron, "SARS Under Control in Singapore, WHO Says." Los Angeles Times, June 1, 2003 at A4.
[4526] Id.
[4527] Id.
[4528] Id.
[4529] "Singapore Man Sentenced to Six Months in Jail for Violating Home Quarantine Orders," Associated Press Newswires, May 9, 2003.

[4530] Tony Santiago, "Singapore Plunges into RFID Tags," Electrical Engineering Times, May 17, 2004, at 38.
[4531] Id.
[4532] Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, "RFID Identified as Next Growth Area for Singapore ICT Industry," press release, May 5, 2004, available at <>.
[4533] Pek Tiong Gee, "Tech@Work: RFID Action for Tech Majors," Straits Times, January 17, 2005.
[4534] Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, supra.
[4535] Pek Tiong Gee, supra.

[4536] "Singapore to Test Technology that Sees Through Walls," Wall Street Journal, February 25, 2004.

[4537], “Nanotechnology in Singapore: 2005-2006 – Report,” September 10, 2005, <>.
[4538] Nanowerk, “Nanotechnology Fingerprint Analysis Looks at More Than Just Patterns,” July 1, 2007, <>; See also Privacy and Human Rights 2006 section on Nanotechnology.
[4539] Id.

[4540] Singov, “About Us,” <>.
[4541], “Towards Seamless Customer-Centric e-Services,” October 28, 2004, available at <>.
[4542] Grace Chng, "Locking up Security Risks for e-Govt Site," Straits Times, November 8, 2004.
[4543] Natalie Soh, "Steps in Place to Ensure Privacy, Security; Issue of Confidentiality Taken very Seriously, Says IDA," Straits Times, October 29, 2004.
[4544] Grace Chng, supra.

[4545] "Genes that Tell on You," Editorial, Straits Times, April 11, 2005; "Chance to Have Say on Genetic Research," Straits Times, May 6, 2005.
[4546] Bioethics Advisory Committee, “Reports,” May 7, 2007, available at <>.

[4547] United Nations, List of Member States <>.
[4548], "Singapore: Constitutional Rights," November 8, 2004 <>.
[4549] University of Minnesota, Human Rights Library, Ratification of International Human Rights Treaties – Singapore <>.

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