United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women - Concluding Observations
Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women
11-29 July 2011
Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
1. The Committee considered the combined fourth and fifth report of Nepal (CEDAW/C/NPL/4-5) at its 989th and 990th meetings, on 20 July 2011 (see CEDAW/C/SR.989 and 990). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/NPL/Q/4-5 and the responses of Nepal are contained in CEDAW/C/NPL/Q/4-5/Add.1.
2. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its combined fourth and fifth periodic report. The report generally followed the Committee’s guidelines for the preparation of reports, with references to the previous concluding observations. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its oral presentation, written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the Committee’s pre-session working group and further clarification in response to the questions posed orally by the Committee.
3. The Committee commends the State party for its multisectoral delegation headed by the Permanent Representative of Nepal to the United Nations in New York, which included representatives from various Government ministries and departments. However, the Committee regrets the absence of the Minister for Women, Children and Social Welfare, who is at the highest level of decision-making in the area of women’s empowerment. The Committee appreciates the constructive dialogue between the delegation and the members of the Committee, while noting that answers to some questions were vague and some questions were left unanswered.
4. The Committee welcomes the adoption and implementation, since the consideration of the last report (CEDAW/C/NPL/2-3) in 2004, of several legislative measures aimed at the promotion of gender equality and the elimination of discrimination against women and at the achievement of compliance with the obligations under the Convention. The Committee welcomes, in particular, the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007; the five-year strategic plan of the National Women’s Commission (2009-2014); the Domestic Violence (Crime and Punishment) Act, 2009; the Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act, 2007; the National Women’s Commission Act, 2007; and the Gender Equality Act, 2006. The Committee notes with appreciation the Supreme Court decision of 21 December 2007 (2064-9-6).
5. The Committee notes with satisfaction that the State party has adopted a number of policies, programmes and plans of action to promote gender equality and eliminate discrimination against women, such as the national plan of action for the implementation of the Convention, in 2004; the Women Development’s Programme; the national plan of action against trafficking in children and women for sexual and labour exploitation; the safe delivery incentive programme (Aama programme) for free delivery services; and the interim plan (2008-2011) for the social rehabilitation of conflict-affected and displaced women and the active participation of women in the peace process.
6. The Committee also notes with satisfaction that, since the consideration of the previous report, the State party has ratified or acceded to the following international instruments: the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, in 2007; the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, in 2007; the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, in 2006; the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol, in 2010; the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, in 2006, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the Convention, in 2008; and the South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution, in 2007.
Principal areas of concern and recommendations
7. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement all the provisions of the Convention and views the concerns and recommendations identified in the present concluding observations as requiring the priority attention of the State party between now and the submission of the next periodic report. Consequently, the Committee urges the State party to focus on those areas in its implementation activities and to report on actions taken and results achieved in its next periodic report. The Committee calls upon the State party to submit the present concluding observations to all relevant ministries, the Constituent Assembly and the judiciary, in order to ensure their full implementation.
8. While reaffirming that the Government has the primary responsibility and is particularly accountable for the full implementation of the obligations of the State party under the Convention, the Committee stresses that the Convention is binding on all branches of Government and invites the State party to encourage the Constituent Assembly/Parliament, in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the necessary steps with regard to the implementation of the present concluding observations and the Government’s next reporting process under the Convention. The Committee also recommends that the Constituent Assembly take into account the provisions of the Convention and the recommendations of the Committee when drafting the new Constitution.
Definition of equality and non-discrimination
9. While noting that the Interim Constitution states that “no woman shall be discriminated against in any way on the basis of gender”, the Committee is concerned that the Constitution does not embody the principle of equality between women and men and does not prohibit discrimination against women in line with article 1 of the Convention, which covers both direct and indirect discrimination, article 2 (e), which covers acts of both public and private actors, and general recommendation No. 28 of the Committee.
10. The Committee urges the State party to include in the new Constitution the principle of equality between women and men, provisions prohibiting discrimination against women, in line with the definition contained in article 1 of the Convention, and a definition of discrimination that encompasses both direct and indirect discrimination and discrimination in the public and private spheres, in accordance with article 2 (e) and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 28.
11. The Committee notes with appreciation the efforts of the State party to review and revise discriminatory legislation, including in the Interim Constitution and in the 2006 Gender Equality Act which revised discriminatory provisions in the areas of property, marital rape and the age of marriage. However, the Committee remains concerned about the persistence of a significant number of discriminatory laws and provisions.
12. The Committee calls upon the State party to repeal all the remaining discriminatory laws and provisions and to ensure that the new Constitution does not contain any discriminatory provisions.
National machinery for the advancement of women
13. While welcoming the coordinating and gender mainstreaming role of the Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare, the Committee is concerned about the limited short-term progress in women’s rights.
14. In accordance with its general recommendation No. 6 and the guidance provided in the Beijing Platform for Action, the Committee calls upon the State party to provide the national machinery for the empowerment of women at the central and local levels with the necessary human, financial and technical resources for their effective functioning in all areas of women’s empowerment. It also calls upon the State party to strengthen its monitoring mechanisms for the implementation of laws and plans of actions aimed at achieving de facto equality between women and men, and to further the development of a comprehensive gender indicator system, with a view to improving the collection of sex-disaggregated data as a means of assessing the impact and effectiveness of policies and programmes aimed at mainstreaming gender equality and enhancing women’s enjoyment of their human rights.
Temporary special measures
15. The Committee welcomes the measures ensuring the presence of 33 per cent of women in the Constituent Assembly, the special gender-inclusive measures in the recruitment process in public service, the economic empowerment programmes for women and the measures increasing women’s access to land. It also notes with appreciation that the State party acknowledges the need for additional temporary special measures to reach de facto equality. However, the Committee is concerned that temporary special measures in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 are not systematically applied as a necessary strategy to accelerate the achievement of de facto or substantive equality between men and women, in particular women facing multiple forms of discrimination, in all areas of the Convention, including health, employment, education, housing, land ownership and public life.
16. The Committee encourages the State party to:
(a) Adopt temporary special measures to accelerate the advancement of women in areas in which women, in particular those facing multiple forms of discrimination, are underrepresented or disadvantaged, including in political representation, Government administration and the judiciary, and access to health, education, employment, housing and land ownership;
(b) Include in its legislation specific provisions on the adoption of temporary special measures that encourage their use in both the public and private sectors.
Stereotypes and harmful traditional practices
17. The Committee is concerned that patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes that discriminate against women remain entrenched in the social, cultural, religious, economic and political institutions and structures of Nepalese society and in the media. It is also concerned about the persistence of harmful traditional practices in the State party, such as child marriage, the dowry system, son preference, polygamy, widows accused of witchcraft, and such practices as chaupadi, jhuma, deuki and dhan-khaane.
18. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Put in place without delay a comprehensive strategy, with concrete goals and timetables, to eliminate patriarchal attitudes and stereotypes that discriminate against women, in accordance with articles 2 (f) and 5 (a) of the Convention;
(b) Strengthen its awareness-raising and educational efforts, targeted at both women and men, with the involvement of civil society and community and religious leaders, to eliminate harmful traditional practices, and collaborate with the media to enhance a positive, non-stereotypical and non-discriminatory portrayal of women;
(c) Promptly enact the draft law on harmful social practices; ensure that it covers all forms of such practices; ensure full implementation of the law without delay; and monitor its effective implementation.
Violence against women
19. The Committee welcomes the enactment of the Domestic Violence Act, 2009 and the launch of a national plan of action on gender-based violence. However, it is concerned about the continued prevalence of violence against women and girls, including domestic violence, in particular against disadvantaged groups of women such as Dalit women. The Committee is concerned that most of the incidents are undocumented and have not been addressed. It is further concerned about the lack of statistical data on violence against women, including sexual violence and domestic violence; the existence of a statute of limitation’s on the registration of sexual violence cases; and the weak penalty for marital rape.
20. The Committee urges the State party to give priority attention to combating violence against women and girls and to adopt comprehensive measures to address such violence, in accordance with its general recommendation No. 19. To this end, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Ensure the effective implementation of the Domestic Violence Act, 2009 and other existing legislation and the proper prosecution and punishment of perpetrators of such violence;
(b) Develop a nationwide data collection programme on cases of violence against women;
(c) Take immediate measures to abolish the statute of limitations on the registration of sexual violence cases, to ensure women’s effective access to courts for the crime of rape and other sexual offences;
(d) Continue to provide the police, public prosecutors, the judiciary and other relevant Government bodies, as well as health-care providers, with the necessary training in domestic and sexual violence and undertake wider awareness-raising programmes in all communities, including the Dalit community, specifically targeting men and boys;
(e) Adopt and enact without delay the draft law, currently under preparation, which significantly increases the punishment for marital rape, as mentioned during the dialogue, and undertake an awareness-raising campaign on the new provisions in this regard.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
21. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the national plan of action against trafficking in children and women for sexual and labour exploitation. However, it is concerned about the lack of specific data on trafficking in women and girls, the lack of effective implementation of the Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act, 2007, the persistence of sexual exploitation, in particular among the Dalit community, and the persistence of the root causes of trafficking and prostitution, including poverty.
22. The Committee urges the State party to fully implement article 6 of the Convention by:
(a) Collecting and analysing data on all aspects of trafficking and prostitution, disaggregated by age, sex and country of origin, in order to identify trends;
(b) Implementing the Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act, 2007 to ensure that perpetrators are punished and victims adequately protected, assisted and provided with shelters;
(c) Strengthening preventive measures aimed at improving the economic situation of girls and women, gainful employment and other resources to eliminate their vulnerability to traffickers;
(d) Strengthening its efforts to cooperate, at the international, regional and bilateral levels, with countries of origin and transit in order to address the causes of trafficking more effectively and improve the prevention of trafficking through information exchange;
(e) Ensuring the effective implementation of the SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution;
(f) Ratifying the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime;
(g) Providing information and training with respect to the antitrafficking legislation to the judiciary, law enforcement officials, including immigration and border police, and social workers in all parts of the country, and undertaking awareness-raising campaigns among the population.
Participation in political and public life
23. The Committee welcomes the 33 per cent representation of women in the Constituent Assembly. However, it is deeply concerned about the extremely low representation of women, in particular Dalit and indigenous women, in high-level decision-making positions, public service, the judiciary and the diplomatic service; in the National Human Rights Commission; and at the local level.
24. The Committee recommends that:
(a) The quota system for women’s representation in the Constituent Assembly be increased in the future Parliament;
(b) The State party fully utilize the Committee’s general recommendation No. 23 and adopt temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25, in order to accelerate the full and equal participation of women in public and political life. To this end, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(i) Establish concrete goals and timetables in order to accelerate the increase in the representation of women, including Dalit and indigenous women, in elected and appointed bodies in all areas of public life from the local level, including the Village Development Committee, to the national and diplomatic levels;
(ii) Implement awareness-raising activities on the importance of the participation of women in decision-making for society as a whole, and develop targeted training and mentoring programmes for women candidates and women elected to public office, and programmes on leadership and negotiation skills for current and future women leaders.
25. While noting the State party’s explanation that women are not subjected to discrimination in access to citizenship, the Committee remains deeply concerned about obstacles affecting women who wish to transfer citizenship to their children and foreign husband and married women who wish to obtain citizenship certificates and about the persistence of the underlying conditions obstructing access to citizenship, including poverty, geographic isolation and onerous administrative requirements.
26. The Committee strongly urges the State party to:
(a) Ensure that the new Constitution provides for equal and full citizenship rights for women, including the right to transfer citizenship to their children and foreign husband;
(b) Implement training programmes for Government officials at all levels on legal provisions relating to the transfer of citizenship;
(c) Conduct a second comprehensive national campaign to issue citizenship certificates, taking into account the difficulties faced by women in securing proof of nationality;
(d) Accede to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness;
(e) Ensure that children born in the territory of Nepal who would otherwise be stateless be granted Nepalese citizenship.
27. While welcoming the overall increase in gender parity in primary and secondary education, the Committee is concerned about the minimal increase in female enrolment, the extremely high drop-out rate for girls, the urban/rural disparities in access to education and illiteracy rates, and the low literacy rate for female adults. The Committee is further concerned about the extremely low number of female teachers at all levels of education.
28. The Committee urges the State party to enhance its compliance with article 10 of the Convention and to raise awareness of the importance of education as a human right and as the basis for the empowerment of women. To this end, it urges the State party to:
(a) Strengthen its efforts to achieve universal provision of quality education for girls at each level of the education system in urban, rural and remote areas and to provide access to education to girls with disabilities through the improvement of infrastructures and the provision of support systems, with special attention to girls from Dalit, indigenous and other disadvantaged groups;
(b) Adopt concrete measures, including effective enforcement of provisions banning early marriage, to prevent girls from dropping out of school;
(c) Strengthen its efforts to improve the literacy rate for women through the adoption of comprehensive formal and non-formal educational and training programmes;
(d) Increase the training and recruitment of female teachers.
29. While welcoming the prohibition of so-called bonded labour, the Committee is concerned about reports that this practice still exists among the indigenous Tharu community. It is further concerned about the high rate of child labour, particularly among girls between the ages of 8 and 14; the high proportion of women in the informal sector; and the widespread prevalence of sexual harassment in the workplace. The Committee notes with concern that the draft law on sexual harassment has been pending before Parliament since 2009.
30. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure equal opportunities for women in the labour market, in accordance with article 11 of the Convention. To this end, it recommends that the State party:
(a) Strengthen its efforts to eradicate bonded labour and child labour and ensure effective implementation of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour (Convention No. 105);
(b) Regulate the informal sector to ensure that women in this sector are not exploited;
(c) Align the draft law on sexual harassment in the workplace with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 19, enact it without delay and ensure its effective implementation;
(d) Develop a confidential and safe system of filing complaints, facilitate access to justice for victims of sexual harassment and conduct awareness-raising campaigns targeting working women in particular, to break the culture of silence surrounding sexual harassment;
(e) Consider ratifying the ILO Convention concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers (Convention No. 189).
31. The Committee welcomes the Aama programme for free delivery services and the decrease in the maternal mortality rate. However, it is deeply concerned about the low access to basic medical care, in particular by women living in poverty, rural women and women with disabilities; the persistence of an extremely high maternal mortality and morbidity rate, in particular among rural, poor and young mothers; the challenges in accessing delivery services, especially emergency obstetric care; poor nutrition, which is strongly correlated with higher risks of maternal mortality and morbidity; the high prevalence of uterine prolapse despite efforts of the State party to provide corrective surgery; the high rate of unsafe abortion, in particular for women living in poverty, women from rural villages and women from marginalized communities within urban areas, in spite of the legalization of abortion in 2002; the lack of access to family planning and the unmet need for contraception, in particular among rural women, adolescents, poor women and women with disabilities; and the lack of data on HIV prevalence among pregnant women.
32. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Ensure access to basic health care and health-related services, within the framework of the Committee’s general recommendation No. 24, in particular for poor and rural women and women with disabilities, and enhance the number of medical staff, including female doctors and other health-care providers;
(b) Develop and pursue effective policies and programmes to further reduce the maternal mortality rate;
(c) Prioritize programmes that ensure access to a full range of maternal health services, including antenatal, postnatal and emergency obstetric care, in particular for poor women, rural women and young mothers;
(d) Address discriminatory and harmful practices against women and girls, such as the lack of provision of sufficient food and the chaupadi practice, which jeopardize the well-being and health of women and girls, including reproductive health;
(e) Take preventive measures to combat the problem of uterine prolapse, such as adequate access to family planning, awareness-raising and training under existing safe motherhood programmes, and ensure sufficient allocation of funds for quality corrective surgeries and follow-up visits, which prevent post-operative complications such as fistula and other health problems;
(f) Improve access to abortion services throughout the country;
(g) Address the unmet need for contraception by prioritizing universal access to the full range of contraceptive methods, information and services, including emergency contraception, with a particular focus on rural women, poor women and adolescent girls.
Women migrant workers
33. While noting the adoption of the New Foreign Employment Act in 2007, the Committee remains concerned about the situation of Nepalese women migrant workers and in particular, the fact that a large number of Nepalese women are undocumented, which increases their vulnerability to sexual exploitation, forced labour and abuse. It is also concerned about their concentration in the informal sector; the limited initiatives to ensure pre-departure information and skills training; and the lack of institutional support both in the State party and in countries of employment to promote and protect the rights of Nepalese women migrant workers.
34. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Investigate the cause of women’s migration, create employment or self-employment opportunities for women within the country and ensure that women have access to loans;
(b) Establish mechanisms to promote safe migration procedures and protect and fulfil women’s rights throughout the migration cycle;
(c) Enforce and monitor standardized and comprehensive pre-departure orientation and skills training;
(d) Sign bilateral agreements with the country of employment with adequate provisions ensuring the security of women migrant workers and establishing mechanisms in the country of destination to deal with the violation of the rights of women migrant workers during employment;
(e) Provide assistance for migrant women who are seeking redress;
(f) Create alternative livelihood opportunities for returnees and promote their reintegration;
(g) Prosecute and punish persons engaged in illegal recruitment processes that fuel trafficking in women in the name of foreign employment.
Women affected by the armed conflict
35. While welcoming the adoption of the national action plan on Security Council resolutions 1325 (2000) and 1820 (2008) in October 2010, the Committee remains deeply concerned that cases of sexual violence, including rape allegedly committed by both security forces and Maoist combatants during the armed conflict, are not being investigated and perpetrators have not been brought to justice. The Committee is also concerned that a large number of women affected by the conflict face difficulties in accessing justice and that the statute of limitations on filing complaints relating to rape and other sexual offences could obstruct access to justice by women victims of rape and other sexual offences during the conflict. The Committee is further concerned that many survivors of sexual violence during the conflict are suffering from acute post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental and physical health problems. In addition, the Committee expresses its concern about the lack of women’s participation in peace and reconstruction processes.
36. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Prioritize the consideration of the draft laws on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Commission of Inquiry on Disappearances; ensure that the Commissions are gender-sensitive, independent and authoritative and that the Truth and Reconciliation Commission deals with sexual violence; and pay particular attention to the social and security dimension of public testimony for victims of sexual violence;
(b) Investigate, prosecute and punish all acts of violence, including acts of sexual violence perpetrated by the armed forces, Maoist combatants and private actors, through transitional and restorative justice, and ensure that, under the draft law on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, the statute of limitations on filing complaints relating to rape and other forms of sexual offences during the conflict does not preclude women’s access to justice;
(c) Initiate a thorough and complete investigation into the perpetration of sexual abuse during the armed conflict and post-conflict periods;
(d) Ensure women’s access to justice and make legal aid available and accessible to all women affected by the conflict, including women victims of sexual violence during the conflict and post-conflict periods;
(e) Ensure the protection of victims and witnesses and provide shelter homes for victims of sexual violence, including in rural and remote areas;
(f) Ensure the effective implementation of the national plan of action on Security Council resolutions 1325 (2000) and 1820 (2008) and ensure that victims of sexual crimes receive appropriate reparations, rehabilitation and counselling;
(g) Establish counselling centres for women to address their traumatic experiences, specifically with regard to sexual violence, and provide adequate access to health-care services;
(h) Enhance the inclusion and representation of women survivors in peacebuilding institutions and mechanisms at the decision-making, policymaking and implementation levels.
Women living in poverty
37. While welcoming the implementation of programmes for the development of women, the Committee remains concerned about the overall living conditions of women living in poverty, especially rural women and women heads of households, and their lack of access to land, adequate food, safe drinking water and fuel for cooking and heat. The Committee is also concerned about discrimination against girl children and women in food distribution within the household.
38. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Pursue and implement macroeconomic, social and sectoral policies that are geared towards eradicating poverty and reducing gender-based inequality; encourage broad-based sustained economic growth; and address the structural causes of poverty within the overall framework of achieving people-centred sustainable development;
(b) Strengthen initiatives aimed at encouraging sustainable economic empowerment of women, including the promotion of women’s access to land and credit and the promotion of training in microenterprise development and management, and monitor the impact of these initiatives;
(c) Ensure equal access by women to resources and nutritious food by eliminating discriminatory practices, guaranteeing land ownership rights for women and facilitating women’s access to safe drinking water and fuel;
(d) Provide for the right to adequate food in the new Constitution.
Women facing multiple forms of discrimination
39. The Committee is deeply concerned about the multiple forms of discrimination against disadvantaged groups of women such as Dalit and indigenous women, widows and women with disabilities.
40. The Committee urges the State party to prioritize combating multiple forms of discrimination against women from various disadvantaged groups through the collection of data on the situation of these women and the adoption of legal provisions and comprehensive programmes, including public education and awareness-raising campaigns involving the mass media and community and religious leaders.
Asylum-seeking and refugee women
41. The Committee is concerned that the State party report does not provide any information about its national policy with regard to applications from asylum-seekers or the vulnerable situation of asylum-seeking and refugee women and girls from neighbouring countries.
42. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Provide comprehensive information in its next report on its national policy on applications from asylum-seeking and refugee women in Nepal;
(b) Provide an enabling environment and gender-sensitive policy in dealing with applications from women asylum-seekers and provide an enabling environment for asylum-seeking and refugee women to report acts of sexual harassment;
(c) Pay particular attention to the vulnerability of asylum-seeking and refugee women.
Discrimination in marriage and family relations
43. The Committee is concerned about the persistence of early marriage despite legal provisions banning the practice; the existence of discriminatory legal provisions relating to unequal inheritance rights for married daughters; the existence of contradictory legal provisions that both recognize and criminalize bigamy; and the lack of clear legislation providing for the equal share of all marital property upon dissolution of marriage.
44. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Enforce the legal minimum age of marriage, which is 20 years of age, and undertake awareness-raising measures throughout the country on the negative effects of early marriage on women’s enjoyment of their human rights, especially their right to health and education;
(b) Take legal measures ensuring that women and men have equal rights to inheritance;
(c) Adopt without delay the draft law repealing the provision on bigamy, which is currently under preparation, so that polygamous marriages are invalidated;
(d) Ensure that women and men are granted equal rights, in law and in practice, to all marital property upon dissolution of marriage.
National Human Rights Commission
45. The Committee recommends that the State party amend the draft law on the National Human Rights Commission, with a view to achieving full compliance with the Paris Principles, and that the Commission continue to strengthen its cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Nepal.
Amendment to article 20, paragraph 1, of the Convention
46. The Committee encourages the State party to accept, as soon as possible, the amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
47. The Committee requests the wide dissemination in Nepal of the present concluding observations in order to make the population, including Government officials, politicians, members of the Constituent Assembly and women’s and human rights organizations, aware of the steps that have been taken to ensure the de jure and de facto equality of women and of the additional steps that are required in that regard. The Committee recommends that the dissemination include the local community level. The State party is encouraged to organize a series of meetings to discuss progress achieved in the implementation of the present observations. The Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate widely, in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, the Committee’s general recommendations, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly on the theme “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.
Ratification of other treaties
48. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the Government of Nepal to consider ratifying the treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely: the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
Follow-up to concluding observations
49. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 26 and 36 above.
50. The Committee recommends that the State party avail itself of technical assistance in the development and implementation of a comprehensive programme aimed at the implementation of the above recommendations and the Convention as a whole. The Committee also calls upon the State party to further strengthen its cooperation with specialized agencies and programmes of the United Nations system, including the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women), the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Children’s Fund, the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization and the Statistics Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the Secretariat. The Committee recommends, in particular, that the State party continue its cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Nepal.
Preparation and date of next report
51. The Committee requests the State party to ensure the wide participation of all ministries and public bodies in the preparation of its next report and to consult a variety of women’s and human rights organizations during that phase.
52. The Committee requests the State party to respond to the concerns expressed in the present concluding observations in its next periodic report under article 18 of the Convention. It invites the State party to submit its sixth periodic report in July 2015.
53. The Committee invites the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents, approved at the fifth inter-committee meeting of the human rights treaty bodies, in June 2006 (HRI/MC/2006/3 and Corr.1). The treaty-specific reporting guidelines adopted by the Committee at its fortieth session, in January 2008, must be applied in conjunction with the harmonized reporting guidelines on a common core document. Together, they constitute the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The treaty-specific document should be limited to 40 pages and the updated common core document should not exceed 80 pages.
 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance; and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.