United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women - Concluding Observations
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
* Adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (26 October-20 November 2015).
Concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of the United Arab Emirates*
1. The Committee considered the combined second and third periodic reports of the United Arab Emirates (CEDAW/C/ARE/2-3) at its 1349th and 1350th meetings, on 5 November 2015 (see CEDAW/C/SR.1349 and 1350). The Committee’s list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/ARE/Q/2-3 and the responses of the United Arab Emirates are contained in CEDAW/C/ARE/Q/2-3/Add.1.
2. The Committee appreciates the timely submission by the State party of its combined second and third periodic reports. It also appreciates the State party’s written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the pre-sessional working group and welcomes the oral presentation by the delegation and the further clarifications provided in response to the questions posed orally by the Committee during the dialogue. The Committee regrets, however, that some questions contained in the list either went unanswered or were only partially answered.
3. The Committee commends the State party on its delegation, which was headed by Maitha Salem Al-Shamsi, Minister of State, and included representatives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Labour, other government departments, government foundations and the Permanent Mission of the United Arab Emirates to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva.
B. Positive aspects
4. The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2010 of the State party’s initial report (CEDAW/C/ARE/1) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the 2012 and 2015 amendments to Federal Law No. 51 of 2006 on Combating Human Trafficking and Cabinet Decision No. 319/15F/22 of 2012 on the promotion of women’s participation in the boards of directors of federal authorities, companies and institutions.
5. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the adoption or creation of the following:
(a) National strategy for the empowerment and advancement of Emirati women, covering the period 2015-2021;
(b) Gender Balance Council, for promoting the role of women in all sectors of employment, in May 2015.
6. The Committee welcomes the fact that, in the period since the consideration of the previous report, the State party has ratified or acceded to the following international instruments:
(a) Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, in 2012;
(b) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in 2010.
7. The Committee also welcomes the State party’s financial support to international campaigns launched by the United Nations aimed at ending sexual violence in conflict and promoting girls’ education.
C. Principal areas of concern and recommendations
Federal National Council
8. The Committee stresses the crucial role of the legislative power in ensuring the full implementation of the Convention (see the statement by the Committee on its relationship with parliamentarians, adopted at the forty-fifth session, in 2010). It invites the Federal National Council, in line with its mandate, to take the necessary steps regarding the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the next reporting period under the Convention.
9. The Committee notes the information that the State party is examining the possibility of lifting or narrowing the scope of its reservations to articles 2 (f), 9, 15 (2), 16 and 29 (1) of the Convention. The Committee is nevertheless concerned that none of these reservations, which constitute an obstacle to the implementation of the Convention as a whole, has to date been withdrawn and that no time frame has been set for such withdrawal
10. The Committee reminds the State party that reservations to articles 2 and 16 are incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention (see the statement by the Committee on reservations, adopted at the nineteenth session, in 1998). The Committee reiterates its recommendation that the State party narrow its reservations to the Convention with a view to their complete withdrawal (see CEDAW/C/ARE/CO/1, para. 17). In doing so, the State party should take into consideration the practices of countries with similar cultural backgrounds and legal systems that have successfully harmonized their national legislation with their international human rights obligations, in particular those under the Convention. The State party should ensure the consultation of civil society, in particular women’s organizations, in that process.
Legal status of the Convention
11. The Committee takes note of the information provided by the State party regarding the status of the Convention in its national legal order, but regrets that the Convention still takes no precedence over national laws. The Committee also regrets the limited measures taken by the State party to incorporate the provisions of the Convention into national legislation and the lack of information on court decisions in which direct reference is made to provisions of the Convention.
12. The Committee reiterates its recommendation that the State party ensure the precedence of the Convention over national laws (see CEDAW/C/ARE/CO/1, para. 13). The Committee also calls upon the State party to accelerate the process of incorporation of the Convention into the State party’s national legal system in order to make its provisions directly applicable in the national courts.
Definition of equality and non-discrimination
13. The Committee is concerned that, in spite of its previous recommendation (see CEDAW/C/ARE/CO/1, para. 15), the principle of equality of women and men has still not been enshrined in the State party’s Constitution and its national legislation, and that discrimination against women has not yet been defined in accordance with article 1 of the Convention and prohibited by law. The Committee is also concerned about the maintenance of discriminatory provisions in the State party’s legislation, such as of the concept of male guardianship and the obligation imposed on women to obey their husband (art. 56 of the Personal Status Law), which are incompatible with the State party’s obligations under the Convention.
14. The Committee calls upon the State party to incorporate, without further delay, the principle of equality of women and men into its Constitution, in line with its commitment made during the second cycle of the universal periodic review (see A/HRC/23/13, para. 128.85), and to prohibit and sanction all forms of discrimination against women, encompassing both direct and indirect discrimination in the public and private spheres, in line with its obligations under articles 1 and 2 of the Convention. The Committee urges the State party to repeal as a matter of priority all legal provisions that continue to discriminate against women, including those contained in the Penal Code and the Personal Status Law.
Access to justice
15. The Committee is concerned that access to justice by women and girls, including effective legal remedies, is severely hampered by the reluctance to register complaints and the negative attitudes of law enforcement officials towards women denouncing acts of violence committed against them. The Committee is also concerned about the discriminatory treatment of women in courts, especially foreign women, the lack of interpretation services and legal aid provided to them and the disproportionately severe sentences imposed on foreign women in criminal court proceedings.
16. In accordance with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 33 (2015) on women’s access to justice, the Committee recommends that the State party abide by its commitment to ensuring that women have full access to justice, obtain equal legal capacity and are treated equally in courts (see A/HRC/23/13, para. 128.81). To that end, the State party should remove any barriers to women’s access to justice. It also recommends that the State party develop comprehensive gender-sensitive policies, strategies and programmes aimed at facilitating women’s access to justice, including for foreign women and women migrant domestic workers, while ensuring fair trial guarantees. The Committee further recommends that the State party design and evaluate the impact of capacity-building programmes on women’s rights and gender equality for lawyers, judges, prosecutors and police officers, while paying special attention to access to justice by migrant domestic workers.
National machinery for the advancement of women
17. The Committee, while recognizing the positive role played by the General Women’s Union, reiterates its concern over the lack of information on the legal framework defining its mandate and authority as the national machinery for the advancement of women in the State party and regulating its relations with relevant ministries and various women’s institutions, as well as on the human, technical and financial resources from the national budget allocated for its functioning. The Committee is also concerned that the content, practical implementation, monitoring and evaluation modalities of the national strategy for the empowerment and advancement of Emirati women, as well as the resources allocated to this strategy, remain unclear. It is further concerned that, in spite of its commitments made during the first cycle of the universal periodic review, in 2008, the State party has still not established a national human rights institution in line with the principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (the Paris Principles) or a specific and independent complaint mechanism for women to report violations of their human rights (see A/HRC/10/75, para. 91 (29)).
18. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Provide in its next periodic report detailed information on the mandate, status and authority of the General Women’s Union, on its relationship with relevant ministries and women’s institutions and on the human, technical and financial resources from the national budget allocated to it, in order to enable the Committee to assess the effectiveness of the Union as a national machinery for the advancement of women;
(b) Ensure that the national strategy for the empowerment and advancement of Emirati women contains time-bound measures, indicators and targets, as well as an appropriate and regular monitoring framework;
(c) Establish without delay an independent national human rights institution, in compliance with the Paris Principles, and ensure that that institution has a specific mandate on women’s rights and gender equality, as well as an effective mechanism to receive and address complaints from all women and girls in a gender-sensitive manner (see CEDAW/C/ARE/CO/1, para. 21).
Non-governmental organizations and women human rights defenders
19. The Committee remains concerned about the lack of a robust civil society in the State party, as reflected by the lack of alternative reports received by the Committee from national non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on the implementation of the Convention. The Committee also regrets the lack of information on the legal requirements for the registration and operation of NGOs in the State party. It is further concerned that women human rights defenders and their relatives have allegedly been subjected to various forms of harassment.
20. The Committee reiterates its recommendation that the State party adopt concrete measures, including legal amendments, to create and ensure an enabling environment in which civil society and women’s rights groups may be established and may freely conduct their programmes and activities (see CEDAW/C/ARE/CO/1, para. 31). The Committee also recommends that the State party refrain from any act of reprisal against women rights defenders and their relatives and ensure the prompt lifting of all administrative or other barriers placed on them and their families.
Temporary special measures
21. The Committee takes note of the political will at the highest level to increase the percentage of women in decision-making positions and welcomes the Cabinet Decision No. 319/15F/22 on the promotion of women’s participation in the boards of directors of federal authorities, companies and institutions. The Committee is, however, concerned about the absence of a clear strategy to translate political will into reality, in particular temporary special measures to promote the substantive equality of women and men.
22. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt and effectively implement temporary special measures, in line with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 (2004) on temporary special measures, including time-bound goals and quotas in both the public and private sectors, directed towards the achievement of the de facto or substantive equality of women and men in areas in which women are underrepresented or disadvantaged, including in political and public life and employment.
Stereotypes and harmful practices
23. The Committee takes note of the State party’s commitment to changing sociocultural patterns and patriarchal attitudes that discriminate against women in society. It remains concerned, however, that the State party retains discriminatory stereotypes regarding the roles of women and men in society and in the family, focusing primarily on the roles of women as mothers and housewives and not considering them to be full rights holders. The Committee is also concerned about the many provisions contained in the State party’s legislation that underscore the subordination of women to their husbands and other male relatives and undermine the rights and capacity of women and girls to develop their personal abilities and make free choices about their lives and life plans.
24. The Committee recommends that the State party actively engage in the development of a comprehensive strategy, in collaboration with civil society and the media, to eliminate discriminatory stereotypes regarding the roles and responsibilities of women and men in society and in the family. Such a strategy should include public awareness-raising and educational campaigns on the negative impact on women’s enjoyment of their human rights of discriminatory stereotypes associated with traditional gender roles in the family and in society, and should target women and men as well as girls and boys. The Committee further recommends that the State party use the education system to enhance a positive and non-stereotypical portrayal of women as active participants in political, economic and social life and ensure the proper integration of women’s rights into school curricula and textbooks to create an environment that is supportive of equality between women and men.
25. Despite the assurances given by the delegation of the State party that underage marriages do not take place, the Committee notes with concern the reported persistence of unregistered child and/or forced marriage and use by judges of derogations to the legal minimum age of marriage of 18 years in cases in which the spouses have reached puberty. The Committee is also concerned that polygamy, which is contrary to the dignity of women and girls and infringes on their human rights and freedoms, as stated in joint general recommendation No. 31 of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women/general comment No. 18 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on harmful practices (2014), is still permitted by law.
26. The Committee urges the State party to strictly enforce the legal minimum age of marriage of 18 years for both girls and boys and to ensure that those responsible for the marriage of underage persons are sanctioned. It recommends that the State party discourage and prohibit polygamy and provide capacity-building programmes for the judiciary on the negative consequences of child marriage on girls’ human rights.
Violence against women, in particular sexual violence
27. The Committee is concerned that the measures taken by the State party to address domestic violence are likely to remain ineffective as long as the chastisement of wives and children continues to be authorized under article 53 of the Penal Code. The Committee notes with serious concern that, in 2010, the Federal Supreme Court issued a ruling upholding that right and that, in 2013, the State party did not accept the recommendation made in the context of the second cycle of the universal periodic review to repeal article 53 (see A/HRC/23/13, para. 128.92). The Committee is also concerned about the slow progress achieved in enacting comprehensive legislation on violence against women, and the numerous obstacles that women and girls who are victims of domestic violence, especially foreign women and migrant domestic workers, encounter when seeking to denounce acts of violence.
28. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To immediately repeal article 53 of the Penal Code and all legislation that might be used to impose violence on women and girls, including sexual violence, or lead to cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment;
(b) To actively engage in the development of a comprehensive strategy to prevent and address all forms of violence against women, including sexual and domestic violence. It should include the prompt adoption of legislation prohibiting all forms of violence against women, including marital rape, as well as awareness-raising campaigns and preventive measures addressing the root causes of violence, notably the subordinate status of Emirati women and girls in the family;
(c) To ensure that women who are victims of violence have access to effective and gender-sensitive reporting mechanisms, that cases of violence against women are thoroughly investigated and perpetrators prosecuted and, if convicted, punished with appropriate sanctions, and that victims are provided with adequate support for their physical and psychological recovery, as well as reparation, including compensation;
(d) To provide appropriate capacity-building to judges, prosecutors and police officers on protocols and guidelines for handling cases of violence in a gender-sensitive manner.
29. The Committee is concerned about violence against women resulting from the criminalization of consensual sexual relations between adults outside marriage, under article 356 of the Penal Code, as well as the use of that article to criminalize women in prostitution and women who are victims of trafficking, sexual exploitation and abuse. The Committee is concerned that, in all those cases, women face harsh sentences, such as prison sentences, torture and the death penalty, including inhuman, cruel or degrading punishment in the form of stoning or flogging, and that hundreds of women in the State party are reportedly serving sentences after being convicted of having had sexual intercourse outside of marriage (zina).
30. The Committee calls upon the State party to repeal article 356 of the Penal Code and to promptly release women and girls convicted of zina offences, especially foreign women who are victims of sexual violence and abuse.
Trafficking and sexual exploitation
31. The Committee welcomes the 2012 and 2015 amendments to Federal Law No. 51 of 2006 on Combating Human Trafficking, the national strategy adopted by the National Committee to Combat Human Trafficking and the availability of a hotline and of shelters for women and girls who are victims of trafficking. The Committee is, however, concerned that the State party remains a country of destination and transit for women trafficked predominantly from South, South-East and Central Asia and Eastern Europe for purposes of forced labour and sexual exploitation. It is also concerned that the penalties provided for in Federal Law No. 51 are not commensurate with the gravity of the crime and that efforts to prosecute and convict traffickers and their accomplices remain insufficient, especially in cases of trafficking for the purpose of forced labour and sexual exploitation. The Committee is further concerned about cases of victims of trafficking being deported by force instead of being provided with the support needed.
32. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to eliminate trafficking in women and girls, notably by fully enforcing the penalties contained in Federal Law No. 51 and by reinforcing the capacity of labour inspectorates and immigration authorities to detect such cases. The Committee also recommends that the State party ensure that traffickers and their accomplices are prosecuted and, if found guilty, punished with sanctions that are commensurate with the gravity of their crimes. The Committee also calls upon the State party to refrain from deporting victims of trafficking, especially those with heightened protection needs, and to consider granting them temporary residence permits irrespective of their ability or willingness to cooperate with the prosecutorial authorities.
Participation in political and public life
33. The Committee welcomes the fact that 30 per cent of leadership positions in the Government are held by women. However, it notes that, women nevertheless remain underrepresented in the Federal National Council and in the judiciary and that, while they account for 71.6 per cent of university students, they represent only 15 per cent of faculty members.
34. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt targeted measures, including temporary special measures, in line with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25, to achieve women’s substantive equality with men in political and public life, including in the judiciary and in university faculties. To that end, the Committee recommends that the State party set time-bound targets for the implementation of strategies, such as statutory quotas, financial support and capacity-building programmes on leadership skills and political campaigning for potential women candidates in elections. The Committee requests the State party to provide in its next periodic report comprehensive information on the use of such temporary special measures and on their impact.
35. The Committee takes note of the 2011 decree granting nationality to children born of Emirati women and foreign fathers upon reaching the age of majority. However, it remains concerned that Emirati women are still denied equality in nationality in comparison with the rights guaranteed to men, a form of discrimination that may lead to statelessness for their children. The Committee is also concerned about the absence of progress made to address the situation of the thousands of stateless (bidun) women who remain deprived of their basic right to Emirati nationality and related rights.
36. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation that the State party grant Emirati women the same rights as Emirati men to acquire, change and retain their nationality and to confer it on their children and foreign spouse. In this regard, it recommends that the State party revise its national law, withdraw its reservation to article 9 of the Convention and ratify the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol thereto, the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (see CEDAW/C/ARE/CO/1, para. 33). The Committee also recommends that the State party regularize the situation of stateless families and ensure their right to a nationality without discrimination.
37. The Committee welcomes the achievements of the State party in the field of education and notes with satisfaction the high proportion of women and girls enrolled in public and private universities, while noting at the same time that the data requested by the Committee were received in a form that did not enable it to assess the number of girls who are not enrolled in school. The Committee commends the State party for having made education compulsory until the age of 18 years instead of 15 years since 2012, but regrets that it was unable to ascertain what measures were in place to increase capacity to accommodate pupils not previously covered by that regulation. The Committee is concerned at the lack of measures taken to encourage women and girls to choose non-female-dominated fields of study at the post-secondary level.
38. The Committee recommends that the State party increase capacity to accommodate the increased enrolment that will result from extending compulsory education to the age of 18 years, particularly to enable girls to continue their education at the secondary level. The State party should also take effective steps to encourage women and men to choose non-traditional fields of study, such as science and technology in the case of women.
39. The Committee welcomes the measures taken to encourage the participation of women in the workforce, which have led to significant achievements, especially the creation of the Gender Balance Council for promoting the role of Emirati women in all spheres of employment. It also notes as positive the statement by the delegation of the State party that employers no longer request the authorization of the husband in order to recruit a woman. The Committee is, however, concerned that it is still possible for a husband to prohibit his wife from working and to limit her freedom of movement, pursuant to articles 71 and 72 of the Personal Status Law, and that no information was provided on plans to repeal those provisions.
40. The Committee urges the State party, in line with its commitment under the universal periodic review (see A/HRC/23/13, paras. 128.78, 128.96 and 128.100) in relation to women’s access to education and employment, to bridge the gap between the provisions of the Personal Status Law and the reality of women’s work and lives on the ground, as amply described by the delegation of the State party, to repeal articles 71 and 72 of the Law without delay and to review any other provisions that impede women’s free choice of profession and employment. The State party should also ensure that the Gender Balance Council is given the mandate, authority and resources necessary to monitor, on a regular basis, the achievement of targets set.
41. The Committee welcomes the achievements of the State party in reducing maternal and infant mortality and notes the information provided by the delegation of the State party that all women migrant workers are covered by health insurance. However, the Committee notes with concern:
(a) The limited information on education on sexual and reproductive health rights in the State party;
(b) The criminalization of abortion except in very limited cases, which do not include incest, rape and threat to the health of the pregnant woman;
(c) That women having reportedly been accused of illegal abortion following miscarriages were faced with criminal charges;
(d) That women migrant domestic workers seeking health care after having been abused by their employer were shackled to their beds by hospital personnel for fear that they could escape the sponsorship (kafalah) system.
42. The Committee reminds the State party that unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To legalize abortion at least in cases of rape, incest or threat to the health of the pregnant woman, provide women with access to high-quality postabortion care, especially in cases of complications resulting from unsafe abortions or miscarriages, and remove punitive measures for women who undergo abortion or suffer a miscarriage;
(b) To effectively ensure that adolescents have effective access as part of their school curricula to age-appropriate education on sexual and reproductive health and rights, including responsible sexual behaviour, prevention of early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections;
(c) To ensure that women migrant domestic workers are treated with dignity and in a confidential manner by health personnel and provide specific training to that effect.
Women migrant domestic workers
43. The Committee notes with satisfaction the 2014 amendments to the standard contract regulating the employment relations between women migrant domestic workers and their employers, the assurances given by the delegation of the State party that foreign women working as domestic workers may change employer and that the State party is currently drafting a law on domestic workers. However, the Committee regrets that, under the new standard contract, women domestic workers may still be required to work 16 hours per day, are not guaranteed a minimum wage, remain excluded from the application of the Labour Code and, therefore, from access to the labour courts, and may still not change employer without running the risk of facing charges of “absconding”. The Committee is also seriously concerned about the exploitative working conditions under which many of those women work, the numerous cases of violence, including sexual abuse, that they suffer and the detention of those who become pregnant as a result of rape by their employers, who generally enjoy impunity for such a crime. The Committee is further concerned that, while the confiscation of passports by employers has been prohibited, the practice remains widespread and prevents women from escaping abusive situations.
44. The Committee urges the State party:
(a) To put an end to the kafalah system, accelerate the adoption of the bill on domestic workers and ensure that women migrant domestic workers are covered by the protection of the Labour Code;
(b) To ratify the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189), of the International Labour Organization and the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and ensure that the new bill on domestic workers conforms with the provisions of that instrument, in particular the right for women migrant domestic workers to freely change employer;
(c) To launch awareness-raising campaigns targeting migrant domestic workers and their employers and ensure that migrant domestic workers are informed of their rights under the new law, of legal remedies and of shelters available, so as to be protected from abusive conditions of work;
(d) To effectively prosecute and punish abusive employers and ensure that women domestic workers who are victims of sexual violence are not prosecuted for zina offences;
(e) To strictly enforce the prohibition of passport confiscation and ensure regular labour inspections of private households in which women migrant domestic workers are employed;
(f) To strengthen international cooperation and information exchange with countries of origin.
Discrimination against women in marriage and family relations
45. The Committee notes with concern the numerous provisions of the Personal Status Law that discriminate against women and girls, as well as the State party’s rejection of the recommendations made in the context of the universal periodic review, in 2013, with a view to ensuring equality of women and men in family relations (see A/HRC/23/13, paras. 128.87, 128.95 and 128.101). The Committee is particularly concerned about the de jure maintenance of male guardianship for women and girls, the impossibility for an Emirati woman to sign her own marriage contract, the continued practice of dowry, the obligation imposed on a woman to obey her husband, including sexually, the maintenance of polygamy and the limited grounds available to women to seek divorce while men may unilaterally ask for divorce for any reason. The Committee is deeply concerned by the fact that a divorced woman loses custody of her daughters when they reach 13 years of age and of her sons when they reach 11 years of age, or before those ages if she remarries.
46. The Committee reiterates its recommendation that the State party withdraw its reservation to article 16 of the Convention and undertake a comprehensive legislative review of its Personal Status Law, taking into account the experience of other countries with similar cultural backgrounds and legal norms, to provide women with equal rights with regard to marriage, divorce, property and the custody of children. It calls upon the State party to end the practice of dowry and to discourage and prohibit polygamy, in accordance with the Committee’s general recommendation No. 21 (1994) on equality in marriage and family relations and general recommendation No. 29 (2013) on article 16 of the Convention (economic consequences of marriage, family relations and their dissolution) (see CEDAW/C/ARE/CO/1, para. 48).
Data collection and analysis
47. The Committee takes note of the information provided by the State party on the current efforts towards the creation of a database on women, as well as the data provided in written form after the dialogue, but regrets that the sex-disaggregated data remain insufficient to enable proper monitoring of all areas covered by the Convention.
48. The Committee encourages the State party to continue its efforts to establish a system for the regular collection of sex-disaggregated statistical data on all areas covered by the Convention.
Optional Protocol and amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention
49. The Committee encourages the State party to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention and to accept, as soon as possible, the amendment to article 20 (1) of the Convention concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
50. The Committee calls upon the State party to use the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in its efforts to implement the provisions of the Convention.
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
51. The Committee calls for the realization of substantive gender equality, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, throughout the process of implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
52. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement the provisions of the Convention. It urges the State party to give priority attention to the implementation of the present concluding observations and recommendations between now and the submission of the next periodic report. The Committee therefore requests that the present concluding observations be disseminated in a timely manner, in the official language of the State party, to the relevant State institutions at all levels (national, regional and local), in particular to the Government, the ministries, the Federal National Council and the judiciary, to enable their full implementation. It encourages the State party to collaborate with all stakeholders concerned, such as employers’ associations, trade unions, human rights and women’s organizations, universities, research institutions and the media. It recommends that the present concluding observations be disseminated in an appropriate form at the local community level to enable their implementation. In addition, the Committee requests the State party to continue to disseminate the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto and relevant jurisprudence, in addition to the Committee’s general recommendations, to all stakeholders.
Ratification of other treaties
53. The Committee notes that the adherence of the State party to the nine major international human rights instruments would enhance the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms in all aspects of life. The Committee therefore encourages the State party to consider ratifying the treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
Follow-up to the concluding observations
54. The Committee requests the State party to provide, within two years, written information on the steps taken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 36 and 44 (a), (d) and (e), above.
Preparation of the next report
55. The Committee invites the State party to submit its fourth periodic report in November 2019.
56. The Committee requests the State party to follow the harmonized guidelines on reporting under the international human rights treaties, including guidelines on a common core document and treaty-specific documents (HRI/GEN/2/Rev.6).
 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance; and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.