United Nations Committee Against Torture - Concluding Observations
Convention against Torture
and Other Cruel, Inhuman
or Degrading Treatment
20 January 2011
Committee against Torture
1-19 November 2010
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 19 of the Convention
Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture
1. The Committee considered the initial report of Mongolia (CAT/C/MNG/1) at its 963rd and 964th meetings (CAT/C/SR.963 and 964), held on 5 and 8 November 2010, and adopted at its 976th meeting (CAT/C/SR./976) the following concluding observations.
2. The Committee welcomes the submission of the initial report of Mongolia, which, while generally following the Committee’s guidelines for reporting, lacks statistical and practical information on the implementation of the provisions of the Convention. The Committee regrets that the report was submitted six years late, which has prevented the Committee from monitoring the implementation of the Convention in the State party since it ratified the treaty. It also regrets that no civil society organizations participated in the preparation of the report.
3. The Committee welcomes the frank and constructive dialogue with the delegation of the State party and the extensive oral responses to the questions posed by the Committee members, which provided the Committee with important additional information.
B. Positive aspects
4. The Committee welcomes that since the accession to the Convention by the State party on 24 January 2002 it has ratified or acceded to the following international instruments:
(a) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, in March 2002;
(b) Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, in April 2002;
(c) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, in June 2003;
(d) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, in October 2004;
(e) United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols, in May 2008;
(f) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in May 2009;
(g) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in May 2009;
(h) Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, in July 2010.
5. The Committee notes the ongoing efforts of the State party to reform its legislation in order to ensure better protection of human rights, in particular:
(a) The adoption of the Criminal Code in 2002;
(b) The adoption of the Law on Combating Domestic Violence in 2005;
(c) The amendment of the Court Decision Enforcement Law on 3 August 2007;
(d) The amendment to the Criminal Code enacted on 1 February 2008.
6. The Committee notes with appreciation the new measures and policies adopted by the State party in order to ensure better protection of human rights, in particular:
(a) The adoption in 2003 of the National Human Rights Action Programme of Mongolia, and the establishment in 2005 of the Implementing Committee of the National Programme;
(b) The standing invitation issued to special procedures mandate holders since 2004;
(c) The adoption of the National Programme on Fighting against Domestic Violence in 2007;
(d) The adoption of the 2005-2015 National Programme on Protection from Trafficking in Children and Women with the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation;
(e) The opening of legal aid centres in all districts of the capital and in all 21 provinces to provide legal advice to vulnerable persons involved in criminal, civil and administrative cases;
(f) The declaration by the President of Mongolia on 14 January 2010 of a moratorium on the use of the death penalty and his indication that the moratorium should constitute the first step towards its abolition.
C. Principal subjects of concern and recommendations
Definition and criminalization of torture
7. While the Committee takes note that certain amendments to the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedural Code have been introduced in 2008 to harmonize domestic legislation in line with the Convention, the Committee is concerned that there is no definition of torture in the State party’s legislation in accordance with the definition in article 1 of the Convention, as pointed out also by the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in his report on his mission to Mongolia in 2005 (E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.4, para. 39) (arts. 1 and 4).
The State party should adopt a definition of torture with all the elements of article 1 of the Convention in its national criminal legislation. The State party should include torture as a separate crime in its legislation, in line with article 4 of the Convention, and should ensure that penalties for torture are appropriate for the gravity of this crime.
Fundamental legal safeguards
8. The Committee is concerned at information that arbitrary arrests and detentions occur frequently, with some two thirds of pretrial detentions taking place without court orders. The Committee is also concerned that arrested suspects often do not have prompt access to a judge, a lawyer, a medical doctor and their family as prescribed by law, and that pretrial detention is not used as a last resort (arts. 2, 11 and 12).
The State party should take prompt and effective measures to ensure that all detainees are afforded all fundamental legal safeguards from the very outset of their detention. These include the rights of detainees to be informed of the reasons of their arrest, to have prompt access to a lawyer and, when necessary, to legal aid. They should also have access to an independent medical examination, preferably by a doctor of their own choice, to notify a relative and to be brought promptly before a judge, and to have the lawfulness of their detention reviewed by a court, in accordance with international standards.
Impunity for acts of torture
9. The Committee is concerned at reports that law enforcement officials and interrogators are not always prosecuted and adequately punished for acts of torture and ill-treatment. This was also referred to by the Special Rapporteur on the question of torture, who stated that “impunity is the principal cause of torture and ill treatment”. The Special Rapporteur concluded that torture persists, particularly in police stations and pretrial detention facilities, and that “the absence in the Criminal Code of a definition of torture in line with the Convention and the lack of effective mechanisms to receive and investigate complaints provides shelter to perpetrators” (ibid.) (arts. 1, 2, 4, 12 and 16).
The State party is urged to bring impunity to an end and ensure that torture and ill-treatment by public officials will not be tolerated and that all alleged perpetrators of acts of torture will be investigated and, if appropriate, prosecuted, convicted and punished with penalties appropriate to the gravity of the crime. The State party should ensure that efficient and independent investigative mechanisms be established against impunity regarding torture and ill-treatment. Article 44.1 of the Criminal Code, which stipulates that “causing harm to the rights and interests protected by this Code in the course of fulfilling mandatory orders or decrees shall not constitute a crime”, should be immediately repealed. The State party legislation should also clearly stipulate that a superior order may not be invoked as a justification for torture.
Ill-treatment and the excessive use of force during the 1 July 2008 events
10. The Committee is concerned at reports that during the riots on 1 July 2008 in Sukhbaatar Square and during the state of emergency police resorted to unnecessary and excessive use of force. The Committee is concerned at reports that most cases of unnecessary and excessive use of force by police occurred after the declaration of the state of emergency. It is also concerned about the results of a survey conducted by the National Human Rights Commission showing that of 100 detained people who were interviewed, 88 replied that they were ill-treated by being beaten or assaulted during arrest and interrogation. The Committee is concerned at reports that arrested persons were detained in overcrowded facilities, with lack of access to food, water and toilets for 48 to 72 hours, and without the possibility to contact lawyers and families (arts. 2, 12 and 16).
The State party should ensure that law enforcement officials receive clear instructions regarding the use of force and are informed of the liabilities they incur if the use of force is unnecessary or excessive. Existing laws, including those informing the public about the imposition of a state of emergency, should be applied. The State party should ensure that law enforcement officials apply the law with regard to persons deprived of their liberty, including fundamental legal safeguards upon arrest, with strict adherence to the Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention and Imprisonment (adopted by the General Assembly through resolution 43/173 of 9 December 1988) and that persons deprived of their liberty should have access to a lawyer, a medical doctor and their family. In order to prevent impunity and abuse of authority, law enforcement officials found guilty of such offenses should be sanctioned with appropriate legal and administrative penalties.
Complaints and prompt, impartial and effective investigations
11. The Committee is gravely concerned that since 2002, only one person has been sentenced for inhumane and cruel treatment and that only one person was convicted out of 744 torture-related cases since 2007, therefore creating an environment of impunity for perpetrators. This was echoed by the Special Rapporteur on the question of torture, who stated that “while a legal framework for victims to make complaints and have them addressed currently exists, this system does not work in practice” (E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.4, para. 41) and that “consequently, victims have no effective recourse to justice, compensation and rehabilitation for torture and other forms of ill-treatment” (ibid., p. 2). The Committee is also concerned that in the aftermath of the 1 July 2008 events, all 10 complaints submitted to the National Human Rights Commission (four of which concern torture) and the 11 complaints submitted to the Prosecutor’s Office were dismissed for lack of evidence (arts. 2, 12 and 13).
The State party should ensure that independent and effective mechanisms to receive complaints and conduct prompt, impartial and effective investigations into allegations of torture and ill-treatment are in place. The State party should address impunity and ensure that those found guilty of committing acts of torture and ill-treatment should be promptly convicted. The State party should take measures to protect complainants, lawyers and witnesses from intimidation and reprisals, in accordance with article 13 of the Convention. The State party should provide information with regard to any investigation carried out into allegations of torture submitted by Mr. Ts. Zandankhuu, who was arrested on 2 July 2008 and taken to the Denjiin Myanga detention centre.
National Human Rights Commission.
12. The Committee notes that the National Human Rights Commission enjoys “A” status as a national human rights institution established in accordance with the principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (Paris Principles) and can initiate proposals and transmit orders and recommendations to other entities with respect to human rights issues. However, the Committee is concerned that in relation to the 1 July 2008 events in Sukhbaatar Square, the Commission issued a statement indicating that “human rights were not infringed” during the state of emergency. The Committee is concerned that this statement was subsequently used by the judiciary to dismiss complaints about torture and ill-treatment and to force people to sign self-incriminating confessions on the basis of which they were then sentenced (arts. 1, 2, 4, 13, 15 and 16).
The State party should ensure that the appointment process of the National Human Rights Commission governing body is transparent and that consultations should be comprehensive and open, including an enhanced engagement with civil society. The State party should strengthen the independence and capacity of the Commission and ensure that it is not restricted in its activities. The Commission should be provided with human, financial and material resources enabling it to fully comply with its mandate. The Commission should have the capacity and powers to systematically visit all places of detention, also on an unannounced basis, should be able to address allegations of torture and should ensure that measures of redress and rehabilitation are taken in appropriate cases. The Commission should be included in trainings on the absolute prohibition of torture for law enforcement personnel and staff of the criminal justice system. The Commission should also be involved in conducting awareness-raising campaigns on human rights issues for the general public.
13. The Committee is concerned that from 2000 to 2008, Mongolian authorities implemented deportation decisions for 3,713 citizens from 11 countries. The Committee is also concerned that no deportation order was suspended or not implemented because the person to be deported was under the threat of being tortured in the country of destination. It is concerned further that in October 2009 an asylum-seeker and his family were deported to China against their will before a final decision on the asylum claim was made (art. 3).
The State party should take all legislative, judicial and administrative measures to comply with its obligations under article 3 of the Convention. When determining its non-refoulement obligation, the State party should assess the merits of each individual case. The State party should introduce amendments in its legislation that deal with forced deportations of foreign citizens. The State party should consider acceding to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (adopted by the General Assembly on 28 July 1951) and its 1967 Protocol. The State party should provide training to all law enforcement and immigration officials in international refugee and human rights law, emphasizing the principle of non-refoulement, and ensure that appeals to courts against deportation orders have a suspensive effect.
Training of the judiciary
14. While noting that international instruments become effective as domestic legislation upon the entry into force of the laws on their ratification or accession, the Committee is concerned by the delegation’s statement that judges have limited knowledge of international instruments, including the Convention. This concern is also referred to by the Special Rapporteur on the question of torture, who noted a “basic lack of awareness, primarily on behalf of prosecutors, lawyers and the judiciary, of the international standards relating to the prohibition of torture” (E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.4, para. 40). The Committee is particularly concerned by the information it received that clients of lawyers who referred to international treaties and conventions in their defence were sentenced to longer prison terms (art. 10).
The State party should ensure that mandatory training for judges, prosecutors, court officials, lawyers, and other related professions includes all the provisions of the Convention, especially the absolute prohibition of torture. The State party may wish to consider international assistance with regard to the training. Public officials and medical personnel dealing with detainees and all professionals involved in the documentation and investigation of torture should receive training on the Manual on Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (the Istanbul Protocol).
Training of law enforcement officials
15. The Committee is concerned by reports that police are inadequately trained in crowd control and the use of equipment, that often they do not have instruction on the appropriate use of firearms and on the prohibition to use excessive force (art. 10).
The State party should ensure that law enforcement officials receive proper training on how to exercise their duties, including on the use of equipment, on the use of force that is appropriate for the type of manifestation and that such force is employed only exceptionally and proportionally. Police should be trained in and comply with the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials (adopted by the General Assembly through resolution 34/169 of 17 December 1979) and the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials (adopted at the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, held 27 August – 7 September 1990).
Conditions of detention
16. The Committee is concerned about conditions of detention in some facilities, such as overcrowding, poor ventilation and heating, inadequate toilet facilities and water supply and the spread of infectious diseases. In addition, the Committee is concerned with ill-treatment such as the mixing of convicted prisoners and pretrial detainees, arbitrary room changes, and prison guards encouraging convicted prisoners to be abusive towards certain detainees. The Committee is also concerned by the special isolation regime consisting of solitary confinement for prisoners serving 30-year sentences, some of whom told the Special Rapporteur on the question of torture that they would have preferred the death penalty to isolation. The Committee is particularly concerned by reports that death row prisoners are detained in isolation, kept handcuffed and shackled throughout their detention and denied adequate food. Such conditions of detention were described by the Special Rapporteur as constituting additional punishments which can only be qualified as torture as defined in article 1 of the Convention (arts. 11 and 16).
The Committee recommends that the State party abolish the special isolation regime and ensure that all prisoners are treated humanely and in accordance with the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (approved by the Economic and Social Council in its resolutions 663 C (XXIV) of 31 July 1957 and 2076 (LXII) of 13 May 1977) and the Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention and Imprisonment. The State party should continue improving conditions of detention in all detention facilities to bring them in line with international standards. The State party should ensure that prison guards and other officials abide by the law and adhere strictly to rules and regulations. The State General Prosecutor’s Office, the National Human Rights Commission and other authorized independent bodies should be allowed to carry out regular and unannounced visits to places of detention.
Redress and compensation
17. The Committee is concerned that there is no effective and adequate means for victims of torture and ill-treatment to obtain justice, compensation and rehabilitation. The Committee is also concerned that provisions for compensation in Mongolian law do not specify torture as a basis for compensation. This was also noted by the Special Rapporteur on the question of torture after his visit to Mongolia (art. 14).
The State party should ensure that victims of torture can obtain redress and have an enforceable right to fair and adequate compensation, and should enact comprehensive legislation which includes torture and ill-treatment as a basis for compensation and reparation.
Statements made under torture
18. The Committee is seriously concerned that statements and confessions obtained under torture and ill-treatment continue to be used in courts in Mongolia, which is also referred to by the Special Rapporteur on the question of torture. He stated that the criminal justice system relies heavily on obtaining confessions for instituting prosecutions and that this “makes the risk of torture and ill-treatment very real” (E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.4, para. 36). In this respect, the Committee is also concerned at reports that persons arrested in connection with the 1 July 2008 events were interrogated under torture, and that confessions signed under such circumstances were later used as evidence in court (art. 15).
The State party should ensure that no statement which is established to have been made as a result of torture shall be invoked as evidence in any proceedings. The State party should introduce systematic video and audio monitoring and recording of all interrogations, in all places where torture and ill-treatment are likely to occur, and provide the necessary financial, material and human resources to that end. The State party should ensure that any statement or confessions made by persons in custody ascertained to have been made as a result of torture or ill-treatment should not be admissible as evidence against the person who made the confession. Such statements and confessions should be invoked only as evidence in proceedings against the person accused of torture or ill-treatment.
Prisoners on death row and the death penalty
19. The Committee is concerned that information on the death penalty is classified as a State secret and that not even the families of executed persons are informed about the date of execution or given their mortal remains. The Committee is also concerned about the fate and conditions of detention of 44 prisoners remaining on death row (arts. 2, 11 and 16).
The State party should render public statistics relating to the death penalty, provide the Committee with information on the 44 persons remaining on death row, should consider commuting all death sentences and should provide relevant information to the families of persons who were executed. The State party should declassify information on the death penalty, and is encouraged to continue its efforts towards its abolition, including by ratifying the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The State party should ensure that death row prisoners are treated in accordance with international standards.
Violence against women
20. While welcoming the efforts of the State party to combat violence against women, the Committee is concerned about reports that the incidence of violence, in particular domestic violence against women, rape and sexual harassment remains high. The Committee is also concerned that domestic violence continues to be seen as a private matter, including by law enforcement personnel and that the rate of prosecution is very low. In addition, the Committee is concerned at reports that only a small number of rape cases are reported, and that post-rape medical examination in remote areas and the provision of shelters and rehabilitation services by qualified personnel are frequently not available. The Committee regrets that the State party has not as yet criminalized marital rape and sexual harassment (arts. 1, 2, 4, 12 and 16).
The State party should fully combat violence against women, in particular rape, domestic violence and sexual harassment. It should also criminalize marital rape and sexual harassment. In addition, it should ensure that public officials are fully familiar with applicable relevant legal provisions, and sensitized to all forms of violence against women and adequately respond to them. The State party should also ensure that all women who are victims of violence have access to immediate means of redress and protection, including protecting orders, access to safe shelters, medical examination and rehabilitation assistance in all parts of the country. Perpetrators of violence against women should be duly prosecuted and, if found guilty, convicted and sentenced with appropriate penalties.
Trafficking in persons
21. While welcoming the signature, on 18 October 2010, of the Agreement on Cooperation to Combat Trafficking in Persons with the Macao Special Administrative Region of China, as well as other efforts by the State party to combat trafficking in persons, the Committee is concerned at reports that there is a rise in human trafficking. It is also concerned at reports that the majority of victims are young girls and women, in particular poor and street children, as well as victims of domestic violence, who are trafficked for the purpose of sexual and labour exploitation and fraudulent marriages. In addition, the Committee is concerned that the legal framework to protect victims and witnesses of trafficking remains inadequate. It is also concerned that trafficking is seldom prosecuted under article 113 of the Criminal Code on sales and purchase of humans, which carries higher penalties than those under article 124 on inducing others to engage in prostitution and organizing prostitution. The Committee is also concerned at reports that 85 to 90 per cent of investigated cases are reportedly rejected for lack of evidence or lack of grounds to consider that the victim was deceived, and at reports that law enforcement officials were directly involved in or facilitating trafficking crimes and that there have been no investigations of those reports (arts. 2, 12, 13 and 16).
The State party should enact comprehensive anti-trafficking laws which address the issues of prevention and the protection of victims and witnesses of human trafficking, and ensure to all victims of trafficking the means for compensation and as full a rehabilitation as possible. The State party should conduct appropriate trainings for law enforcement officials, investigators and prosecutors on the laws and practices of trafficking in human beings. Trafficking in persons should be prosecuted under article 113 of the Criminal Code. The State party should establish independent mechanisms with sufficient and appropriate human and financial resources to monitor the implementation of measures to combat trafficking in persons. The State party should also conduct independent, thorough and effective investigations into all allegations of trafficking in persons, including allegations against law enforcement officials. The State party should also continue and increase international, regional and bilateral cooperation on this issue.
Labour exploitation and child labour
22. The Committee is concerned at reports that some artisanal (informal) miners, including minors, (also known as “ninja” miners) work in informal mining communities in very precarious conditions which are incompatible with international labour standards. It is also concerned at reports about the exploitation of children, including in hazardous labour conditions. In addition, the Committee is concerned at reports about the situation of street children and the lack of effective measures to improve their situation (art. 16).
The State party should combat all forms of forced labour and should take all necessary measures to ensure that children do not work in hazardous labour conditions, including artisanal (informal) mines, and ensure also that adults who work in such facilities have improved conditions in accordance with international standards and in particular with the International Labour Organization conventions ratified by the State party. The State party should take measures to monitor and address child labour and combat it, including by criminalizing employers who exploit child labour and bringing them to justice. The State party should conduct campaigns to raise awareness about the negative effects of child labour. The State party should also enhance measures with regard to the situation of street children.
Corporal punishment of children
23. The Committee is concerned at information about the high prevalence of corporal punishment of children in schools, children’s institutions and in the home, in particular in rural areas (art. 16).
The State party should take urgent measures to explicitly prohibit corporal punishment of children in all settings. The State party should also ensure, through appropriate public education and professional training, positive, participatory and non-violent forms of discipline.
24. The Committee is concerned at information provided by the Committee on the Rights of the Child that the juvenile justice system is not in harmony with the principles and provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and that there is no comprehensive policy framework for juvenile justice. The Committee is also concerned that the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (Beijing Rules, adopted by the General Assembly on 29 November 1985) are not applied and that children in both pretrial and regular detention are not separated from adults (art. 2, 16).
The State party should continue and complete the process of harmonization of its national legislation in line with applicable international standards and should improve the legal framework for juvenile justice, should not resort to pretrial detention except in cases prescribed by law, and should ensure that children are detained separately from adults in all circumstances and that the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (Beijing Rules) are applied. The State party should establish specialized juvenile courts with trained juvenile judges and other judicial staff. If need be, the State party should seek international assistance in this regard.
Discrimination and violence against vulnerable groups
25. The Committee is concerned:
(a) About reports that there is no comprehensive domestic law against discrimination and that hate crimes and speech is not an offence under the law. The Committee is also concerned at reports that vulnerable groups such as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons are subjected to violence and sexual abuse, both in public and domestic settings, owing to widespread negative social attitudes. The Committee welcomes the official registration of the LGBT Centre and notes with appreciation the indication by the State party of the need for a public awareness-raising campaign regarding LGBT persons;
(b) About reports concerning the discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS, especially with regard to housing and pre-screening prior to employment;
(c) That, while taking note of the enactment in 2002 of the new Civil Code which stipulates that non-citizens have the same rights as citizens in civil and legal matters, some foreigners may be subjected to organized violence based on ethnic origin (arts. 2 and 16).
The State party should establish a comprehensive legal framework to combat discrimination, including hate crimes and speech. The State party should take measures to bring perpetrators of such crimes to justice. The State party should ensure the protection of vulnerable groups such as sexual minorities, persons living with HIV/AIDS, and some foreigners. The State party should establish effective policing, enforcement and complaints mechanisms with a view to ensuring prompt, thorough and impartial investigations into allegations of attacks against persons on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity in line with the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in Relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. The State party should adopt legislation to combat violence caused by organizations which promote and incite racial, ethnic and other forms of discrimination.
Persons with mental disabilities and psychological problems
26. The Committee regrets the lack of information provided by the State delegation with regard to legal safeguards, including monitoring and oversight, in relation to the hospitalization of persons with mental illnesses and intellectual disabilities. The Committee is further concerned at reports of the frequent use of hospitalization and that few alternative treatment options are in place, and at the very low number of professionals specialized in working with persons with mental illnesses and disabilities.
The State party should, as a matter of urgency, strengthen the legal provisions in relation to the rights of persons with disabilities, including persons with mental illnesses and intellectual disabilities, and should establish monitoring and oversight mechanisms for places of hospitalization. The State party should strengthen alternative methods of treatment and care and should give priority to increasing the number of psychologically/psychiatrically skilled professionals.
27. The Committee regrets the absence of comprehensive and disaggregated data on complaints, investigations, prosecutions and convictions of cases of torture and ill-treatment by law enforcement, security, military and prison personnel, as well as on death row prisoners, ill-treatment of migrant workers, trafficking in humans and domestic and sexual violence.
The State party should compile statistical data relevant to the monitoring of the implementation of the Convention at the national level, including data on complaints, investigations, prosecutions and convictions of persons guilty of torture and ill-treatment, ill-treatment of migrant workers, death row prisoners, trafficking in humans and domestic and sexual violence, disaggregated by age, sex, ethnicity and type of crime, as well as on means for redress, including compensation and rehabilitation, provided to the victims.
28. The Committee recommends that the State party consider ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment as soon as possible.
29. The Committee recommends that the State party consider making the declarations envisaged under articles 21 and 22 of the Convention.
30. The Committee invites the State party to ratify the core United Nations human rights treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
31. The State party is requested to disseminate widely the report submitted to the Committee and the Committee’s concluding observations, in appropriate languages, through official websites, the media and non-governmental organizations.
32. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within one year, follow-up information in response to the Committee’s recommendations contained in paragraphs 9, 11, 16 and 19 of the present document.
33. The Committee invites the State party to present its next periodic report in accordance with its reporting guidelines and to observe the page limit of 40 pages for the treaty-specific document. The Committee also invites the State party to submit a common core document in accordance with the requirements of the common core document contained in the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties (HRI/GEN.2/Rev.6), approved by the inter-committee meeting of the human rights treaty bodies, and to observe the page limit of 80 pages for the common core document. The treaty-specific document and the common core document together constitute the reporting obligation of the State party under the Convention.
34. The State party is invited to submit its next periodic report, which will be the second periodic report, by 19 November 2014.