United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women - Concluding Observations
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
* Adopted by the Committee at its fifty-seventh session (10-28 February 2014).
Concluding observations on the initial report of Qatar*
1. The Committee considered the initial report of Qatar (CEDAW/C/QAT/1) at its 1191st and 1192nd meetings, on 13 February 2014 (see CEDAW/C/SR.1191 and 1192). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/QAT/Q/1 and the replies of the Government of Qatar are contained in CEDAW/C/QAT/Q/1/Add.1.
2. The Committee appreciates that the State party submitted its initial report. It also appreciates the State party’s written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by its pre-sessional working group. It welcomes the oral presentation of the delegation and the further clarifications provided in response to the questions posed orally by the Committee during the dialogue.
3. The Committee acknowledges the State party’s delegation, which was headed by the Deputy Director of the Board of Directors of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs, Juhaina Sultan Al-Easa. The delegation comprised representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, the Amiri Diwan, the Supreme Council for Education, the Supreme Council for Health, the Supreme Council for Family Affairs and the Qatar Foundation for Social Protection and Rehabilitation.
B. Positive aspects
4. The Committee welcomes the progress achieved in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular:
(a) The adoption of Law No. 15 on combating human trafficking (2011);
(b) The amendment to the law establishing the National Human Rights Committee (Act No. 38 of 2002), by Decree-Law No. 17 of 2010, providing the Committee with a legal personality and a separate budget;
(c) The establishment of the Supreme Constitutional Court, pursuant to Law No. 12 of 2008.
5. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the adoption of the following:
(a) The Qatar National Vision 2030 document, which was adopted pursuant to Amiral Decree No. 44 of 2008, and the subsequent National Development Strategy (2011-2016), which seeks to promote women’s capacities and participation in political and economic life;
(b) The National Education and Training Strategy (2011-2016), which seeks to strengthen vocational education and training for all, including women.
6. The Committee welcomes the fact that the State party has ratified or acceded to the following international instruments:
(a) The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2008);
(b) The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2009).
C. Principal areas of concern and recommendations
Reservations and declarations
7. The Committee is concerned about the number and scope of the State party’s reservations to articles 9 (2), 15 (1) and (4) and 19 (2) and, in particular, to articles 2 (a) and 16 (1) (a), (c) and (f) of the Convention, as well as its declarations. The Committee is of the view that the reservations to articles 2 and 16 are contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention and negatively make an impact on the implementation of the fundamental principle of formal and substantive equality between women and men in all aspects of public and private life.
8. The Committee urges the State party to ensure the full implementation of the Convention and, to that end, recommends that it:
(a) Provide, in its next report, comprehensive information on the impact of its reservations and declarations on the implementation of the provisions of the Convention and the situation of women in Qatar;
(b) Withdraw its declarations and reservations to articles 9 (2), 15 (1) and (4) and 19 (2), and especially those to articles 2 and 16 (1) of the Convention.
Visibility of the Convention, Optional Protocol and the Committee’s general recommendations
9. The Committee notes with appreciation that the Supreme Council for Family Affairs, in cooperation with the National Human Rights Committee of Qatar, has undertaken certain activities to raise public awareness of women’s rights. The Committee remains concerned, however, that the State party has not taken adequate measures to promote the visibility of the Convention. It is concerned that there is inadequate knowledge among all branches of government, including the judiciary, of the rights of women under the Convention, the concept of substantive equality of women and men and the Committee’s general recommendations.
10. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Enhance women’s awareness of their rights and the remedies available at the national and local levels for women to claim violations of their rights under the Convention, and ensure that information on the Convention is provided to women, including women migrant workers and, in particular, domestic workers, including in schools and tertiary education institutions and through the use of the media;
(b) Ensure that the Convention is sufficiently known and applied by all branches of government, including the judiciary, as a framework for laws, court decisions and policies on gender equality and the advancement of women. The Committee recommends that the Convention and related national legislation be made an integral part of the legal education and training of judges, lawyers and prosecutors, so that a legal culture supportive of equality of women with men and non-discrimination on the basis of sex is firmly established in the country.
Legal status of the Convention
11. The Committee notes with concern that the status of international instruments, including the Convention, in the national legal system remains unclear. The Committee also regrets the lack of information on court cases where the Convention has been directly invoked and applied.
12. The Committee recommends that the State party clarify the status of the Convention in its domestic legal order and ensure the precedence of its provisions over national laws in cases of conflict. The Committee also recommends that the State party ensure that its national laws are applied and interpreted in conformity with the provisions of the Convention.
Definition of discrimination against women
13. The Committee notes that articles 34 and 35 of the Constitution of Qatar provide that there should be no discrimination on grounds of sex and that all citizens are equal in public rights and duties. The Committee is concerned, however, about the absence of a definition of discrimination in accordance with article 1 of the Convention and of an explicit prohibition of discrimination against women.
14. The Committee recommends that the State party incorporate a definition of discrimination against women, encompassing both direct and indirect discrimination, in line with article 1 of the Convention, and prohibit discrimination against women in its Constitution or other appropriate national legislation.
15. While welcoming the State party’s efforts to review and repeal or amend discriminatory legislation, including the Family Law, the Committee notes with concern the many discriminatory provisions in laws, such as the minimum age of marriage for girls in the Family Law, the non-permissibility for women to transmit their Qatari citizenship to their children under the Nationality Law, the Human Resources Law and the Criminal Code, which are contrary to the Convention and other international human rights instruments.
16. The Committee calls upon the State party to systematically review its laws and regulations, taking into consideration the practice of other countries in the region that have successfully done so, and to modify or repeal, without delay and within a clear time frame, discriminatory legislation, including discriminatory provisions in its Family Law, Criminal Code and Nationality Law with the aim of ensuring full compliance with the provisions of the Convention.
National machinery for the advancement of women
17. The Committee notes that the Supreme Council for Family Affairs is responsible for the advancement of women and the formulation of policies on women and family affairs. The Committee is concerned, however, about its limited mandate, authority and capacity to ensure that gender equality legislation and policies are properly developed and fully implemented in the work of all ministries and government offices. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about the absence of a centralized government unit coordinating the national machinery on women’s empowerment.
18. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Establish a centralized government unit with a strong mandate and adequate human and financial resources to coordinate the national machinery on women’s empowerment, with a view to ensuring the systematic implementation of the provisions of the Convention in the State party;
(b) Provide information in its next periodic report on the mandate, the human and financial resources and the impact of the activities of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs on gender equality.
Temporary special measures
19. The Committee notes with concern the absence of temporary special measures, including a system of quotas, aimed at accelerating de facto equality between women and men in all areas of the Convention, and the lack of understanding on the part of the State party of the nature of temporary special measures.
20. Recalling its general recommendation No. 25 on temporary special measures, the Committee notes that such measures are essential to accelerate de facto equality between women and men in all areas of the Convention. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To adopt and implement temporary special measures, including time-bound goals, quotas or preferential treatment, directed towards the achievement of de facto or substantive equality between women and men in areas where women are underrepresented or disadvantaged, including in political life, decision-making bodies and the private sector;
(b) To include in its National Development Strategy (2011-2016) and legislative provisions the use of temporary special measures, in both the public and private spheres;
(c) To raise the awareness of decision makers, women’s organizations and the general public of the non-discriminatory nature of temporary special measures in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention, and of their effectiveness in achieving progress towards women’s de facto or substantive equality.
Stereotypes and discriminatory practices
21. The Committee is concerned about the persistence of deeply entrenched traditional stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society, which overemphasize the role of women as caregivers. It also notes with concern the prevalence of prejudices and negative stereotypical attitudes towards migrant domestic workers, including women, and the multiple forms of discrimination that they experience based on their nationality and other grounds. While noting that the general strategic plan for 2006-2011 contained goals on changing stereotypes, the Committee is concerned that programmes, such as the project to assist women on striking a balance between their role in the family and their professional duties, may in fact reinforce discriminatory stereotypes relating to the role and responsibilities of women.
22. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Strengthen awareness-raising measures and studies to effectively promote gender equality and overcome patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted discriminatory stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and society, and inform the Committee about the results of those measures in the next periodic report;
(b) Take special measures, including awareness-raising and educational campaigns, to counter stereotypical attitudes towards women migrant domestic workers;
(c) Review programmes such as the project to assist women on striking a balance between their role in the family and their professional duties, to avoid conveying stereotyped images of the roles of women and men;
(d) Take systematic measures to engage the media and nongovernmental organizations in combating negative stereotyping and societal attitudes;
(e) Inform the Committee about the results of the measures taken in this area relating to women and girls, including migrant domestic workers.
Violence against women
23. The Committee takes note of the various measures initiated by the State party, including the Qatar Foundation for the Protection of Women and Children and the adoption of the National Development Strategy 2011-2016, which seeks to put in place a comprehensive strategy for combating domestic violence. The Committee notes with deep concern, however, the high prevalence of domestic and sexual violence against women and girls, including women migrant domestic workers, in the State party. It is further concerned about the gaps in legislation on violence against women, in particular the lack of a specific law criminalizing domestic violence and marital rape; barriers to gaining access to justice for women domestic workers who are victims of violence; the lack of awareness and training on violence against women among judges, prosecutors, police officers and health professionals; and the absence of a data-collection system on cases of violence against women, as well as on prosecution and conviction rates and on the number, capacity and funding of shelters, counselling and rehabilitation services. The Committee is further concerned that domestic and sexual violence are underreported, given that many women fear losing custody of their children; or women, particularly migrant domestic workers, face the risk of being accused of and charged with “illicit relations” and are subject to imprisonment.
24. Recalling its general recommendation No. 19 on violence against women, the Committee urges the State party:
(a) To establish a comprehensive domestic violence protection system, as envisaged in the State party’s National Development Strategy 2011-2016, and adopt specific legislation to criminalize all forms of violence against women, including domestic violence and marital rape, with no exemptions and within a clear time frame;
(b) To, as a priority, establish effective measures to ensure that perpetrators of violence against women are held accountable, and comply with its due diligence obligation to prevent, investigate, prosecute and punish cases of violence against women, including migrant domestic workers;
(c) To ensure that women victims of violence, including domestic workers, are provided with adequate redress and reparation, including compensation and the means for as full rehabilitation as possible;
(d) To ensure mandatory training for judges, prosecutors and the police on the criminal nature of violence against women and on gender-sensitive procedures to identify and assist women victims of domestic violence, including women domestic workers;
(e) To amend the Penal Code to repeal the criminalization of consensual sexual relations outside marriage;
(f) To systematically collect data on violence against women and girls, disaggregated by age and relationship between victim and perpetrator.
Trafficking and exploitation of prostitution
25. While welcoming various efforts made by the State party, in particular the Qatar Foundation for Combating Human Trafficking and the Arab Initiative to Build National Capacities to Combat Human Trafficking, the Committee is concerned about the prevalence and extent of trafficking of women and girls to the State party for purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labour. The Committee is particularly concerned about:
(a) The vulnerability of women and girls recruited as domestic workers to become victims of trafficking and the implications of the sponsorship system, which restricts domestic workers’ ability to change employers and prevents them from filing complaints, thereby increasing their vulnerability to abuses, including forced labour;
(b) The lack of information on the number of complaints, investigations, prosecutions and convictions concerning trafficking and on the number of women victims who have benefited from existing support and rehabilitation programmes;
(c) The fact that article 5 of Law No. 15 of 2011 on combating human trafficking allows for the return of trafficking victims to their countries of origin without a prior gender-sensitive assessment of the risk of return;
(d) The criminalization of prostitution in the State party and the prison sentences of up to five years imposed on women involved in prostitution.
26. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Effectively apply Law No. 15 of 2011 on combating human trafficking by conducting prompt, impartial and effective investigations into all reports of trafficking and bringing perpetrators to justice by imposing sentences that are commensurate with the nature of their crimes;
(b) Collect data and establish appropriate mechanisms aimed at early identification and referral of, and assistance and support for, victims of trafficking, especially women migrant workers arrested for “absconding” and other breaches of the sponsorship law, violations of the immigration law or prostitution;
(c) Provide the above-mentioned persons with the necessary assistance, support and protection, including by facilitating the provision of residence permits, where appropriate;
(d) Abolish the sponsorship system for all migrant workers, especially women and children, as recommended by the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons (A/HRC/4/23/Add.2, para. 95), and consider seeking technical assistance from the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to that end;
(e) Create adequate conditions for women migrant domestic workers and other victims of trafficking to bring complaints, including by ensuring that they are properly informed about their rights and available remedies to complain about violations of those rights, including in a language that they can understand;
(f) Review relevant legislation and regulations in force to decriminalize women in prostitution and take a comprehensive approach to addressing the question of prostitution, including exit programmes for women who wish to leave prostitution.
Participation in political and public life
27. The Committee is concerned that deep-rooted patriarchal attitudes and cultural traditions constitute a barrier to the political participation of women in Qatar. It is particularly concerned at the continued absence of women in the Shura (Advisory) Council and the central municipal councils, and at the low representation of women in ministerial positions and in other decision-making positions in the Government, including in the foreign service, as well as in the judiciary and the legal profession.
28. The Committee calls upon the State party:
(a) To take immediate measures, in view of the upcoming Advisory Council elections, to ensure that at least 30 per cent of the members appointed to the Shura (Advisory) Council are women;
(b) To adopt and implement further measures, including temporary special measures in the form of quotas, with benchmarks and specific timetables, to increase the number of women in political and public life, at all levels and in all areas, including in the central municipal councils and local government units, in accordance with article 4 (1), of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 on temporary special measures;
(c) To take appropriate measures, including the enactment of relevant electoral laws, to ensure that political parties allocate sufficient funding for women campaigning and establish benchmarks with a specific timetable in addition to sanctions, such as fines for political parties in case of noncompliance;
(d) To take all measures necessary to remove all barriers to women’s participation in the foreign service and to increase the number of women judges, prosecutors and lawyers and ensure the appointment of women to the Supreme Court and to the Court of Appeal;
(e) To raise awareness of the importance of women’s participation in elections as candidates and voters, with a view to eliminating patriarchal attitudes that deter women’s political participation.
Civil society and non-governmental organizations
29. The Committee notes with concern the lack of vibrant and autonomous women’s rights organizations in the State party. While noting the information provided by the State party’s delegation that there are no legal obstacles to establishing women’s associations, the Committee is concerned that the registration procedure under the current law on associations and private organizations (Law No. 12 of 2004) is burdensome and subject to approval by the Council of Ministries, and that associations, including women’s associations, are prohibited from becoming involved in political issues.
30. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Take specific steps, including through legislative amendments, to ensure an enabling environment in which women’s associations and nongovernmental organizations working on gender equality and women’s empowerment may be freely established and freely operate and raise funds. It also recommends that the State party strengthen its consultation with civil society in this regard;
(b) Amend Law No. 12 of 2004 in order to enable women’s nongovernmental organizations and associations to engage in public and political life in the State party, in line with article 7 (c) of the Convention.
31. The Committee notes with serious concern discrimination against women in relation to nationality, given that Qatari women who are married to a foreign national are not able under the Nationality Law to transmit their Qatari citizenship to their children on the same basis as Qatari men who are married to a foreign spouse. It also notes with concern that, unlike Qatari men, Qatari women are not entitled to transmit their nationality to their foreign spouses. In addition, the Committee is concerned about the risk for children of Qatari women married to foreign nationals of becoming stateless.
32. The Committee urges the State party to amend the Nationality Law to bring it into full compliance with article 9 (1) and (2) of the Convention and to enable Qatari women to pass their nationality to their children and their foreign spouse on the same basis as Qatari men. It also calls upon the State party to withdraw its reservation to article 9 (2). The Committee further recommends that the State party consider acceding to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness.
33. While commending the State party on the adoption of the Education and Training Sector Strategy 2011-2016, the Committee is concerned about women’s traditional choices of disciplines and areas of study and the low number of women students enrolled in vocational courses and in scientific and technical disciplines.
34. The Committee recommends that the State party reinforce its efforts to diversify the educational and vocational choices of girls and boys. It also recommends that the State party provide in its next periodic report updated data, disaggregated by sex, on the educational choices of women and girls.
35. The Committee notes that the Qatar National Vision 2030 document aims at promoting the participation of Qatari women in employment in all sectors. It is concerned, however, about the persistence of discrimination against women in the labour market, the social stigma attached to working women and social norms restricting women’s professional choices to fields that offer “acceptable” roles for them. The Committee is further concerned about regulations and de facto discriminatory practices that require Qatari women to present a letter of consent from a male guardian to obtain employment. It is also concerned about the persistent gender wage gap (25 to 50 per cent), women’s underrepresentation in leadership positions, including in the private sector, and the absence of specific provisions in the Human Resources Law and the Criminal Code criminalizing discrimination against women in employment.
36. The Committee calls upon the State party to ensure equal opportunities for women in the labour market by repealing discriminatory laws, regulations and de facto practices that require a male guardian’s consent or approval for women to obtain employment. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To adopt effective measures to eliminate horizontal and vertical occupational segregation, narrow and close the gender wage gap, and apply the principle of equal remuneration and equal opportunities at work;
(b) To consider amending the Labour Code of 2004 and the Human Resources Law to introduce a prohibition of discrimination covering all aspects of employment, including discriminatory recruitment practices.
Women migrant workers
37. The Committee is deeply concerned about reports of various forms of exploitation and abuses of women migrant workers, including forced labour, physical and sexual violence, inhuman or degrading treatment, unpaid wages, excessive working hours, confiscation of passports and restrictions on freedom of movement and communication, in particular under the sponsorship system (kafeel). The Committee is also concerned:
(a) That domestic workers are not covered by the protection of the Labour Code, often face multiple barriers to bringing complaints against their employers and obtaining redress in cases of abuse, and also face criminal charges of “absconding” for fleeing abusive employers;
(b) That the draft law on domestic workers is yet to be reviewed and finalized, and no time frame has been set for the adoption of that law;
(c) That the State party did not provide adequate information on the situation of women migrant workers in Qatar, in particular, on the availability of support services and programmes to protect them from violence, abuse and exploitation; on the number of complaints about violence, including sexual violence, brought by women migrant workers during the reporting period; and on the number of investigations, prosecutions and sentences imposed on perpetrators.
38. Recalling its general recommendation No. 26 on women migrant workers, the Committee calls upon the State party:
(a) To adopt a law on domestic workers and amend the Labour Code of 2004 to ensure that it protects domestic workers along with other categories of workers;
(b) To take immediate steps to abolish the sponsorship system, repeal provisions setting criminal penalties for absconding and seek technical assistance from ILO whenever necessary;
(c) To put in place labour inspections at places of work where migrant workers, including domestic workers, have complained about violations; systematically investigate all allegations of exploitation, abuse and violence against migrant domestic workers; and prosecute and adequately punish abusive or exploitative employers and agents;
(d) To monitor employers’ compliance with article 9 of the Sponsorship Law requiring them to return passports to migrant workers, and penalize employers and recruiters who violate this provision;
(e) To ensure that women migrant workers enjoy effective access to legal aid and complaint mechanisms, and provide immediate access to shelters and rehabilitation services for women migrant workers alleging abuse and exploitation;
(f) To consider ratifying the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189) of ILO;
(g) To raise awareness among women migrant and domestic workers about their rights under the Convention;
(h) To provide detailed information on the situation of women migrant domestic workers.
39. The Committee notes the adoption by the State party of the National Health Strategy 2011-2016. The Committee is, however, concerned:
(a) That the Criminal Code prohibits abortion even in cases of rape and punishes it with prison sentences, and that women who are raped and impregnated by their employers are punished in cases of self-induced abortions;
(b) That pregnant women and women migrant workers are subjected to mandatory HIV/AIDS testing, and that women migrant workers are deported if they test positive;
(c) That women migrant workers and Bidoun women experience serious difficulties in gaining access to health care, including sexual and reproductive health care and emergency obstetric services, and that they are often unaware of how to gain access to health care and services.
40. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Decriminalize abortion in cases of rape, in line with general recommendation No. 24 on women and health;
(b) Reform the policy of mandatory HIV/AIDS testing for pregnant women and migrant workers to prohibit any involuntary HIV/AIDS testing and deportation of women migrant workers who test positive;
(c) Take appropriate measures to ensure that women migrant workers and Bidoun women enjoy access to free emergency medical care, including sexual and reproductive health care, and abortion services in cases of rape.
Marriage and family relations
41. The Committee is deeply concerned that women continue to be denied equal rights with men with regard to family relations. While noting the information provided by the State party’s delegation that the Family Law (No. 22 of 2006) is in the process of being reviewed, the Committee is concerned about the number of discriminatory provisions in that law, in particular concerning:
(a) The minimum age of marriage, which is 16 for girls and 18 for boys, with legal exceptions allowing the marriage of girls under 16 years;
(b) The permissibility of polygamy and unequal and/or limited rights for women relating to divorce, inheritance, custody and legal guardianship of children; and women’s loss of child custody upon remarriage;
(c) The requirement to obtain a male guardian’s authorization for women to enter into marriage;
(d) The requirement for women under 25 years of age to obtain the permission of a male guardian to travel abroad, which places discriminatory restrictions on their freedom of movement.
42. In line with its general recommendations No. 21 and No. 29 on article 16 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Finalize the review process of the Family Law (No. 22 of 2006) without further delay and repeal discriminatory provisions in that law and ensure that it protects the equal rights of women and men in all matters relating to marriage and family relations, including with regard to their right to freely enter into marriage, as well as inheritance, divorce and custody of children;
(b) Draw on the examples of other countries with similar religious backgrounds and legal systems that have reconciled their national legislation with the legally binding international instruments that they have ratified, specifically regarding equal rights for women and men concerning marriage, divorce, child custody and inheritance;
(c) Amend relevant legislation to abolish polygamy and raise the minimum age of marriage for girls to 18 years, so as to be equal to that of boys;
(d) Conduct awareness-raising campaigns targeting women to make them aware of their rights with regard to family relations and marriage;
(e) Reassess its declarations and reservations to articles 15 (1) and (4) and 16 (1) (a), (c) and (f) of the Convention, with a view to their withdrawal.
Optional Protocol and amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention
43. The Committee encourages the State party to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention and to accept, without delay, the amendment to article 20 (1), of the Convention concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
44. The Committee calls upon the State party to use the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention.
Millennium Development Goals and the post-2015 development framework
45. The Committee calls for the integration of a gender perspective, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, into all efforts aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and in relation to the post2015 development framework.
46. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement the provisions of the Convention. It urges the State party to give priority attention to the implementation of the present concluding observations and recommendations between now and the submission of the next periodic report. The Committee therefore requests that the present concluding observations be disseminated in a timely manner, in the official language of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional and local), in particular to the Government, the ministries, the Shura (Advisory) Council and the judiciary, to enable their full implementation. It encourages the State party to collaborate with all stakeholders concerned, such as employers’ associations, trade unions, human rights and women’s organizations, universities, research institutions and the media. It further recommends that its concluding observations be disseminated in an appropriate form at the local community level, to enable their implementation. In addition, the Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and relevant jurisprudence, as well as the Committee’s general recommendations to all stakeholders.
47. The Committee recommends that the State party consider seeking international assistance and avail itself of technical assistance in the development and implementation of a comprehensive programme aimed at the implementation of the above recommendations and the Convention as a whole. In addition, the Committee calls upon the State party to engage with specialized agencies and programmes of the United Nations system.
Ratification of other treaties
48. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to consider ratifying the treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
Follow-up to the concluding observations
49. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps taken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 28 and 38 above.
Preparation of the next report
50. The Committee invites the State party to submit its second periodic report in February 2018.
51. The Committee requests the State party to follow the Harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents (HRI/MC/2006/3 and Corr.1).
 The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance; and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.