United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women - Concluding Observations
Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination
26 March 2013
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
Concluding observations on the seventh periodic report of Greece adopted by the Committee at its fifty fourth session (11 February – 1 March 2013)
1. The Committee considered the seventh periodic report of Greece (CEDAW/C/GRC/7) at its 1111st and 1112nd meetings, on 19 February 2013 (see CEDAW/C/SR.1111 and 1112). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/GRC/Q/7 and the responses of the Government of Greece are contained in CEDAW/C/GRC/Q/7/Add.1.
2. The Committee takes note of the State party’s submission of its seventh periodic report. However, it regrets that the report lacked updated statistical data, disaggregated by sex, and qualitative data on the situation of women in a number of areas covered by the Convention, that it was not prepared in a participatory process and that neither civil society organizations nor the Parliament were involved in the whole process. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for the written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by its pre-session working group, its oral presentation and the further clarifications to the questions posed orally by the Committee.
3. The Committee commends the State party’s high level delegation, headed by Zeta Makri, Secretary General of Gender Equality, and which also included several representatives from relevant ministries, with expertise in the areas covered by the Convention. The Committee appreciates the open and constructive dialogue that took place between the delegation and the members of the Committee, while noting that answers to some questions were vague and some questions were left unanswered.
B. Positive aspects
4. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the National Programme for Preventing and Combating Violence against Women (2009 – 2013) and the National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality (2010 – 2013).
5. The Committee welcomes the ratification by the State party of the:
(a) International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in 2012;
(b) Optional Protocol to the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in 2012;
(c) United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, in 2010;
(d) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, in 2010.
C. Factors and difficulties preventing the effective implementation of the Convention
6. The Committee notes with concern that the current financial and economic crisis and measures taken by the State party to address it within the framework of the policies designed in cooperation with the European Union institutions and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are having detrimental effects on women in all spheres of life. The Committee further notes that very few studies and evaluations have been conducted to monitor the gender-specific effects of the financial crisis. The Committee wishes to emphasize that the concerns expressed below take into account the exceptional circumstances that the country has faced during the last years and is still facing. However, the Committee reminds the State party that even in times of fiscal constraints and economic crisis, special efforts must be made to respect human rights, sustain and expand social investment and social protection and to employ a gender-sensitive approach, giving priority to women in vulnerable situations. In order to devise an effective gender strategy to ensure the full implementation of the Convention in the present situation, the Committee recommends that the State Party seek targeted assistance and support from the European Union and IMF.
D. Principal areas of concern and recommendations
7. While reaffirming that the Government has the primary responsibility and is particularly accountable for the full implementation of the obligations of the State party under the Convention, the Committee stresses that the Convention is binding on all branches of Government, and invites the State party to encourage the Parliament, in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the necessary steps with regard to the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the State party’s next report under the Convention.
Visibility of the Convention, the Optional Protocol and the Committee’s general recommendations
8. The Committee is concerned at the general lack of awareness of the Convention, its Optional Protocol and of the Committee’s general recommendations in the State party. It is particularly concerned that women themselves, especially those in rural and remote areas and women belonging to minorities, are not aware of their rights under the Convention, and lack the necessary information to claim their rights.
9. The Committee calls on the State party to:
(a) Take the necessary steps to ensure the adequate dissemination of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendations and views under the Optional Protocol among relevant stakeholders, including Government, Ministries, parliamentarians, the judiciary, law enforcement officers and community leaders, so as to create awareness of women’s human rights and establish firmly in the country a legal culture supportive of non-discrimination and women’s equality;
(b) Take all appropriate measures to enhance women’s awareness of their rights and the means to enforce them, in particular, in rural and remote areas, including through providing women with information on the Convention, through cooperation with civil society and the media.
Institutional framework and access to justice
10. The Committee notes that the State party has been able to maintain various programmes mainly co-funded by the European Union. The Committee notes the creation of the Observatory Mechanism to Monitor the Implementation of Gender Equality Policies in Public Activity and the budget that was allocated (2.7 millions euros), as well as the expectations towards its function in the monitoring and evaluation of laws, programmes and policies. While noting that the Ombudsman has a wide mandate as an independent authority, the Committee is concerned that its resources have been drastically cut at a time where there may be more necessity than ever to have a very active ombudsman. The Committee is concerned that gender equality may not receive a sufficient priority in comparison with family policies and that these policies might contradict each other. While noting the adoption of the Law No.4055/2012 abolishing certain fees for victims of domestic and sexual violence, the Committee remains concerned that women generally do not benefit from adequate and fair access to justice, due to police fees and litigation costs, ignorance of their rights and ways of claiming them, and general lack of awareness of the Convention, its Optional Protocol and the Committee’s general recommendations and jurisprudence, by the judiciary and law enforcement officers among other obstacles.
11. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Make effective use of European Union funds to maintain and develop programmes and policies aimed at reaching substantive gender equality and use the studies due at the end of 2014 to reorient, as needed, gender equality policies, in view of the impact of the austerity measures on the enjoyment by women of their economic, social and cultural rights under the Convention;
(b) Ensure that the Observatory Mechanism to Monitor the Implementation of Gender Equality Policies in Public Activity receives the necessary human and financial resources to accomplish its mandate, and avoid duplications with the General Secretariat of Gender Equality;
(c) Evaluate the efficiency of the Ombudsman, maintain and if possible increase the budget of this service so that it can handle the cases referred to him in a timely fashion;
(d) Increase information on, and awareness of the Convention, and ensure that women have effective, unbiased access to support from the police and justice in the form of free legal and competent aid and carry out training of judges, lawyers, prosecutors, police and other law enforcement officers on the rights arising from the Convention, its Optional Protocol, jurisprudence and the Committee’s general recommendations.
National machinery for the advancement of women
12. While noting the work of the General Secretariat of Gender Equality in the area of advancement of women and gender equality and the adoption of the National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality for 2010 – 2013, the Committee is concerned that budget cuts and the ongoing restructuring of the administration and government may limit its independent status and further reduce its budget and its capacity to ensure that gender equality policies are properly developed and fully implemented throughout the work of all Ministries and Government offices. The Committee is further concerned that the National Committee on Equality between Men and Women has been inactive since 2008.
13. The Committee encourages the State party to:
(a) Maintain and strengthen the independent status of its General Secretariat of Gender Equality and provide it with adequate human, financial and technical resources for it to coordinate and work effectively for the promotion of gender equality and gender mainstreaming, and reactivate the National Committee on Equality between Men and Women;
(b) Provide training on women’s rights to women and men working in the national machinery for the advancement of women;
(c) Strengthen its impact assessment mechanisms so as to ensure that its gender equality policies are properly monitored and evaluated and their implementation assessed.
14. The Committee is concerned that women non-governmental organizations were not present during the consideration of the State party’s report, although it notes the important contribution of non-governmental organizations to the advancement of women.
15. The Committee urges the State party to collaborate with non-governmental organizations and involve them, in particular, women’s associations, in the design and implementation of policies, programmes and measures aiming at the advancement of women in all areas covered by the Convention, as well as in the process of reporting to the Committee.
Temporary special measures
16. The Committee is concerned that some temporary special measures adopted in the past have been abolished (the 10 per cent quota for women’s admission to the Firefighting Academy Schools of the Hellenic Fire Corps and the 15 per cent quota on employment of women in the Municipal Police Force,) and at the absence of new special measures as part of a necessary strategy to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women with men in areas covered by the Convention in which women are underrepresented or disadvantaged.
17. The Committee encourages the State party to adopt temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1 of the Convention, as interpreted in the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 (2004), in areas covered by the Convention where women are underrepresented or disadvantaged.
Stereotypes and harmful practices
18. The Committee continues to be seriously concerned about patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in all spheres of life and the State party’s limited efforts to tackle such discriminatory practices. The Committee is concerned that such customs and practices perpetuate discrimination against women and girls and that they are reflected in women’s disadvantaged and unequal status in many areas, including education, public life and decision-making, as well as in the persistence of violence against women. It is also concerned that, to date, the State party has not taken sustained measures to modify or eliminate stereotypes and negative traditional values and practices.
19. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Adopt, without delay, a comprehensive strategy to modify or eliminate patriarchal attitudes and stereotypes that discriminate against women, in conformity with the provisions of the Convention. Such measures should include efforts, at all levels, in collaboration with civil society, to educate and raise awareness on existing stereotypes among women and men;
(b) Expand public education programmes on the negative effects of stereotyping, in particular in rural and isolated areas in the archipelago;
(c) Use innovative measures that target the media to strengthen understanding of the concept of equality of women and men and to use the education system to enhance a positive and non-stereotypical portrayal of women and men;
(d) Monitor and review all the measures taken to implement the comprehensive strategy in order to assess their impact and to take appropriate further action.
Violence against women
20. The Committee notes the adoption of the National Programme for Preventing and Combating Violence against Women for 2009 – 2013 and the abolition of the use of mediation in cases of domestic violence. It is, however, concerned at the persistence of violence against women, including domestic violence, in the State party, which remains underreported due to the prevalence of discriminatory social and cultural norms. The Committee is further concerned at the lack of information, studies and statistical data on the nature, forms, extent and causes of violence against women.
21. The Committee urges the State party to give priority attention to combating violence against women and girls and adopt comprehensive measures to address such violence, in accordance with its general recommendation No.19 (1992), including through:
(a) Ensuring the strict enforcement of the national legislation on violence against women and ensuring that women and girls who are victims of violence have access to immediate means of redress and protection and further ensuring that perpetrators are prosecuted and punished;
(b) Raising public awareness, through the media and educational programmes and providing mandatory training for judges, prosecutors, police officers, health-service providers, journalists and teaching staff in order to ensure that they are sensitized to all forms of violence against women and girls and can provide adequate gender-sensitive support to victims;
(c) Encouraging women to report incidents of domestic and sexual violence by de-stigmatizing victims and raising awareness about the criminal nature of such acts;
(d) Providing adequate assistance and protection to women victims of violence by establishing shelters, especially in rural areas, and enhancing cooperation with non-governmental organizations providing shelter and rehabilitation to victims;
(e) Collecting statistical data on all forms of violence against women, including domestic violence disaggregated by sex, age, ethnicity/minority status and relationship between victim and perpetrator, and undertaking studies and/or surveys on the extent of violence against women and its root causes.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
22. While noting the adoption of the National Action Plan to combat trafficking for 2010 – 2012, the Committee is, however, concerned at the lack of information on its effective implementation and on whether it has been extended beyond 2012. The Committee is also concerned about the stigmatization of prostitutes suffering from HIV/AIDS by public blaming campaigns pointing out individuals. The Committee is further concerned at the lack of statistical data, disaggregated by sex and geographical location, on trafficking and exploitation of prostitution in the State party. The Committee is also concerned about the limited efforts of the State party to prevent the exploitation of prostitution and to address its root causes, as well as the lack of protection and assistance available to victims of trafficking and exploitation.
23. The Committee calls upon the State party to fully implement article 6 of the Convention and:
(a) Ensure effective implementation of the national anti-trafficking legislation;
(b) Conduct studies and surveys including on the prevalence of prostitution and seek international assistance as required and include in its next periodic report updated information and data on the prevalence of exploitation of prostitution and trafficking in women and girls;
(c) Increase efforts aimed at international, regional and bilateral cooperation with countries of origin, transit and destination to prevent trafficking through information exchange and harmonizing legal procedures to prosecute traffickers;
(d) Address the root causes of trafficking and prostitution, including poverty, in order to reduce the vulnerability of women and girls to sexual exploitation and trafficking, and to ensure the rehabilitation and social integration of victims, including by providing them with shelter and assistance.
Participation in political and public life
24. While noting that during the National Elections in June 2012, the one-third quota of women candidates was upheld by all political parties, and that the representation of women in Parliament reached 21 per cent, as well as the appointment of a number of women as Ambassadors, the Committee is concerned at the underrepresentation of women at all levels of political and public life, in particular in regional and municipal legislative bodies. The Committee is also concerned that the quota system is not functioning effectively in the State party, including for the civil service boards, and that no temporary special measures have been envisaged in order to remedy this situation. The Committee is further concerned that systematic barriers such as negative cultural attitudes, insufficient capacity-building for potential candidates and limited financial resources impede women’s equal participation in political life.
25. The Committee calls upon the State party to:
(a) Consider the use of temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendations No. 23 (1997) and No. 25 (2004) , study the international examples of quota systems, analyse the best practices in other countries and establish adequate quotas with the aim of accelerating the equal representation of women in all areas of public and professional life, especially in decision-making positions, in Parliament and in the local administration;
(b) Systematically implement the 30 per cent quota in the civil service boards and ensure that women enjoy equal opportunities to participate in political and public life, including in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development policies and local community projects;
(c) Provide training on gender equality for politicians, journalists, teachers, local officials and civil society leaders, especially men, to enhance the understanding that full, free and democratic participation of women on an equal basis with men in political and public life is a requirement for the full implementation of the Convention.
26. The Committee notes the statistical data on education. It is, however, concerned at the very low level of school attendance and the high dropout rates among Roma and migrant girls and those belonging to the Muslim minority in Thrace, and at the lack of data disaggregated by sex, region and minority, on enrolment at pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The Committee is also concerned at the prevalence of traditional career paths among girls and at the low level of their participation in technical-vocational areas.
27. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Take immediate steps to implement measures to ensure equal access for girls and women to all levels of education in all regions, and for girls of all minority groups, including through temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 (2004);
(b) Address barriers to education of women and girls, such as stereotypical cultural attitudes that discriminate against them;
(c) Step up efforts to provide girls with career counselling that orients them to non-traditional career paths, in particular in technical-vocational areas.
28. The Committee is concerned that the recent high unemployment figures for women, over 31 per cent compared with 24 per cent for men, and the high hidden unemployment among women show that women are becoming highly marginalized on the labour market. The Committee also remains concerned at the persistent vertical and horizontal segregation of occupations and the wage gap between women and men. The Committee is concerned about the potential negative impact on women of Act No.4024 of 27 October 2011, which introduced a new public service statute, a new job classification and a new harmonized wage scale resulting in wage cuts of up to 50 per cent in certain cases. The Committee is further concerned that the slashing of pensions has negatively impacted the pension for widows and some other groups of women. The Committee is also concerned that Act No.3896/2010 and 3996/2011 against unfair dismissals and the extension of the period during which working mothers cannot be dismissed after their return from maternity leave to 18 months, has resulted in them being offered part time and rotation work in many cases with reduced levels of pay. The Committee is concerned that the dismantling of the social fund (OEE) and the workers´ housing organization (OEK) as social dialogue organizations has had a negative impact on housing services and resulted in significant interruptions of the operation and maintenance of nurseries and child-care facilities. The Committee is also concerned at the absence of statistical data disaggregated by sex on complaints related to gender-based discrimination, sexual harassment at the workplace, as well as at the lack of data on the situation of employment among the Muslim minority of Thrace and Roma women.
29. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Strengthen efforts to enhance female access to the labour market, eliminate occupational segregation, both horizontal and vertical, and adopt measures to narrow and close the wage gap between women and men and, make sure that female wages and pensions are not below the poverty limits;
(b) Carefully review and analyse the impact of the new legislation on women’s opportunities in the labour market, and make necessary amendments to ensure women’s equal participation in the labour market, by instituting measures to eliminate stereotypes and traditional attitudes that discriminate against women;
(c) Restore the institutions of social dialogue which provide important social services for women;
(d) Collect data disaggregated by sex, geographical location and minority, on the situation of women and men in the area of employment in order to monitor and improve women’s working conditions.
30. The Committee notes the adoption of the National Action Plan for Sexual and Reproductive Rights 2008-2012. It is, however, concerned that the State party has a very high rate of abortions and a very low use of high quality, efficient methods of contraception, which means that women resort to abortions as a method of family planning. The Committee is also concerned at the extremely high rate of caesarean sections performed in public (40 per cent) and private (up to 65 per cent) hospitals without medical justification, the Greek rates being the highest in the world, way above the 15 per cent rate considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as covering medical needs. The Committee further notes the National Action Plan 2008-2012 on HIV-AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, but is concerned that since 2010 the rise in the number of HIV/AIDS cases is over 57 per cent, and that there has been a stark increase in the number of people dying of HIV-AIDS from 2007-2009, figures unknown for subsequent years. The Committee is also concerned that education on sexual and reproductive health and rights is insufficient. Further, it is concerned that budget cuts in the health sector will mainly affect women’s and girls’ health.
31. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Improve and increase access, as well as use of effective and affordable methods of contraception, including by subsidizing them, in order to starkly reduce the practice of abortion as a method of family planning;
(b) Reduce the rate of caesarean sections performed without medical necessity by training or retraining medical personnel on natural birth and introduce strict control of medical indications for caesarean sections in order to reach the WHO recognized rates;
(c) Improve the quality and accessibility of sexual and reproductive health services and guarantee their access to disadvantaged groups of women;
(d) Promote education on sexual and reproductive health and rights, especially targeting adolescent girls and boys, in order to foster responsible sexual behaviour, prevention of early pregnancies and of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV-AIDS;
(e) Increase the percentage of the health budget allocated to sexual and reproductive health services.
Disadvantaged groups of women
32. The Committee is concerned about the social exclusion and vulnerability of women belonging to the Muslim community in Thrace, Roma women, migrant women, rural women, as well as about obstacles preventing them from enjoying basic rights, such as access to health-care services, social benefits, education and participation in political and public life. The Committee is further concerned at the absence of detailed statistical information and data disaggregated by sex, geographical location and minority on the situation of disadvantaged groups of women.
33. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Take all necessary measures to improve the economic situation of disadvantaged groups of women, thereby eliminating their vulnerability to exploitation, and to improve their access to health-care services and social benefits, irrespective of their status;
(b) Establish mechanisms to monitor regularly the impact of social and economic policies on disadvantaged groups of women;
(c) Provide comprehensive information and statistical data, disaggregated by sex, geographical location and minority, on disadvantaged groups of women, in particular, on women belonging to the Muslim minority in Thrace, Roma women, migrant women and rural women.
Refugee, asylum-seeker and migrant women
34. While noting the creation of a new Asylum Service Department independent from the police and the establishment of the First Reception Service responsible for screening procedures, the Committee is concerned at the difficult situation faced by women in prison, particularly with regard to severe overcrowding of cells, non-separation of pretrial and convicted detainees, as well as administrative detainees together with criminal detainees, detention of irregular migrants and refugee and asylum seekers and women’s limited access to adequate health facilities and services, free legal aid, as well at the lack of effective judicial review and prolonged arbitrary detention.
35. The Committee urges the State party to:
(a) Take measures to reduce the number of women in detention, including through targeted prevention programmes aimed at addressing the causes of women’s criminality;
(b) Address the situation of women and girls in detention through the development of comprehensive gender-sensitive policies, strategies and programmes aimed at facilitating their access to justice and ensuring compliance with their fair trial guarantees; and providing educational, rehabilitative and resettlement programmes for women and girls;
(c) Improve the conditions of women’s detention facilities in accordance with international standards, to solve the problem of overcrowding in prisons, guarantee separate accommodation for different categories of detainees; and ensure the provision of adequate health facilities and services, in accordance with the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules).
Marriage and family relations
36. The Committee is concerned about the situation of women in the State party in the area of marriage and inheritance. The Committee remains concerned about the inconsistent application of the State law in all communities. In this regard, the Committee is concerned about the non-application of the general law of the State party to the Muslim community of Thrace regarding marriage and inheritance, as well as about the persistence of polygamy and early marriage in the Muslim and Roma communities. The Committee is also concerned at the absence of legal provisions governing existing de facto unions, which may deny women protection and redress in case of separation in the absence of a prior property agreement between the partners.
37. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Fully harmonize the application of local Sharia law and general law in the State party with the provisions on non-discrimination of the Convention, in particular with regard to marriage and inheritance;
(b) Strengthen its enforcement efforts to prohibit polygamy and forced or early marriages, in line with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 21 (1994) on equality in marriage and family relations, by raising awareness about the detrimental effects of these practices including on girls’ health and completion of education, and effectively investigate, prosecute and punish perpetrators of forced or early marriages;
(c) Train the legal profession, including the judiciary, as well as ethnic communities and religious leaders on the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendations and encourage them to refer to the Convention and the norms and standards contained therein;
(d) Consider reviewing the Family Law with a view to extending existing legal provisions to couples living in de facto unions, and introducing provisions regulating the distribution of property to ensure women’s equal share in all property accumulated during the relationship.
38. The Committee is concerned at the general lack of available recent data provided by the State party. It notes that updated disaggregated data by sex, age, race, ethnicity, geographical location and socioeconomic background are necessary for an accurate assessment of the situation of women, to determine whether they suffer from discrimination, for informed and targeted policymaking, and for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of progress achieved towards the realization of women’s substantive equality with regard to all areas covered by the Convention.
39. The Committee calls upon the State party to enhance the collection, analysis and dissemination of comprehensive data disaggregated by sex, age, race, ethnicity, location and socio-economic background, and the use of measurable indicators to assess trends in the situation of women and progress towards the realization of women’s substantive equality in all areas covered by the Convention. In this regard, it draws the State party’s attention to the Committee’s general recommendation No. 9 (1989) on statistical data concerning the situation of women and encourages the State party to develop gender-sensitive indicators which could be used in the formulation, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and, when necessary, review of women’s and gender equality policies.
Measures to respond to the crisis
40. Due to the seriousness of the situation and lack of any gender-sensitive approach to the current crisis policy within the State party, the Committee recommends that all important policymakers in Greece, including the European Union institutions and the IMF, cooperate in setting up an observatory to fully evaluate the impact on women of the many measures taken during the economic and financial crisis. Furthermore, a comprehensive gender equality policy should be developed in order to respond to the crisis and make sure that the obligations under the Convention and the aim and spirit of the Treaty of the functioning of the European Union, which requires that in “all its activities the Union shall aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality, between men and women”, can be fully implemented by the State party.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
41. The Committee calls upon the State party, to utilize the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, in its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention.
Millennium Development Goals
42. The Committee calls for the integration of a gender perspective in accordance with the provisions of the Convention in all efforts aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
Dissemination and implementation
43. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement the provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. It urges the State party to give priority attention to the implementation of the present concluding observations and recommendations between now and the submission of the next periodic report. The Committee therefore requests the timely dissemination of the present concluding observations, in the official language of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional, local), in particular to the Government, the ministries, the Parliament and to the judiciary, to enable their full implementation. It encourages the State party to collaborate with all stakeholders concerned, such as employers’ associations, trade unions, human rights and women’s organizations, universities and research institutions, media, etc. It further recommends that its concluding observations be disseminated in an appropriate form at the local community level, to enable their implementation. In addition, the Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate the Convention, its Optional Protocol and jurisprudence, and the Committee’s general recommendations to all stakeholders.
Ratification of other treaties
44. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to consider ratifying the treaties to which it is not yet a party, i.e. the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
Follow-up to concluding observations
45. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 31 and 35 above.
Preparation of next report
46. The Committee invites the State party to submit its eighth periodic report by March 2017.
47. The Committee requests the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents (HRI/GEN/2/Rev.6, chap. I).
 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman, Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance; and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.