United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women - Concluding Observations
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
20 July-7 August 2009
Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
1. The Committee considered the third periodic report of Switzerland (CEDAW/C/CHE/3) at its 894th and 895th meetings, on 27 July 2009 (see CEDAW/C/SR.894 and 895). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in document CEDAW/C/CHE/Q/3 and the responses of Switzerland are contained in CEDAW/C/CHE/Q/3/Add.1.
2. The Committee commends the State party for its third periodic report, which was well structured and informative and took into account the Committee’s previous concluding observations. The Committee regrets, however, that the report was submitted with some delay. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the presession working group.
3. The Committee also expresses its appreciation to the State party for its delegation, headed by the Deputy Director of the Directorate of Public International Law of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, which included representatives of various federal departments, including the Federal Department of Justice and Police and the Federal Department of Home Affairs, a representative of the Federal Office for Gender Equality and a representative of one of the cantons. The Committee appreciates the constructive dialogue that took place between the delegation and members of the Committee.
4. The Committee welcomes the withdrawal of the State party’s reservation to article 7 of the Convention in April 2004 and its ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention in September 2008.
5. The Committee also welcomes the State party’s ratification of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, in October 2006.
6. The Committee commends the State party for its efforts to strengthen gender equality and women’s rights in Switzerland, including the adoption of a wide range of legislative measures, policies and programmes, in particular the introduction of maternity leave with pay, and legal provisions and programmes to combat violence against and trafficking in women.
7. The Committee welcomes the State party’s recognition of the important role played by non-governmental organizations, women’s associations and other civil society groups in the promotion of women’s human rights and gender equality. The Committee also welcomes the efforts made by the State party to consult nongovernmental organizations and women’s associations in the preparation of its third periodic report.
8. The Committee notes with appreciation that combating violence against women and the advancement of women are priority objectives of the State party’s international policy on human rights. The Committee also notes the priority given to gender mainstreaming and gender-responsive budgeting in the State party’s international assistance and development cooperation programmes.
Principal areas of concern and recommendations
9. While recalling the obligation of the State party to implement all the provisions of the Convention systematically and continuously, the Committee views the concerns and recommendations identified in the present concluding observations as requiring the priority attention of the State party. Consequently, the Committee calls on the State party to focus on those areas in its implementation activities and to report on action taken and results achieved in its next periodic report. It also calls on the State party to submit the present concluding observations to the Federal Council, all relevant federal departments, other government structures at the federal, cantonal and communal levels, the Federal Assembly, the cantonal assemblies and the judiciary, in order to ensure their effective implementation.
10. While reaffirming that the Government has the primary responsibility and is particularly accountable for the full implementation of the obligations of the State party under the Convention, the Committee stresses that the Convention is binding on all branches of government, and it invites the State party to encourage its federal, cantonal and communal parliaments in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the necessary steps with regard to the implementation of the present concluding observations and the next reporting process of the Government under the Convention.
11. The Committee notes that Switzerland maintains reservations to article 15, paragraph 2, and to article 16, paragraphs 1 (g) and (h), of the Convention. The Committee takes note of the State party’s explanation that withdrawal of the State party’s reservation to article 16, paragraph 1 (g), may be considered after the enactment of a new law on choice of family name. The Committee also takes note of the State party’s explanation that its reservations to article 15, paragraph 2, and to article 16, paragraph 1 (h), are a matter of transitional law and may be withdrawn when there are no longer any disputes concerning matrimonial property based on the law governing the matrimonial regime applicable prior to 1 January 1988.
12. The Committee reiterates its previous concluding observations of 2003 and urges the State party to indicate in its next periodic report, if possible and if still relevant, a timetable for the withdrawal of its reservations.
Previous concluding observations
13. The Committee regrets that many of the concerns it expressed and the recommendations it made (see A/58/38, part I, paras. 97-141) after its consideration of the State party’s combined initial and second periodic report (CEDAW/C/CHE/1-2 and Add.1) in 2003 have been insufficiently addressed. These include, for instance, concerns and recommendations relating to the legal status of the Convention, the national machinery for equality, the persistence of entrenched traditional stereotypes regarding the role and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society at large, the prevalence of violence against women, the situation of migrant women, the prevalence of trafficking in women and girls and the exploitation of prostitution, the underrepresentation of women in elected and appointed positions in public life and gender inequality in the field of education and in the labour market.
14. The Committee urges the State party to make every effort to address the previous recommendations that have not yet been fully implemented, as well as the concerns contained in the present concluding observations.
Legal status of the Convention
15. The Committee notes that, in accordance with the principle of monism applied by the State party, the provisions of the treaties to which Switzerland is party can be invoked directly in the national courts if and when those provisions are considered directly applicable. In this regard, the Committee notes with concern that the Federal Supreme Court and other judicial authorities at the federal and cantonal levels are of the opinion that as a general rule the provisions of the Convention are not directly applicable. Moreover, the Committee notes that decisions of the Federal Supreme Court are based on constitutional provisions on equality and nondiscrimination that are narrower in scope than the definition of discrimination contained in article 1 of the Convention. The Committee also notes with concern that the Convention is rarely invoked in judicial procedures at the federal or cantonal level indicating limited awareness of the Convention, including the general recommendations of the Committee, within the legal profession and the judiciary and among women themselves.
16. The Committee urges the State party to further clarify the issue of the direct applicability of the provisions of the Convention within the national legal order of Switzerland. The Committee reiterates its previous concluding observations of 2003 and recommends that the State party conduct awareness-raising campaigns about the Convention aimed at judicial and legal professionals and at the general public. The Committee also encourages the State party to provide systematic training to members of the legal profession and the judiciary on the scope and significance of the Convention with a view to encouraging them to utilize the Convention in legal proceedings. The Committee further encourages the State party to include the Convention and its Optional Protocol as a mandatory component in the education and training of the legal profession, including judges, lawyers and public prosecutors.
Definition of equality and non-discrimination
17. The Committee, while noting that general principles of equality and nondiscrimination are guaranteed in article 8 of the Constitution and contained in domestic legislation, is concerned that the Federal Supreme Court has given a narrow scope to these principles by stating that the “Constitution does not confer any right to establish equality in fact”.
18. The Committee recommends that the State party take steps to ensure that the principles of equality and non-discrimination against women are applied in accordance with article 1 of the Convention.
Implementation of the Convention
19. While cognizant of the different levels of authority and competencies in implementation of the Convention within the State party’s federal structure, and taking note of the State party’s oral presentation that federalism offers possibilities in terms of competition for best results and development of best practices in implementation of the Convention, the Committee remains concerned about the disparities in implementation across the different cantons and communes. The Committee also remains concerned at the effectiveness of existing structures and mechanisms to ensure coordination and consistent application of the Convention throughout the State party’s territory.
20. The Committee underlines that the Federal Government has the primary responsibility for ensuring the full implementation of the State party’s obligations under the Convention. In line with its previous concluding observations of 2003, the Committee recommends that the State party ensure, particularly through effective coordination, the coherent and consistent application of the Convention at all levels and in all areas.
National machinery for the advancement of women and gender mainstreaming
21. The Committee notes with appreciation the work undertaken by various institutional structures for the advancement of women and gender equality at the federal, cantonal and communal levels, including the Federal Bureau for Gender Equality, the Federal Commission of Women’s Services and gender equality offices or commissions in most cantons and some communes. The Committee is concerned, however, that such institutions lack sufficient authority, visibility and resources and that budgetary considerations have affected their existence and resulted in cutbacks in the human and financial resources allocated to such structures. The Committee is further concerned at the lack of an overall integrated strategy for gender mainstreaming, including gender budgeting, in the State party itself. In this regard, the Committee notes that only a few initiatives on gender mainstreaming have been undertaken by a number of federal departments, cantons and cities.
22. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that the existing national machinery for the advancement of women is provided with the necessary authority, visibility and human and financial resources for the effective promotion of gender equality and the advancement of women at all levels. The Committee also recommends the establishment of gender equality offices in all cantons and the strengthening of coordination between all relevant institutional structures and mechanisms, including through the establishment of a dedicated coordination mechanism at the federal level. The Committee further recommends that the State party develop and implement an integrated gender mainstreaming strategy, including through the use of gender-budgeting processes, with effective monitoring and accountability mechanisms across all sectors and levels of government.
Temporary special measures
23. The Committee notes that the Supreme Court has determined on the basis of the Federal Constitution that affirmative measures aimed at establishing equality are acceptable in principle. The Committee notes with concern, however, that recent decisions of the Federal Supreme Court against the use of such measures and their limited application in all sectors indicate a lack of clear understanding of temporary special measures, as well as reasons for their application, in line with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation 25.
24. The Committee encourages the State party to familiarize all relevant officials, including the judiciary, with the concept of temporary special measures contained in article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and in its general recommendation 25. The Committee recommends that the State party give due consideration to the further adoption and implementation of temporary special measures, including legislative and administrative measures, outreach and support programmes, the allocation of resources and the creation of incentives, targeted recruitment and the setting of time-bound goals and quotas, in areas where women are underrepresented or disadvantaged and in both the public and private sectors.
25. The Committee welcomes the steps taken by the State party to eliminate stereotypical attitudes and portrayals of women and of women’s roles in the family and in society, including the “Fairplay-at-home” and “Fairplay-at-work” campaigns, the adoption of equality acts in various cantons, as well as the revision of educational curricula in a number of cantons. The Committee is concerned, however, about the persistence of entrenched traditional attitudes and stereotypes, including as portrayed in the media and in advertising, which undermine women’s social status and are linked to the disadvantaged position of women in a number of areas, including in education, the labour market, access to decision-making positions and participation in political and public life. The Committee is also concerned about the persistence of stereotyped media portrayals and negative images of ethnic and minority women and migrant women.
26. The Committee calls upon the State party to strengthen its efforts to eliminate stereotypical images and attitudes regarding the roles of women and men in the family and in society, in accordance with articles 2 (f) and 5 (a) of the Convention. This should include legal, policy and awareness-raising measures, taken in a coordinated fashion and directed at women and men generally, as well as different forms of media and targeted programmes in the educational system, to encourage further diversification of the educational choices of boys and girls and enhanced sharing of family responsibilities. The Committee also recommends targeted measures for the media and the educational system to promote positive images of ethnic and minority women and migrant women. It calls upon the State party to review periodically the measures taken in order to assess their impact, to take appropriate action and to report thereon to the Committee in its next periodic report.
Violence against women
27. The Committee welcomes the range of measures taken by the State party to combat violence against women and notes, in particular, legislative measures, such as the revisions to the Penal Code by which acts of violence, including rape and coercion, committed in relationships are to be automatically prosecuted by the authorities, and the revision to the Civil Code enabling judicial authorities to expel a perpetrator from the common domicile for a fixed period of time or to prohibit the perpetrator from approaching or entering into contact with the victim. The Committee remains concerned, however, about the continuing prevalence of violence against women, including domestic violence, and about the absence of a comprehensive national law on violence against women. The Committee also notes the limited number of shelters for victims (18 throughout the territory of the State party) and is concerned that the establishment and funding of shelters and support services for victims are not considered the State party’s responsibility or regulated by either federal or cantonal law. The Committee is also concerned that there are no means, at present, for standardized data collection on violence against women, including on the number of complaints, investigations and prosecutions of cases of violence in all cantons. The Committee notes that such data will be available only in 2010.
28. Recalling its previous concluding observations of 2003, the Committee urges the State party to continue to intensify its efforts to address the issue of violence against women and girls. In particular, the Committee calls upon the State party to enact comprehensive legislation against all forms of violence against women, including domestic violence, as soon as possible. Such legislation should sanction all forms of violence against women and should ensure that women and girls who are victims of violence have access to immediate means of redress and protection and that perpetrators are prosecuted and punished, but should also provide for the establishment of additional support services for victims, including shelters, as well as the provision of government funding for such services. In line with its general recommendation 19, the Committee also calls for the expansion of training activities and programmes for parliamentarians, the judiciary and legal and public officials, in particular law enforcement personnel and health-service providers, in order to ensure that they are sensitized to all forms of violence against women and can provide adequate support to victims. It also recommends the expansion of public awareness-raising campaigns on all forms of violence against women. The Committee requests the State party to standardize data and trends on the prevalence of various forms of violence, as well as on the number of complaints, investigations and prosecutions of cases.
Trafficking and prostitution
29. The Committee welcomes the State party’s stated intention to ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. It also acknowledges other measures taken by the State party to combat trafficking in women and children. Specific reference is made to the adoption of new article 182 of the Penal Code, which criminalizes trafficking for the purposes of sexual or labour exploitation or for organ harvesting, the revision of the Victim Assistance Act, which imposes a requirement on cantons to take into account the specific needs of different categories of victims, in particular victims of human trafficking, as well as the adoption of the new Foreign National Act, which contains provisions allowing victims of trafficking and witnesses to remain in the State party for a period of reflection and for legal proceedings. The Committee, however, is concerned by the continuing prevalence of trafficking in women and girls and by the lack of comprehensive data and research on all aspects of this phenomenon. The Committee is also concerned that specialized counselling and support services for victims of trafficking, as well as cooperation mechanisms, have only been established in a number of cantons with limited or no funding from the Federal Government. Further, the Committee is concerned that legislation granting protection and temporary residency permits to victims is not uniformly or consistently applied by the cantons, and that the granting of such residency permits is normally based on cooperation with the authorities in legal proceedings.
30. The Committee encourages the State party to ensure the quick ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. It urges the State party to strengthen its measures to combat all forms of trafficking in women and children, including through increased international, regional and bilateral cooperation with countries of origin and transit, in line with article 6 of the Convention. In this respect, the Committee urges the State party not only to ensure the prosecution and punishment of trafficking, but also the protection and recovery of victims of trafficking, including through the allocation of adequate resources to existing specialized services and the establishment of additional services in all cantons. The Committee also urges the State party to consider the extension of temporary residency permits and other measures to be in compliance with the Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking developed by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in 2002. The Committee calls upon the State party to collect and analyse data on all aspects of trafficking, disaggregated by age and country of origin, in order to identify trends and root causes, as well as priority areas for action, and to formulate relevant policies. It requests that such information, as well as information on the impact of the measures taken to combat trafficking, be included in the State party’s next periodic report.
31. The Committee is concerned about the situation of cabaret dancers who are particularly vulnerable to forced prostitution and violence, despite the various measures taken by the State party, such as the provision of briefings and informational materials in all consulates and embassies.
32. In the light of their precarious situation, the Committee encourages the State party to continue to regularly review the visa and other regulations for cabaret dancers, and to consider including provisions that would allow women to change to a different sector of work.
Political participation and participation in public life
33. The Committee notes certain measures taken by the State party to increase the representation and participation of women in political and public decision-making, such as a mentoring project for young women and recommendations to media professionals to promote more egalitarian coverage of male and female candidates prior to federal elections. The Committee is, however, concerned that such measures are not taken in a systematic and effective manner. The Committee is also concerned that women continue to be significantly underrepresented, particularly in leadership and decision-making positions, in both elected and appointed positions in public office, in political parties, in the diplomatic service and in the judiciary. The Committee is further concerned that the use of rigid political quotas and quotas for women’s representation in organs of the legislative, executive and judicial branches has been rejected by the Federal Supreme Court.
34. The Committee reiterates its previous concluding observations of 2003 and urges the State party to take sustained legal and other measures, with benchmarks and concrete timetables, to increase the representation of women in elected and appointed positions in public life, in political parties, in the diplomatic service and in the judiciary in line with its general recommendation 23. It recommends that the State party introduce temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation 25 with the aim of achieving balanced representation of women and men. The Committee also urges the State party to increase the availability of training and capacity-building programmes for women wishing to enter or already in public office and to enhance its awareness-raising campaigns on the importance of women’s full and equal participation in political and public life. Also in this regard, the Committee recommends that the State party continue its efforts to encourage the media to ensure that female and male candidates and elected representatives receive equal visibility in the media, especially during election periods.
35. Despite the measures taken by the State party, the Committee notes the persistence of segregation in the field of education, particularly in vocational training and higher education, as well as stereotyped educational choices, with men and boys still predominant in the fields of technology and science. The Committee also notes the low representation of women in decision-making and senior management positions.
36. The Committee encourages the State party to develop measures aimed at the diversification of women’s academic and professional choices, including through awareness-raising, training and counselling programmes. The Committee also encourages the State party to monitor the career development of women in the education system to ensure equal access and prevent hidden or indirect discrimination faced by women.
Employment and economic empowerment
37. The Committee notes the various measures taken by the State party to support the participation of women in the labour market and facilitate the reconciliation of family and work life, including the recent introduction of paid maternity leave and the creation of additional childcare facilities. The Committee notes that the right to equal pay is guaranteed in the Constitution and in the Equality Act of 1995. The Committee, however, remains concerned about the persistence of horizontal and vertical segregation in the labour market, with women concentrated in the lower-paid service sectors, a higher unemployment rate for women, the persistence of the gender pay gap and the continued predominance of women in temporary and part-time work due to their traditional role as caregivers for children and the continued lack of available and affordable childcare services. Also in this regard, the Committee notes that the current federal system of joint taxation for married couples with two incomes, with no deductions possible for childcare costs, is another impediment to women’s participation in the labour market. The Committee is also concerned about the low representation of women in managerial and decision-making positions.
38. The Committee urges the State party to intensify its efforts to ensure equal opportunities for women and men in the labour market, including through the use of temporary special measures, with time-bound targets, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and its general recommendation 25. The Committee recommends that the State party continue to take proactive and concrete measures to eliminate occupational segregation, both horizontal and vertical, through, inter alia, education, training and retraining and effective enforcement mechanisms. It also recommends that job evaluation systems based on gender-sensitive criteria continue to be developed with the aim of narrowing and closing the gender pay gap. Furthermore, the Committee urges the State party to create more opportunities for women to access full-time employment. The Committee recommends that the State party continue its efforts to allow women and men to reconcile family and professional responsibilities and for the promotion of equal sharing of domestic and family tasks between men and women by providing, inter alia, more childcare facilities and paid paternity leave. The Committee also encourages the State party to undertake the planned reform of the current federal taxation system in a timely manner, with a view to eliminating the burden on married couples with two incomes, and to report on progress achieved or, if relevant, on outcome in its next periodic report.
39. The Committee regrets the lack of comprehensive information and statistical data on the situation of rural women in the State party’s report. The Committee is concerned about the situation of rural women working in agriculture and notes that women working on farms owned by their spouses or family members have limited social or economic recognition and often are not paid. In the event of divorce, such women are often not able to recover any personal assets invested in the farm and, as they are not considered to have been employed during marriage, are not able to access unemployment insurance benefits. Furthermore, laws governing inheritance of property often prevent widows from inheriting farms in the event of their husband’s death.
40. The Committee requests the State party to include in its next report a comprehensive assessment, including data, of the situation of rural women, including women farmers. The Committee urges the State party to give full attention to the economic empowerment of rural women, in particular women farmers, and ensure their access to and control over land and their access to credit facilities and training opportunities.
Marriage and family life
41. The Committee is concerned that the State party’s current law on property distribution upon divorce does not adequately address gender-based economic disparities between spouses resulting from traditional work and family-life patterns. These often lead to enhanced human capital and earning potential of men while women may experience the opposite, so that spouses currently do not equitably share in the economic consequences of the marriage and its dissolution, an outcome referred to in the State party as “shortfalls”. The Committee is further concerned that neither existing legislation nor case law address distribution of future earning capacity or human capital so as to redress possible gender-based economic disparities between spouses. The Committee is further concerned that the implementation of the new divorce law concerning offset of employment insurance (art. 122 ff, Civil Code) was not satisfactory from the standpoint of gender equality. The Committee is also further concerned that women living in de facto relationships have no economic rights and protection when such relations dissolve.
42. The Committee calls upon the State party to make use of the findings of the study published in June 2007 by the Federal Commission on Women’s Issues on the effects of the new divorce law, and to accord serious consideration to recommendations issued by the Commission, in order to better redress gender disparities and economic disparities upon divorce. It also calls upon the State party to proceed with the draft bill to ensure that during the decision-making process about maintenance or alimony payments following a divorce or separation, any financial deficit is appropriately distributed among both spouses. The Committee urges the State party to adopt the legal measures necessary to guarantee women living in de facto relationships economic protection equal to married women, in the form of recognizing their rights in the property accumulated during the relationship, in line with its general recommendation 21.
Vulnerable groups of women
43. The Committee is concerned about the situation of vulnerable groups of women, including women of ethnic and minority communities and migrant women, who may be more vulnerable to poverty and violence and are at risk of multiple forms of discrimination with respect to education, health, social and political participation and employment, including as a result of the non-recognition of foreign university degrees and diplomas. The Committee is also concerned about the difference in treatment of migrant women from countries in the European Union or from the United States of America and Canada as compared with women from other parts of the world. Additionally, the Committee is concerned that requirements under the new Foreign National Act, such as proof of integration after at least three years of marriage or of difficulties in social integration in the country of origin, may pose difficulties for victims of violence to acquire or renew residency permits and may continue to prevent victims from leaving abusive relationships and from seeking assistance.
44. The Committee calls upon the State party to take effective measures to eliminate discrimination against women of ethnic and minority communities and migrant women, irrespective of country of origin, both in society at large and within their communities. It also calls upon the State party to be proactive in its measures, including through the development of targeted programmes and strategies, to increase women’s awareness of and access to education, health and social services, training and employment, as well as to familiarize them with their rights to gender equality and non-discrimination. The Committee further calls upon the State party to collect data and conduct regular and comprehensive studies on the situation of such women and to provide such information in its next report. Additionally, the Committee urges the State party to keep under review and carefully monitor the impact of its laws and policies on women of ethnic and minority communities and on migrant women, with a view to taking remedial measures that effectively respond to the needs of those women.
National human rights institution
45. The Committee notes that the State party, as a follow-up to its voluntary commitment made in the context of its universal periodic review by the Human Rights Council, is considering the establishment of a national human rights institution in accordance with the Paris Principles. The Committee also notes that a five-year pilot initiative on the establishment of human rights networks and consultation processes is currently under way, following which a decision may be taken on the proposal.
46. The Committee requests more detailed information on the implementation and outcome of the pilot initiative and on progress made towards the establishment of a national human rights institution, to be included in the next periodic report.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
47. The Committee urges the State party to utilize fully, in the implementation of its obligations under the Convention, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, which reinforce the provisions of the Convention, and requests the State party to include information thereon in its next periodic report.
Millennium Development Goals
48. The Committee also emphasizes that full and effective implementation of the Convention is indispensable for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It calls for the integration of a gender perspective and explicit reflection of the provisions of the Convention in all efforts aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and requests the State party to include information thereon in its next periodic report.
Ratification of treaties
49. The Committee notes that adherence to the nine major international human rights instruments by States enhances the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. Therefore, the Committee encourages the Government of Switzerland to ratify the treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
Dissemination of concluding observations
50. The Committee requests the wide dissemination in Switzerland of the present concluding observations in order to make the people, including government officials, politicians, parliamentarians and women’s and human rights organizations, aware of the measures that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality of women, as well as of the further steps that are required in this regard. It requests the State party to continue to strengthen the dissemination, in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, of the Convention and its Optional Protocol, the general recommendations of the Committee, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.
51. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 28 and 44 above.
Date of next report
52. The Committee requests the State party to respond to the concerns expressed in the present concluding observations in its next periodic report under article 18 of the Convention. The Committee invites the State party to submit its fourth periodic report, which was due in April 2010, and its fifth periodic report, which is due in April 2014, in a combined report in 2014.
 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.