United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women - Concluding Observations
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
* Adopted by the Committee at its fifty-ninth session, meeting from 20 October to 7 November 2014.
Concluding observations on the combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of Poland*
1. The Committee considered the combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of Poland (CEDAW/C/POL/7-8) at its 1249th and 1250th meetings, on 22 October 2014 (see CEDAW/C/SR.1249 and 1250). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/POL/Q/7-8 and the responses of Poland are contained in CEDAW/C/POL/Q/7-8/Add.1.
2. The Committee appreciates the submission by the State party of its combined seventh and eighth periodic reports, which generally followed the Committee’s guidelines for the preparation of periodic reports. It also appreciates the State party’s written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the pre-sessional working group and welcomes the oral presentation by the delegation and the further clarifications provided in response to the questions posed orally by the Committee.
3. The Committee commends the State party for its high-level delegation, which was headed by the Secretary of State at the Chancellery of the Prime Minister and Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment, Malgorzata Fuszara, and included representatives of various ministries and government agencies and the Permanent Mission of Poland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. The Committee appreciates the constructive dialogue that took place between the delegation and the Committee.
B. Positive aspects
4. The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2007 of the State party’s combined fourth and fifth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/POL/4-5) and sixth periodic report (CEDAW/C/POL/6) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following:
(a) Act on Aliens, which enables foreign women with various categories of migration status to legalize their stay in Poland, extending protection also to victims of human trafficking, in May 2014;
(b) Amendments to the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code, which aim at enhancing prosecution of the crime of rape while eliminating secondary victimization of victims of sexual violence, in 2013;
(c) Amendments to the Electoral Act, which introduced a quota for electoral lists to be made up of a minimum of 35 per cent of women and 35 per cent of men, for municipal, district, voivodeship (regional), national and European Parliament elections, in 2011;
(d) Act on the care of children below the age of 3, which aims at improving access to institutional childcare in order to reconcile work and family life, in April 2011;
(e) Act on equal treatment, which aims at guaranteeing equal treatment on the grounds of sex, race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, faith, outlook, disability, age or sexual orientation, in 2010;
(f) Amendments to the Criminal Code, to include a definition of trafficking and to penalize the perpetration of that crime.
5. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the adoption of the following:
(a) National Action Plan for Equal Treatment 2013-2016, including the appointment of the Plenipotentiaries for Equal Treatment in voivodeships and of Coordinators for Equal Treatment in all Ministries;
(b) National Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings 2013-2015;
(c) National Broadcasting Regulatory Strategy for 2014-2016, which aims at preventing the stereotyping in the media of women’s roles in society.
6. The Committee welcomes the fact that, in the period since the consideration of the previous report, the State party has ratified or acceded to the following international instruments:
(a) Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, on 25 April 2014;
(b) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, on 25 September 2012.
C. Principal areas of concern and recommendations
7. The Committee stresses the crucial role of the legislative power in ensuring the full implementation of the Convention (see the statement by the Committee on its relationship with parliamentarians, adopted at the forty-fifth session, in 2010). It invites the parliament (Sejm), in line with its mandate, to take the necessary steps regarding the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the next reporting period under the Convention.
Visibility of the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and the Committee’s general recommendations
8. The Committee takes notes of information that the Convention is generally considered to be a source of law by courts and that the Committee’s concluding observations are circulated to relevant ministries, authorities and non-governmental organizations. However, the Committee is concerned by reports about inadequate awareness of the Convention in general, of the procedures under the Optional Protocol to submit claims regarding violations of women’s rights, of the Committee’s general recommendations and of the views and recommendations of the Committee on individual communications and inquiries.
9. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Disseminate the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and the Committee’s general recommendations among all segments of society and facilitate access to information on the views and recommendations of the Committee on individual communications and inquiries, including through capacity-building programmes for lawyers, judges, prosecutors, police officers and other law enforcement officials;
(b) Raise awareness among women of their rights under the Convention and of available legal remedies at the national, regional and local levels, including through information campaigns and the media.
10. The Committee welcomes the numerous legislative efforts by the Government. It is, however, concerned that the Act on equal treatment of 3 December 2010 does not provide protection from sex- and gender-based discrimination in areas such as education, health care and private and family life, and that it does not adequately protect women from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, age, disability or other grounds, in the absence of a legal definition of such forms of discrimination. The Committee notes that the Convention is directly applicable in the national courts. However, it regrets that insufficient information was provided about relevant case law.
11. The Committee urges the State party to review the Act on equal treatment in order to ensure that anti-discrimination legislation contains a definition of discrimination against women in accordance with article 1 of the Convention, covering all areas of the Convention and explicitly prohibiting sex- and gender-based discrimination, as well as multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination. The Committee recommends that the State party collect and disseminate information about cases where the Convention was invoked before or directly applied by the national courts.
Access to justice and legal complaint mechanisms
12. The Committee regrets that insufficient information was provided on effective legal complaint mechanisms available to women who have experienced sex- or gender-based discrimination in areas other than employment, and on the outcome of such cases. The Committee is particularly concerned about reports concerning the low number of complaints of sex- and gender-based discrimination where compensation was awarded.
13. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure access to effective legal remedies for women who have experienced sex- and gender-based discrimination, in order to enable them to seek redress and compensation. It also recommends that the State party collect and disseminate information on the number and type of complaints made and the redress provided.
Office of the Human Rights Defender
14. The Committee is concerned about the absence of complaints of sexual harassment in the workplace, the limited application of administrative sanctions and the inadequate means of redress in cases of sex- and gender-based discrimination, as well as the lack of data disaggregated by sex regarding complaints of discrimination filed with the Human Rights Defender. The Committee also notes with concern the limited financial and human resources available to the Human Rights Defender.
15. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Take measures to overcome the obstacles preventing the submission of complaints of sexual harassment in the workplace to the Human Rights Defender;
(b) Ensure the effective application by the Human Rights Defender of administrative sanctions and provision of redress in cases of sex- and gender-based discrimination;
(c) Provide the Office of the Human Rights Defender with sufficient financial and human resources so as to enable it to fully implement its mandate to protect women’s rights and promote gender equality, in compliance with the principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (the Paris Principles) (General Assembly resolution 48/134, annex).
National machinery for the advancement of women
16. The Committee notes that the mandate of the Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment, together with the Plenipotentiaries for Equal Treatment in voivodeships and the Coordinators for Equal Treatment in all Ministries, represents the national machinery for equal treatment and includes the elimination of discrimination against women. The Committee reiterates its concern that, since 2006, there is no separate government authority in Poland responsible exclusively for gender equality policies. The Committee is also concerned about the lack of resources and the absence of a separate budget for the Government Plenipotentiary. The Committee further notes with concern the absence of a coordination mechanism to ensure gender mainstreaming at all levels.
17. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Strengthen the mandate and authority of the Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment, provide that office with the conditions enabling it to implement gender equality policies and ensure the implementation of a gender mainstreaming strategy in all government ministries and agencies, as well as at the municipal level;
(b) Increase the financial and human resources of the office of the Government Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment, while providing it with a separate budget to support its gender equality activities and programmes and to ensure effective coordination of government policies on gender equality, and ensure that every ministry allocates a special budget for the effective implementation of the National Action Plan for Equal Treatment.
18. The Committee is concerned that the National Action Plan for Equal Treatment 2013-2016, which has replaced previous national action plans for women, does not sufficiently address women’s rights and their protection from discrimination. The Committee regrets the insufficient information provided regarding the monitoring and impact assessment of the National Action Plan. The Committee notes the inadequate funding of non-governmental organizations for women’s rights and their limited involvement in the development and evaluation of the National Action Plan.
19. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Evaluate the extent to which the gender neutrality of the National Action Plan for Equal Treatment fails to address pre-existing gender inequalities (see para. 16 of general recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention) and correct this as needed;
(b) Effectively monitor and assess the impact and results achieved in the implementation of the National Action Plan in all parts of the State party, based on time-bound targets and indicators, adjust its priorities, as necessary, in close consultation with non-governmental organizations for women’s rights, and on this basis develop the instruments that will be used beyond 2016;
(c) Adequately fund non-governmental organizations for women’s rights and increase their involvement in the implementation of the National Action Plan and all other measures, programmes or projects that may be adopted.
Temporary special measures
20. The Committee is concerned at the lack of information about the use of temporary special measures in different areas covered by the Convention, which may reflect an insufficient understanding of the character and purpose of such measures.
21. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt temporary special measures to promote substantive equality of women and men in such areas as education, employment and participation in political and public life, as well as to address the situation of disadvantaged women in all areas covered by the Convention. The Committee recommends establishing a procedure for the adoption and application of such measures. The Committee calls upon the State party to ensure that all relevant officials are familiar with the concept of temporary special measures and encourage their application in line with
article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 on temporary special measures.
22. The Committee notes the efforts of the Government aimed at preventing stereotyping of the social roles of women and men in the media and in society in general. However, it reiterates its concern about the persistence of deep-rooted gender stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and society, which continue to be present in the media and education materials and are reflected by the traditional educational choices of women and their disadvantaged position in the labour market, as well as by widespread violence against women. The Committee is particularly concerned at the reported increase of stereotypical and sometimes degrading media images of women, which perpetuate sexual violence, including rape, and at the absence of a revision of textbooks. The Committee is also concerned at the absence of measures to counter the campaign by the Polish Catholic Church against “gender ideology”. The Committee points at the limited effectiveness, if any, of measures to counter negative stereotypes against Roma women, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women and women with disabilities.
23. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Include the elimination of gender stereotypes, especially those that perpetuate sexual violence, including rape, as a key priority in the National Action Plan for Equal Treatment;
(b) Review, as a matter of priority, textbooks and materials, at all levels of education, to remove discriminatory gender stereotypes;
(c) Encourage the media to project positive images of women and the equal status of women and men in private and public life, and regularly monitor and evaluate such media representations through the National Broadcasting Council and the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection;
(d) Take measures to promote the equal rights of women and combat efforts made by any actors, including the Catholic Church, to downplay or degrade the pursuit of gender equality by labelling such measures as ideology;
(e) Evaluate and strengthen measures to counter negative stereotypes against Roma women, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex women and women with disabilities.
Violence against women, including domestic violence
24. The Committee notes that the State party signed the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence in December 2012. It is, however, concerned at the high prevalence of violence against women in the State party and the absence of a comprehensive strategy aimed at eliminating all forms of sex- and gender-based violence against women. The Committee is particularly concerned at the remaining gaps in the legal framework to combat such violence, the limited effectiveness of protection orders and the low number of prosecutions and sentences in cases of domestic violence, all of which result in inadequate protection for women who are victims of violence.
25. Reiterating its previous recommendation on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports and the sixth periodic report (CEDAW/C/POL/CO/6, para. 19) and recalling general recommendation No. 19 on violence against women, the Committee urges the State party:
(a) To expedite the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, as well as the harmonization of legislation with the Convention;
(b) To adopt a comprehensive strategy aimed at preventing and eliminating all forms of violence against women, including older women and women with disabilities, in public and private life, and set up an adequate coordinating and monitoring mechanism to effectively prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women;
(c) To amend the Criminal Code with a view to specifically criminalizing domestic violence and marital rape and include a definition of violence against women in the Act on countering domestic violence so as to ensure that relevant laws and policies are implemented in a gender-sensitive manner;
(d) To effectively enforce and monitor compliance with protection orders issued against perpetrators of, in particular, domestic violence;
(e) To systematically institute criminal proceedings, end the use of reconciliatory mediation for victims of domestic violence and prosecute and punish perpetrators of such acts;
(f) To provide crisis centres and walk-in centres that offer protection and assistance to women who are victims of violence and ensure the adequate geographical distribution of shelters, as well as the provision of legal aid and other assistance for victims;
(g) To regularly collect, analyse and publish data on the reporting, investigation and prosecution of cases of violence against women and girls.
Trafficking in persons and exploitation of prostitution
26. The Committee notes the legislative and policy measures that the State party has taken against trafficking in human beings and the various measures of assistance for victims of trafficking. It nevertheless remains concerned about the limited data on the extent and purpose of trafficking, the absence of information on the origin of victims and the limited evaluation of the measures taken. The Committee is also concerned about the low number of prosecutions and convictions of perpetrators of trafficking and forced prostitution and the limited training on gender-sensitive investigation methods for law enforcement officers. The Committee further regrets the lack of information on the extent of prostitution and the limited measures taken by the State party to reduce the demand for prostitution and to provide alternative income-generating opportunities for women who wish to leave prostitution.
27. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Compile and disseminate statistical data on the extent and purpose of trafficking and the countries of origin and destination of victims of trafficking;
(b) Systematically monitor and evaluate the impact of measures against trafficking;
(c) Ensure that women and girls who are victims of trafficking are identified properly and at an early stage and have access to medical care, legal aid, psychosocial counselling and rehabilitation and reintegration programmes, regardless of their ability or willingness to testify against traffickers;
(d) Ensure effective prosecution and punishment of perpetrators of trafficking;
(e) Train judges, prosecutors, the police and immigration officers, as well as social workers, on gender-sensitive ways to deal with victims of trafficking;
(f) Address the root causes of trafficking and forced prostitution by increasing the promotion of educational and income-generating opportunities for women and girls, thereby minimizing their vulnerability to exploitation;
(g) Address the demand side of prostitution and compile information on the extent of prostitution.
Participation in political and public life
28. The Committee notes the high percentage of women in the State party’s civil service and in first-instance courts, as well as the fact that the Prime Minister is a woman and that there are currently five female ministers. It is concerned, nonetheless, that, with the exception of quotas for electoral lists and some attempts to promote the representation of women on the management boards of public companies, no special measures are being applied as part of a comprehensive strategy to combat the underrepresentation of women in political and public life and in decision-making positions, including in parliament (24 per cent of parliamentarians and 13 per cent of senators are women), municipal and regional councils (25 per cent of representatives are women), executive authorities at various levels and in appellate courts.
29. In line with its general recommendation No. 23 on women in political and public life, the Committee encourages the State party:
(a) To amend the Electoral Act with a view to placing candidates, women and men, in alternating positions on electoral lists (so-called “slide” or “zip” system in order to achieve parity;
(b) To adopt temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 on temporary special measures, including quotas, benchmarks with specific time frames and training, in order to achieve equal and full participation of women in political and public life and in decision-making at all levels, including in the judiciary, executive functions at all levels and in international organizations.
30. The Committee acknowledges the reforms of national curricula for basic compulsory education, which include measures to advance equal opportunities for women and men. However, it remains concerned about structural barriers negatively affecting the enrolment of girls and women in non-traditional educational and vocational fields; gender segregation in the educational system, as evidenced by the disparity in the number of schools for boys and schools for girls; the absence of mandatory, comprehensive, age-appropriate education on sexual and reproductive health in school curricula; and the low number of women in management positions in educational institutions and in professorship positions. The Committee is also concerned about the continued placement of Roma girls in special schools or classes, the high dropout rates of Roma girls from primary education and their low school attendance.
31. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Eliminate structural barriers and negative stereotypes that potentially deter girls’ enrolment in non-traditional educational and vocational fields at all levels of education;
(b) Consider adopting temporary special measures to promote girls’ take up of technical subjects and to accelerate the appointment of women to the highest positions in academic institutions;
(c) Provide mandatory, comprehensive, age-appropriate education on sexual and reproductive health and rights to girls and boys, as part of regular school curricula, including as regards responsible sexual behaviour and the prevention of early pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, to be taught by appropriately trained personnel;
(d) Ensure the enrolment of Roma girls and boys in regular classes of primary schools, instead of schools or classes for children with special needs;
(e) Reduce the high dropout rates of Roma girls from primary education, take effective measures to retain Roma girls in school and increase their attendance at the secondary level through temporary special measures and support, such as scholarships and the free provision of textbooks.
32. The Committee is concerned about the prevailing horizontal and vertical segregation between women and men in the labour market and in particular the concentration of women in low-paid sectors of public employment, especially in precarious work, the limited participation of women in employment (53.4 per cent of women of working age), the lack of counselling for girls and women on nontraditional educational and vocational choices and career options and nonimplementation of the principle of equal pay for work of equal value. It is also concerned about the limited mandate of the labour inspectorate to investigate complaints of gender discrimination and in particular, sexual harassment, and the disparities in access to childcare services between urban and rural areas.
33. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Eliminate horizontal and vertical segregation between women and men in the labour market, including by adopting temporary special measures to promote access for women, in particular young women, to employment, and review its legislation and policies in order to promote equal opportunities for and equal treatment of women in employment, including career opportunities, and to limit the exposure of women to precarious work;
(b) Develop support programmes, including counselling, for girls and women on non-traditional educational and vocational choices and career options, for example in the areas of science and technologies;
(c) Ensure equal remuneration for work of equal value, including through mandatory equality plans for public and private employers and labour inspections, and address the limited effectiveness of legal provisions on remuneration, in particular through the development of a methodology for the assessment of the wage gap in companies as well as awareness-raising within the State party’s associations of employers and trade unions;
(d) Strengthen the mandate of the labour inspectorate to effectively investigate complaints of gender discrimination and in particular, sexual harassment, including by addressing the conditions for the disclosure of information about complaints and their authors;
(e) Reduce disparities in access to childcare services between urban and rural areas, including by reversing the trend of closing preschool facilities.
34. The Committee notes the measures taken to promote the participation of women in private sector management and supervisory boards. It is concerned, however, that women represent less than 15 per cent of the members of management and supervisory boards.
35. The Committee urges the State party to take measures to achieve women’s equal and full participation in decision-making in the economic sphere, in particular in the management and supervisory boards of listed companies and State-owned public companies.
36. The Committee reiterates its concern about the high prevalence of abortions, most of which are illegal as a result of the strict legal requirements contained in the 1993 Act on family planning, human foetus protection and preconditions for the admissibility of abortion. The Committee is also concerned about the restrictive application of this law and the extensive use, or abuse, by medical personnel of the conscientious objection clause. It is further concerned about the lack of official data and research on the prevalence of illegal and unsafe abortions in Poland. The Committee notes the efforts to improve the Act on Patient Rights, including a new time limit for acting on complaints, but considers that this will not solve the obstacles that women face when confronted with an unwanted pregnancy. The Committee is also concerned about the limited access to modern contraceptives, including the barriers adolescent girls that may face in accessing information and reproductive health services, including contraception.
37. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Enhance women’s access to health care, in particular to sexual and reproductive health services, including by amending the 1993 Act on family planning, human foetus protection and preconditions for the admissibility of abortion, to make the conditions for abortion less restrictive;
(b) Establish clear standards for a uniform and non-restrictive interpretation of the conditions for legal abortion so that women may access it without limitations owing to the excessive use of the so-called conscientious objection clause by doctors and health institutions and ensure effective remedies for contesting refusals of abortion, within the revision of the Act on Patient Rights;
(c) Mandate, support and finance research, study and data collection, as previously recommended (CEDAW/C/POL/CO/6, para. 25), on the scope, causes and consequences of unsafe illegal abortion and its impact on women’s health and life, in order to obtain evidence-based elements for a revision of the law;
(d) Ensure the accessibility and affordability of modern contraception for women and girls, including women in rural areas, through the reimbursement of modern and efficient methods of contraception by the public health system;
(e) Ensure unimpeded access to reproductive health services and contraception for adolescent girls.
38. The Committee takes note of the State party’s Rural Development Programme 2007-2013. However, it is concerned that rural women continue to suffer from limited access to health care, education, employment and social services and participation in decision-making processes at the local level.
39. The Committee recommends that the State party develop comprehensive policies and programmes aimed at the economic and political empowerment of rural women and ensure their access to health care, education, employment and social services, as well as facilitate their participation in decision-making processes at the local level, in particular in the boards of voivodeship agricultural chambers, so as to address the high risk of female poverty in rural areas.
Disadvantaged groups of women
40. The Committee is concerned at the inadequate participation of women from disadvantaged groups, such as Roma women, women from other ethnic minorities and women with disabilities, in political and public life.
41. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt temporary special measures to achieve the equal and full participation by disadvantaged groups of women, including Roma women, women from other ethnic minorities and women with disabilities, in political and public life and in decision-making at all levels.
Marriage and family relations
42. The Committee notes that the default marital property regime within the State party is one of community property and appreciates the legal framework that recognizes non-financial contributions to marital property. The Committee is concerned, however, that perceived fault by one of the spouses may have financial consequences, including compensation or loss of spousal support.
43. The Committee calls upon the State party to review its regulation of the economic consequences of divorce in the light of general recommendation No. 29 on the economic consequences of marriage, family relations and their dissolution, and to aim at separating the principles and procedures for dissolution of marriage from those relating to the economic aspects of the dissolution.
44. The Committee regrets the limited availability of statistical data disaggregated by sex, age and by urban and rural areas, which makes it more difficult for the Committee to assess progress and trends over time in the actual situation of women and the enjoyment of their rights in all areas covered by the Convention.
45. The Committee calls upon the State party to enhance its data collection and analysis of such data in all areas covered by the Convention, so as to be able to assess more accurately the actual situation of women and their enjoyment of their human rights, with data disaggregated by sex, age and by urban and rural areas, as applicable, and identify trends over time, including cases of multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination, in order to design and implement targeted policies and programmes for the promotion of gender equality. It also calls upon the State party to monitor, through measurable indicators, the impact of laws, policies and action plans and to evaluate progress achieved towards the realization of women’s de facto equality. The Committee requests the State party to include such statistical data and analysis in its next report.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
46. The Committee calls upon the State party to use the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention.
47. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement the provisions of the Convention. It urges the State party to give priority attention to the implementation of the present concluding observations and recommendations between now and the submission of the next periodic report. The Committee therefore requests that the present concluding observations be disseminated in a timely manner, in the official language of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional and local), in particular to the Government, the ministries, the parliament (Sejm) and to the judiciary, in order to enable their full implementation. It encourages the State party to collaborate with all stakeholders concerned, such as employers’ associations, trade unions, human rights and women’s organizations, universities, research institutions and the media. It further recommends that the present concluding observations be disseminated in an appropriate form at the local community level, to enable their implementation. In addition, the Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and relevant jurisprudence, in addition to the Committee’s general recommendations, to all stakeholders.
Ratification of other treaties
48. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to consider ratifying the Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance and the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, to which it is not yet a party.
Follow-up to the concluding observations
49. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps taken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 17 (a) and (b) and 29 (a) and (b) above.
Preparation of the next report
50. The Committee invites the State party to submit its ninth periodic report in November 2018.
51. The Committee requests the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents (HRI/GEN/2/Rev.6, chap. I).
 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance; and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.