United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women - Concluding Observations
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
18 January-5 February 2010
Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
United Arab Emirates
The Committee considered the initial report of the United Arab Emirates (CEDAW/C/ARE/1) at its 914th and 915th meetings, on 26 January 2010 (see CEDAW/C/SR.914 and 915). The Committee’s list of issues and questions are contained in CEDAW/C/ARE/Q/1 and the responses of the United Arab Emirates are contained in CEDAW/C/ARE/Q/1/Add.1.
1. The Committee expresses its appreciation for the initial report of the State party, although it does not fully comply with the Committee’s guidelines for the preparation of initial reports, lacks references to the Committee’s general recommendations, as well as some statistical data, and was overdue. The Committee also welcomes the State party’s written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by its pre-session working group and the oral presentation and responses to the questions posed by the Committee, which together provided further insights into the situation of women in the State party and the implementation of the rights contained in the Convention.
2. The Committee commends the State party on its large, high-ranking delegation headed by a Minister of State and including representatives from the judiciary, various ministries and social support centres, which provided additional oral information and enabled a frank, open and constructive dialogue with the Committee.
3. The Committee notes the reservations made by the State party to articles 2, subparagraph f; 9; 15, paragraph 2, and 16 of the Convention.
4. The Committee commends the State party for the high standard of basic social services for its citizens, especially the provision of Government-funded educational and health-care services, including maternal and child health services.
5. The Committee notes with appreciation the measures taken by the State party to address the issue of human trafficking and, in that respect, welcomes Federal Act No. 51 (2006) on the suppression of human trafficking and the ratification of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (the Palermo Protocol).
6. The Committee welcomes the various initiatives taken by the State party to encourage the participation of women in all economic areas and in particular in the business sector, such as the establishment of councils of businesswomen and the creation of a businesswomen award.
7. The Committee notes that the State party is considering accession to the Optional Protocol to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
Principal areas of concern and recommendations
8. While recalling the State party’s obligation to systematically and continuously implement all the provisions of the Convention, the Committee views the concerns and recommendations identified in the present concluding observations as requiring the priority attention of the State party between now and the submission of the next periodic report. Consequently, the Committee calls upon the State party to focus on those areas in its implementation activities and to report on action taken and results achieved in its next periodic report. It also calls upon the State party to submit the present concluding observations to all relevant ministries, the Federal National Council and the Federal Judiciary, in order to ensure their effective implementation.
9. The Committee notes the particular challenges faced by the State party in respect of social integration and implementation of gender equality policies owing to the fact that non-nationals constitute the vast majority of the population, which has a direct impact on the application of all aspects of the Convention.
10. The Committee recommends that the State party duly take into account in its gender equality policies the contribution of migrant workers to national development, in particular women migrant workers, with a view to enabling the State party to better comply with the provisions of the Convention.
Federal National Council
11. While reaffirming that the Government has the primary responsibility and is particularly accountable for the full implementation of the State party’s obligations under the Convention, the Committee stresses that the Convention is binding on all branches of Government and it invites the State party to encourage its Federal National Council, in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the necessary steps with regard to the implementation of these concluding observations and the Government’s next reporting process under the Convention.
Legal status of the Convention
12. While noting the State party’s assurances that once an international convention has been published in the Official Gazette it has the force of law and takes precedence over domestic law, the Committee remains concerned that the status of international instruments, including the Convention, vis-à-vis domestic law is unclear. The Committee further regrets the lack of information on cases where the provisions of the Convention have been directly invoked in national courts. The Committee is also concerned about the general lack of visibility and dissemination of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendations.
13. The Committee recommends that the State party clarify the status of the Convention in its domestic legal order, and ensure the precedence of its provisions over national laws in case of conflict between the Convention and national legislation. The State party should also ensure that its national laws are in conformity with the provisions of the Convention. The Committee further recommends that the State party disseminate the Convention and its general recommendations widely among all stakeholders, including Government ministries, parliamentarians, the judiciary, the police and law enforcement officers, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and the general public.
Definition of non-discrimination
14. While noting that article 25 of the Constitution of the State party provides for equality before the law regardless of race, nationality, religious belief or social status, the Committee regrets that the Constitution and other domestic legislation do not embody the principle of equality between women and men nor contain a definition of discrimination against women in accordance with article 1 of the Convention.
15. The Committee calls upon the State party to fully incorporate into the Constitution or other appropriate domestic legislation the principle of equality between women and men in accordance with article 2 (a) of the Convention, as well as a definition of discrimination on the basis of sex in line with article 1 of the Convention, and extend State responsibility for acts of discrimination by public and private actors in accordance with article 2 (e) of the Convention, with a view to achieving formal and substantive equality between women and men.
16. The Committee takes note of the advancement of women and the State party’s support to the enjoyment of women’s rights, as well as the explanations provided concerning its reservations to article 2, subparagraph f, article 9, article 15, subparagraph 2, and article 16. The Committee is of the opinion that these articles are central to the object and purpose of the Convention and that the reservations impact negatively on the enjoyment by women of their rights. The Committee is concerned that no process of review of these reservations has taken place so far.
17. The Committee strongly encourages the State party to consider narrowing its reservations to the Convention, with a view to their complete withdrawal so as to ensure that women fully benefit from all the rights enshrined in the Convention. In that regard, it draws the attention of the State party to the Committee’s statement on reservations in its report on its nineteenth session and, in particular, its view that articles 2 and 16 are central to the object and purpose of the Convention and that, in accordance with article 28, paragraph 2, reservations to these articles should be withdrawn.
National machinery for the advancement of women
18. The Committee expresses its appreciation for the active role of the General Women’s Union and its involvement with all Government bodies, as well as the activities of the more than 20 other women’s and public welfare associations and institutions in the State party. Nevertheless, the Committee regrets the lack of information on the mandates and financial and human resources of such institutions and associations and is concerned about the absence of an institutional and legal framework to implement the provisions of the Convention.
19. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen the mandate and expand the resources of the General Women’s Union to effectively implement the advancement of women and to monitor the practical realization of the principle of formal and substantive equality of women and men in the enjoyment of human rights across all fields. Further, it requests the State party to take into account the Committee’s general recommendation No. 6 and provide in its next report detailed information on the national machinery, the central coordinating body and potential sectorial units, including their authority, functions, powers and resources.
20. The Committee commends the various human rights awareness campaigns launched by the State party, including the human rights strategy of the Dubai Community Development Authority. It takes into account the commitment made by the State party in the framework of the universal periodic review mechanism and in the dialogue with the Committee, to consider the establishment of a national human rights institution in accordance with the Paris Principles. The Committee regrets that such an institution does not yet exist and is concerned about the lack of a comprehensive and effective complaints mechanism, accessible especially to women, including migrant women workers. It further regrets the lack of data on complaints filed with the existing mechanisms and their outcome.
21. The Committee encourages the State party to establish promptly a legal complaints mechanism, as well as an independent national human rights institution, in compliance with the Paris Principles, with sufficient resources, a broad human rights mandate and a specific mandate on gender equality. It further urges the State party to ensure that the composition and activities of the national human rights institution are gender-sensitive and fully address women’s human rights.
Temporary special measures (article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention)
22. The Committee is concerned that the State party’s understanding of the purpose of, and need for, temporary special measures is not in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and its general recommendation No. 25. It is concerned that no strategy of temporary special measures is in place to accelerate the achievement of de facto or substantive equality between men and women, in particular with regard to the participation of women, including women belonging to the majority migrant population.
23. The Committee urges the State party to familiarize relevant officials with the concept of temporary special measures described in article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention, as interpreted in the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25. It recommends that the State party include in its legislation specific provisions on the application of temporary special measures that encourage their use both in the public and private sectors. It also recommends that it implement temporary special measures in areas where women are underrepresented or disadvantaged, including decision-making bodies and law enforcement agencies, allocating adequate resources to accelerate the advancement of women, including women belonging to the majority migrant population.
Stereotypes and cultural practices
24. While recognizing the State party’s efforts to promote a change in the stereotypical roles of women, and noting the active participation of women of the United Arab Emirates in the private sector as businesswomen, the Committee is concerned by the State party’s socially defined roles for women and men based on patriarchy. In particular, the Committee expresses its concern about the focus given to the role of women as mothers as the only role and about girls and women as portrayed in school curricula and in the media.
25. The Committee urges the State party to adopt a national strategic plan aimed at bringing about a change in the widely accepted stereotypical roles of women and men, by promoting equal sharing of family responsibilities and the equal status and responsibilities of women and men in the private and public spheres. The Committee recommends to the State party that it enhance the training of teaching staff in regard to gender equality issues and its revision of school curricula to eliminate gender-role stereotypes. The Committee recommends that awareness-raising campaigns be addressed to both women and men and that the media be encouraged to project a positive image of women.
Violence against women
26. The Committee takes note of the State party’s initiatives to protect women from violence, including domestic violence, and appreciates the existence of shelters, support centres, counselling services and hotlines for women who are victims of violence. Nevertheless, the Committee regrets the absence of a specific law on violence against women, especially domestic violence, providing for remedies. It also regrets the lack of adequate statistics, research and documentation on the incidence of violence against women and that women victims are generally reluctant to report cases of violence. While noting the existing draft legislation on domestic workers, the Committee is deeply concerned about the lack of protection of female migrant workers, especially domestic workers, when reporting cases of violence against them that may lead to them being treated as offenders, or accused of a crime or deported.
27. The Committee urges the State party to give high priority to comprehensive measures to address all forms of violence against women and girls. It calls upon the State party to enact legislation on violence against women, including domestic violence, to ensure that it is a criminal offence. The State party should also strengthen recourse procedures so that all women and girls, including female migrant workers, who are victims of violence have access to immediate means of redress; provide shelter and rehabilitation to victims; ensure that perpetrators are prosecuted and adequately punished; and undertake nationwide educational and awareness-raising measures.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
28. While commending the State party’s efforts to combat trafficking in women and girls, including the establishment of the National Committee for the Suppression of Human Trafficking and the national plan to combat trafficking, the Committee remains seriously concerned at the persistence of trafficking in women and girls into the State party for the purposes of economic and sexual exploitation. The Committee also regrets the lack of statistical data on women who are being trafficked in and out of the country. It is also concerned at the limited protection of victims and regrets that the only shelter in Dubai providing such protection from 2001 to 2008 has been closed.
29. The Committee urges the State party to implement fully article 6 of the Convention including by effectively implementing the recently adopted law on human trafficking and introducing and implementing a strategy that includes measures of prevention, prosecution and punishment of offenders, as well as protection, rehabilitation and reintegration of victims. It further calls upon the State party to increase its prevention efforts through international, regional and bilateral cooperation with countries of origin, transit and destination and involvement of non-governmental organizations to prevent trafficking through information exchange, as well as to provide assistance and support to victims of human trafficking using the Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (E/2002/68/Add.1). The Committee requests that the State party carefully monitor the impact of measures taken and provide information on the results achieved, as well as disaggregated statistical data in its next periodic report.
Political participation and participation in public life
30. The Committee appreciates the States party’s acknowledgement that customs and traditions of society are gradually changing towards creating larger space for women’s participation in public and political life and notes the first electoral experience held in the State party’s Federal National Council (2006) for men and women members of the electoral committee, resulting in the election of one woman and the appointment of eight others. Nevertheless, and in spite of the State party’s initiatives to encourage participation in leadership positions, the Committee regrets that women continue to be underrepresented in public and political life and in decision-making positions. Furthermore, while recognizing the important activities of a number of women’s and social welfare organizations and public interest associations in the country, the Committee is concerned about the absence of a robust civil society, including autonomous and active women’s and human rights organizations, and notes the difficulties that exist for the registration of these associations, which play an essential role for the effective implementation of the Convention and the achievement of gender equality.
31. The Committee urges the State party to do its utmost to ensure the equal participation of women in public affairs, including temporary special measures under article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and in accordance with the Committee’s general recommendations Nos. 23 and 25, and to establish concrete targets to accelerate the increase of women’s political representation, with the use of time frames or increased quotas. It also recommends that the State party continue to undertake awareness-raising campaigns about the importance of women’s participation in decision-making at all levels. The Committee calls upon the State party to take concrete steps, including through legal amendments, to create and ensure an enabling environment in which civil society and women’s groups focused on gender equality and women’s empowerment can be established and can freely conduct their programmes and activities.
32. The Committee takes note of the State party’s preparation of a bill for amendment of the Nationality and Passports Law, the studies undertaken with regard to the transfer of nationality by a woman of the United Arab Emirates married to a non-national to her children or foreign husband, and studies on other countries’ naturalization standards and experience. However, the Committee remains concerned that, to date, women of the United Arab Emirates continue to be denied nationality and citizenship rights that are equal to those guaranteed to men and regrets the insufficient availability of information in this regard. Moreover, while commending the steps taken by the State party to grant citizenship to a certain number of Bidoons in 2007, the Committee remains concerned about the discrimination suffered by stateless women and girls and the slow regularization process. The Committee also regrets the lack of statistical data on this subject.
33. The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary steps to expedite the adoption of the amendment of the Nationality and Passports Law to grant women equal rights with regard to acquisition, change and retention of nationality and its conferral. The Committee also calls upon the State party to withdraw its reservation to article 9 of the Convention. Further, it recommends that the State party consider accession to international instruments to address the situation of stateless persons, including the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, and requests updated information on the situation of stateless women.
34. While commending the State party for the high levels of education attained by its citizens and noting the information provided that public education is free and available to all who live in the State party, the Committee regrets the lack of sufficient information and statistical data regarding the levels of education and access to education services by women and girls from rural areas, as well as by nonnationals of the United Arab Emirates. While welcoming the fact that private schools for non-nationals are allowed and supported by the State party, it is concerned that access to the public education system by most children of foreigners is limited, owing to practical impediments. The Committee is also concerned by the lack of information on girls’ dropout ages during the first and secondary stages of education.
35. The Committee recommends that the State party continue to raise awareness of the importance of universal and equitable access to education for the empowerment of women in the State party. It requests the State party to provide detailed information in its next report, and in particular, sex- and age-disaggregated statistics on education of women and girls, including those from rural areas, minorities, and non-citizens, as well as providing net enrolment rates in different stages of education.
Employment and freedom of association
36. While noting with satisfaction the ratification by the State party of several International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions concerning equality, the increase in women’s participation in the labour force and the State party’s support to enlarge the number of women employed in the public sector, the Committee regrets the State party’s prohibition on forming employee welfare associations and that the principle of equal pay for work of equal value does not exist. While welcoming information regarding labour laws in the interest of women, the amendment of Federal Labour Law No. 8 (1980) to include temporary contractual workers, particularly women migrant workers, and to safeguard their rights, the draft law on service assistance and the unified contract for migrant domestic workers (2007), the Committee regrets that the State party’s protective legislation may be discriminatory to women. Furthermore, it notes with concern that women represent only 13 per cent of the total national workforce and that the number of female nationals lags far behind women migrants working in the State party. The Committee is concerned that women migrant workers are not aware of their rights, do not have easy access to justice and do not gain redress in cases of abuse, and that the kafala system and the fact that employers of migrant domestic workers often confiscate their passports make these workers particularly vulnerable to mistreatment and abuse by their employers. In this regard, the Committee notes with concern that a woman victim of harassment in the workplace is offered no other remedy than to resign and leave her employer. The Committee also expresses concern with regard to the rights of the children of women migrant workers, especially in relation to residency and access to health services and education, and regrets the insufficient information and statistical data provided by the State party on their status and access to justice and basic services.
37. The Committee urges the State party to strengthen the legal protection of foreign workers by adopting legislation and policies aimed at preventing abuses related to, inter alia, non-payment of wages and overtime, arbitrary reduction of wages and working hours, and to prosecute offenders, both recruiters and employers, and at raising awareness of workers’ rights and ensuring their access to legal aid and complaint mechanisms. The Committee also urges the State party to guarantee equal application of all labour laws to women and men regardless of their nationality. It calls upon the State party to expedite the adoption of the amendment to Federal Labour Law No. 8 and ensure that migrant workers are also covered by the provisions of the draft legislation under preparation and, in that regard, invites the State party to take into consideration the Committee’s general recommendation No. 26. The Committee urges the State party to guarantee all workers, including especially female workers, the fundamental principle of freedom of association and to provide equal remuneration for work of equal value, and recommends that it become a party to ILO Conventions No. 87 and No. 98.
38. The Committee requests the State party to provide in its next report statistical data and information on the situation of women in employment, including incidents of harassment at work, in particular domestic workers, with regard to their enjoyment of the rights established by the Convention.
39. The Committee commends the State party for the high quality of health services for its citizens and appreciates the information related to pregnancy care. Nevertheless, the Committee regrets the lack of sex- and age-disaggregated statistics and indicators with regard to access to health services by women and girls in rural areas and non-nationals of the United Arab Emirates, the situation of elderly women, mental health, as well as information on reproductive health and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS.
40. The Committee requests additional sex- and age-disaggregated information on the situation of women’s health and the preventive and treatment measures available. It recommends that special attention be paid to the health needs of women from rural areas and non-nationals of the United Arab Emirates. The Committee also recommends that the State party undertake systematic awareness-raising programmes among all women on the importance of regular medical examination to facilitate early detection of disease and to pay special attention to reproductive health. The Committee calls upon the State party to take account of its general recommendation No. 24.
41. While noting with appreciation the State party’s efforts to address the development of rural areas, including through its national strategic plan and the establishment of a ministerial committee in this regard, the Committee regrets the lack of data and information on the situation of women in rural areas, in particular in the eastern United Arab Emirates and border areas.
42. The Committee requests that the State party provide information in its next report on the resources allocated for the implementation of programmes for the development of rural areas, and the benefit of women in particular, as well as the impact of such programmes on women’s equality and well-being in all aspects of life, inter alia, work, health, housing, education and participation in development planning in rural areas.
Other areas of economic and social life
43. While commending the efforts of the State party to promote the role of women in business, the Committee notes the lack of information on the number of women who have benefited from loans and other forms of credit and notes the difficulty posed by the fact that credit is only available to women who have land registered in their name. The Committee is further concerned by the impact that the financial crisis may have on the basic social services and credits provided to women and on their employment.
44. The Committee calls on the State party to implement measures to encourage and support the entrepreneurship of all women, including through training opportunities and access to credit. It calls on the State party to provide in its next report detailed information about the situation of women in the areas of economic life and employment and measures taken to mitigate the impact of the financial crisis on opportunities for women.
Equality before the law
45. The Committee notes with satisfaction the State party’s reference to the gradual, greater flexibility in sharia interpretation, such as the presence of a woman judge and the debates on the interpretation of sharia beginning to take place in relation to equality before the law and access to justice for women. It is also encouraged by the State party’s ongoing comparative research on Arab and Islamic countries and the withdrawal of reservations to articles 15 and 16 of the Convention. Nevertheless, the Committee expresses concern about the fact that women in the State party continue to have unequal legal capacity compared with men and are treated unequally in courts, and with regard to freedom of movement.
46. The Committee urges the State party to abolish all discriminatory provisions on women’s freedom of movement. It recommends that the State party review their reservation to article 15, paragraph 2, taking into consideration the experiences of countries with similar religious backgrounds and legal systems that have successfully accommodated domestic legislation to commitments emanating from international legally binding instruments, with a view to its withdrawal of the reservation.
Women in marriage and family life
47. The Committee notes with concern that the legal provisions relating to personal status, including marriage and its dissolution, property relations, custody and inheritance, in particular under the Personal Status Act, and the acceptance of male guardianship and dowry do not provide for equal rights of women and men and that polygamy is a direct infringement of women’s rights. The Committee further notes with concern the State party’s reservation to article 16 of the Convention, which relates to these matters.
48. The Committee calls upon the State party to withdraw its reservation to article 16 of the Convention and to introduce legislative reforms to provide women with equal rights in marriage, divorce, property relations, the custody of children and inheritance. It calls upon the State party to end the practices of dowry and polygamy, in accordance with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 21.
Data collection and analysis
49. While recognizing the sex-disaggregated data included in the State party’s report in key areas such as education, reflecting equal representation in important fields like the study of medicine and in different stages of education, the Committee regrets that the State party’s report did not provide sufficient statistical data disaggregated by sex on all areas covered by the Convention or information on the impact and results of measures taken to achieve equality between women and men, thereby making it difficult for the Committee to assess progress in the implementation of the Convention in the State party.
50. The Committee requests that the State party include in its next report more detailed statistical data and analysis on the situation of women, disaggregated by sex, age, rural and urban areas, and including information on non-nationals of the United Arab Emirates residing in the State party. The Committee also requests the State party to include information on the impact of measures taken to implement the Convention and the results achieved in the practical realization of women’s substantive equality.
Follow-up to the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
51. The Committee urges the State party to utilize fully, in the implementation of its obligations under the Convention, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, which reinforce the provisions of the Convention, and requests the State party to include information thereon in its next periodic report.
The Millennium Development Goals
52. The Committee also emphasizes that full and effective implementation of the Convention is indispensable for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It calls for the integration of a gender perspective and explicit reflection of the provisions of the Convention in all efforts aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and requests the State party to include information thereon in its next periodic report.
Ratification of other treaties
53. The Committee notes that States’ adherence to the nine major international human rights instruments enhances the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. Therefore, the Committee encourages the Government of the United Arab Emirates to ratify the treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
Dissemination of concluding observations
54. The Committee requests the wide dissemination in the United Arab Emirates of the present concluding observations in order to make the people, including Government officials at the national and local levels, politicians, parliamentarians and women’s and human rights organizations, aware of the measures that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality of women, as well as the further steps that are required in this regard. It requests the State party to continue to strengthen the dissemination, in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, of the Convention, the Committee’s general recommendations, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.
Optional Protocol and article 20, paragraph 1
55. The Committee encourages the State party to sign and ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention and to accept, as soon as possible, the amendment to article 20, paragraph 1, of the Convention, concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
56. The Committee encourages the State party to enhance collaboration and coordination with civil society organizations, in particular women’s and human rights organizations, to strengthen implementation of the provisions of the Convention, and to engage in consultations with such organizations when preparing its next report.
Follow-up to concluding observations
57. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 27 and 37. The Committee also requests the State party to consider seeking technical cooperation and assistance, including advisory services, if necessary and when appropriate for implementation of the above recommendations.
Date of next report and reporting guidelines
58. The Committee requests the State party to respond to the concerns expressed in the present concluding observations in its next periodic report under article 18 of the Convention. The Committee invites the State party to submit its next periodic report in February 2014.
59. The Committee invites the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents, approved at the fifth inter-committee meeting of the human rights treaty bodies, in June 2006 (HRI/MC/2006/3 and Corr.1). The treaty-specific reporting guidelines adopted by the Committee at its fortieth session, in January 2008, must be applied in conjunction with the harmonized reporting guidelines on a common core document. Together, they constitute the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The treaty-specific document should be limited to 40 pages, while the updated common core document should not exceed 60-80 pages.
 Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-third Session, Supplement No. 38 (A/53/38/Rev.1), part two, chap. I.
 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.