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Singapore - Third periodic report of States parties [2004] UNCEDAWSPR 35; CEDAW/C/SGP/3 (22 November 2004)


Committee on the Elimination of

Discrimination against Women

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Third periodic report of States parties

* The present document is being issued without formal editing.

For the initial report submitted by the Government of the Republic of Singapore, see CEDAW/C/SGP/1, which was considered by the Committee at its twenty-fifth session. For the second periodic report submitted by the Government of the Republic of Singapore, see CEDAW/C/SGP/2, which was considered by the Committee at its twenty-fifth session.

Singapore*

Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports

Republic of Singapore

November 2004

Published in November 2004

MINISTRY OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, YOUTH AND SPORTS

REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE

FOREWORD

I am pleased to present Singapore’s third periodic report on the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

Significant legislation and policies have been reviewed and revised to improve the position and rights of women in Singapore. Chief among these is the Constitutional Amendment in May 2004 to accord the same citizenship rights to the children of Singaporean women as for Singaporean men. Another significant policy change is the equalisation of benefits of the current medical scheme in the Civil Service for male and female officers. Singapore also ratified ILO Convention 100 on Equal Remuneration in May 2002 to affirm its commitment to equal pay for equal work.

As part of our continuing commitment to the Convention and to better address the needs of women in Singapore, the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports has set up the Women’s Desk. This is our national women’s machinery which serves as the national focal point on gender policy matters and international cooperation pertaining to women. The Women’s Desk will adopt the many helping hands approach to work with Voluntary Welfare Organisations (VWOs), Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), the people sector and the private sector to enhance the status of women in Singapore.

Even while we continue to pay attention to the rights of women in laws and policies, we recognise that an important challenge facing women and men of the 21st century is the balancing of their work-life commitments. We want to ensure that both women and men are given resources to strike a rewarding balance, and that men are also given more opportunities to be active and involved fathers, husbands, brothers and sons.

Our detailed elaboration of our progress is contained in this Report, with the main highlights in the Executive Summary. We remain committed to the Convention and the interests of women in Singapore.

Mrs Yu-Foo Yee Shoon

Minister of State

Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports

CONTENTS

Page

Foreword 3

Contents 4

Executive Summary 5

Part I

Article 1 (Discrimination) 9

Article 2 (Policy Measures) 9

Article 3 (Guarantee of Basic Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) 11

Article 4 (Special Measures) 12

Article 5 (Sex Role Stereotyping and Prejudice) 12

Article 6 (Prostitution) 16

Part II

Article 7 (Political and Public Life) 17

Article 8 (Representation) 20

Article 9 (Nationality) 23

Part III

Article 10 (Education) 23

Article 11 (Employment) 33

Article 12 (Health) 43

Article 13 (Economic and Social Benefits) 45

Article 14 (Rural Women) 49

Part IV

Article 15 (Law) 50

Article 16 (Marriage and Family Life) 53

Part VI

Article 24 (Commitment of States Parties) 55

Appendices

Appendix 1 59

▪ Table 2: Age - Sex Specific Labour Force Participation Rates, June 1993 – 2003

(total, males and females)

▪ Table 3: Age - Sex Specific Labour Force Participation Rates by Marital Status, June 2003

▪ Table 16: Employed Persons Aged Fifteen Years and Over by Age and Sex, June 1993 – 2003

▪ Table 18: Employed Persons Aged Fifteen Years and Over by Industry and Sex,

June 1993 – 2003 (total, males and females)

▪ Table 19: Employed Persons Aged Fifteen Years and Over by Occupation and Sex,

June 1993 – 2003 (total, males and females)

▪ Table 30: Employed Persons Aged Fifteen Years and Over by Age, Sex and Type of Employment, June 2003

Appendix 2 73

▪ Table 10: Median Monthly Gross Wage by Gender and Occupation, 2003

▪ Chart 6: Gender Wage Difference by Occupation and Selected Age Groups, 2003

Appendix 3 75

▪ Appendix 3A – Table 2.1: Monthly Basic and Gross Wages of Selected Occupations in all Industries, June 2003 (Males)

▪ Appendix 3B – Table 2.2: Monthly Basic and Gross Wages of Selected Occupations in all Industries, June 2003 (Females)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This third Report to the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (the Committee) covers the developments that facilitate the progress of women in Singapore during the time frame of 2000 to 2004.

The Republic of Singapore acceded to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (the Convention) on 5 October 1995. The Convention came into force for Singapore on

4 November 1995.

In accordance with Article 18 of the Convention, Singapore submitted its Initial Report to the Secretary-General of the UN, for consideration by the Committee, in November 1999. The Initial Report covered the time frame of 1995 to 1997. Singapore submitted its Second Periodic Report in 2001. The Second Periodic Report covered the time frame of 1997 to 2000.

Significant Developments since 2000

Since 2000, the Government has made significant strides forward in the advancement of women’s issues and rights in Singapore. The key developments are highlighted below and will be further elaborated in the Report.

Overall, the Singapore Government’s goal for gender equality remains unchanged - equal opportunities for men and women on the basis of meritocracy. Built upon that is the availability of fundamental resources such as education and healthcare for all its citizens in order that men and women have the same opportunities to pursue their personal goals and gain equal access to all spheres in society.

Establishment of National Women’s Machinery

The Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports (formerly known as the Ministry of Community Development and Sports) has set up the Women’s Desk to serve as Singapore’s national women’s machinery. The Women’s Desk, set up in May 2002, acts as the national focal point on gender policy matters and for international cooperation pertaining to women. The Women’s Desk is the Secretariat to the Inter-Ministry Committee on CEDAW which monitors Singapore’s implementation of the Convention. The Women’s Desk also works with local women’s groups to address women’s issues.

Change in Citizenship Law

Previously, a child who was born overseas could acquire Singapore citizenship by descent only if his or her father was a Singaporean. For a child born overseas to a Singaporean mother and a non-Singaporean father, the child could only acquire Singapore citizenship by registration upon the application of its mother.

However, in April 2004, the Singapore Parliament passed a bill to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to allow overseas-born children to acquire Singapore citizenship by descent from their Singaporean mothers. Hence, Article 122 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore is now gender neutral in that where a child is born on or after 15 May 2004, he/she shall be a citizen of Singapore by descent if at the time of his/her birth, either his/her father or mother is a citizen of Singapore, by birth, registration or descent.

More Women in Politics

The Government, under the new Prime Minister Mr Lee Hsien Loong, made a significant advancement forward for women in politics when he recently appointed three women political office-holders as part of his team in August 2004. The three women are Mrs Lim Hwee Hua, Minister of State for Finance and Transport (two portfolios), Mrs Yu-Foo Yee Shoon, Minister of State for Community Development, Youth and Sports and Dr Amy Khor, Mayor of Southwest Community Development Council. He followed this by publicly urging more women to step forward to take part in the local political scene, adding that he was particularly happy to have more women in his team.

There has been a two-fold increase in the number of female Members of Parliament (MPs) and Nominated Members of Parliament (NMPs) in this reporting period compared to the previous reporting period. As at September 2004, 10 out of the 84 elected MPs are women and 5 out of the 9 NMPs are women, compared to the 4 out of 83 elected MPs and 2 out of 9 NMPs who are women as at June 1999.

Equal Pay for Equal Work

The Government recognises that men and women have the right to equal remuneration and to equal treatment in respect of work of equal value. Since the last reporting period, in May 2002, Singapore has ratified a key ILO Convention – Convention 100 on Equal Remuneration to signify its commitment to equal pay for equal work.

Following the ratification of ILO Convention 100, the 3 key partners concerned with the labour force, namely, the Ministry of Manpower (MOM), the National Trades Union Congress and the Singapore National Employers Federation, issued a Tripartite Declaration on Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Performing Work of Equal Value on 6 November 2002, affirming their commitment to the principle embodied in the said Convention and declaring that this principle will be incorporated into future collective agreements in support of the Convention. In this regard, employers and unions have been requested to incorporate an appropriate "equal remuneration clause" in their collective agreements as and when the agreements are due for renewal.

In 2003, the average monthly earnings of females was 72% per cent that of the males. While the overall figure has remained unchanged since the previous reporting period, female employees within the age group of 25-29 years earned more than males in occupations such as managers, technicians and associate professionals. Where the wages of female employees are lower than their male counterparts, this is due mainly to the tendency for females to disrupt their employment to attend to childcare and household responsibilities, hence reducing their years of service and experience.

Equalising Medical Benefits for Civil Servants

Under the current medical scheme, male civil servants can claim medical benefits for themselves and for their dependants, while their female counterparts can only claim medical benefits for themselves. With effect from 1 January 2005, the medical benefits for female civil servants on the current medical scheme, namely, the Medisave-cum-Subsidised Outpatient (MSO) scheme, will be equalised so that they are treated no differently from the male civil servants. This will facilitate greater sharing of care giving responsibilities between married couples. Female officers on the MSO scheme can claim medical benefits for their unmarried children below the age of 18 years and for their spouses. The MSO scheme was implemented in 1994 and is the current medical benefits scheme for civil servants, and on which all newly appointed officers are placed. Female officers who are on the older medical benefits schemes will also be able to claim these benefits for their unmarried children below the age of 18.

New Package of Measures to Support Parenthood

A new package of measures to boost Singapore’s total fertility rate and support parenthood was recently announced in August 2004. The measures take a holistic and coherent approach to help both mothers and fathers, have and raise children. The measures include longer maternity leave, childcare leave for both parents, infant care subsidies and financial support for the family. These measures enable parents to strike a better balance between work and family life, pursue a range of childcare options and ease the overall financial costs on the family. As important, the childcare leave for both parents is a step in the right direction to encourage active parenting by both father and mother.

Removal of Intake Quota for Female Medical Students

A one-third quota on the intake of female medical students at the National University of Singapore (NUS) was introduced in 1979. This was because comparatively, more female doctors left the workforce prematurely or switched to part-time work.

In recent years, however, the attrition rate for female doctors has decreased substantially, and is only slightly higher compared to the attrition rate for male doctors. Hence, the intake quota was lifted with effect from academic year 2003. Now, both men and women have equal opportunity to read medicine at NUS based on their individual merit.

Compulsory Primary School Education

To achieve the twin objectives of imparting our children with a common core of knowledge and skills, and providing a common educational experience, the Government has made six-year primary school education in national schools compulsory. This took effect with the cohort entering Primary One in 2003. In making primary school education compulsory, Singapore has in effect implemented Goal 2 of the UN Millennium Development Goals, i.e. to achieve universal primary education for boys and girls.

Engaging Men and Boys in the Promotion of Gender Equality

The Association of Devoted and Active Family Men (ADAM) was registered in 2004. Its goal is to raise awareness on men’s responsibilities and roles in society - as fathers, husbands and individual members of the family. This complements the efforts by the Centre for Fathering, Singapore. Registered in 1999, the Centre for Fathering champions the role of responsible fatherhood in Singapore by inspiring and equipping young fathers to be more involved in the lives of their children.

Consultation

In the preparation of this Report, the input of relevant government ministries and agencies have been sought in order to give a comprehensive update on the developments concerning women during the current reporting period.

In addition, input was sought from the women’s bodies in Singapore, particularly from the Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations (SCWO), which is the umbrella body for women’s groups, the Women Integration Network (WIN) under the People’s Association (PA) and the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) Women’s Committee[1], as well as other women’s groups. A session was also jointly organised by the Women’s Desk and SCWO on 20 October 2004 for the women’s groups to be consulted and kept abreast of the contents of the Report before submission to the UN.

Format of the Report

The present Report is structured such that each Part and its Articles correspond to the way they are set out in the Convention. The headings for the Articles are also borrowed from their description in the ‘Contents’ section of the Convention. For ease of reference, each Article is quoted before the Report in relation to it.

PART I

Article 1

Discrimination

For the purposes of the present Convention, the term "discrimination against women" shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.

1.1 Article 12 of the Singapore Constitution enshrines the principle of equality of all persons before the law. This principle continues to be upheld.

1.2 Men and women continue to be equally valued in Singapore and the Government does not make a distinction between the sexes in terms of preferring one gender over the other. Both genders are given equal opportunities to exercise their fundamental freedoms in the political, economic and social spheres.

Article 2

Policy Measures

States Parties condemn discrimination against women in all its forms, agree to pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination against women and, to this end, undertake:
(a) To embody the principle of the equality of men and women in their national constitutions or other appropriate legislation if not yet incorporated therein and to ensure, through law and other appropriate means, the practical realization of this principle;
(b) To adopt appropriate legislative and other measures, including sanctions where appropriate, prohibiting all discrimination against women;
(c) To establish legal protection of the rights of women on an equal basis with men and to ensure through competent national tribunals and other public institutions the effective protection of women against any act of discrimination;
(d) To refrain from engaging in any act or practice of discrimination against women and to ensure that public authorities and institutions shall act in conformity with this obligation;
(e) To take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women by any person, organization or enterprise;
(f) To take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women;
(g) To repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women.

Achievements

2.1 Several important policies have been reviewed during the current reporting period in the interests of women and men. The policies have been adjusted to take into account changes in circumstances in Singapore society.

New Nationality Law

2.2 Previously, a child who was born overseas could acquire Singapore citizenship by descent only if his or her father was a Singaporean. For a child born overseas to a Singaporean mother and a non-Singaporean father, the child could only acquire Singapore citizenship by registration upon the application of its mother.

2.3 However, in April 2004, the Singapore Parliament passed a bill to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to allow overseas-born children to acquire Singapore citizenship by descent from their Singaporean mothers. Hence, Article 122 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore is now gender neutral in that where a child is born on or after 15 May 2004, he/she shall be a citizen of Singapore by descent if at the time of his/her birth, either his/her father or mother is a citizen of Singapore, by birth, registration or descent.

Abolishing of Quota for Female Medical Students

2.4 A one-third quota on the intake of female medical students at the National University of Singapore (NUS) was introduced in 1979. This was because comparatively, more female doctors left the workforce prematurely or switched to part-time work.

2.5 In recent years, however, the attrition rate for female doctors has decreased substantially, and is only slightly higher compared to the attrition rate for male doctors. Hence, the intake quota was lifted with effect from academic year 2003. Now, both men and women have equal opportunity to read medicine at NUS based on their individual merit.

Equalising Medical Benefits for Dependants of Civil Servants

2.6 Under the current medical scheme, male civil servants can claim medical benefits for themselves and for their dependants, while their female counterparts can only claim medical benefits for themselves. With effect from 1 January 2005, the medical benefits for female civil servants on the current medical scheme, namely, the Medisave-cum-Subsidised Outpatient (MSO) scheme, will be equalised so that they are treated no differently from the male civil servants. This will facilitate greater sharing of care giving responsibilities between married couples. Female officers on the MSO scheme can claim medical benefits for their unmarried children below the age of 18 years and for their spouses. The MSO scheme was implemented in 1994 and is the current medical benefits scheme for civil servants, and on which all newly appointed officers are placed. Female officers who are on the older medical benefits schemes will also be able to claim these benefits for their unmarried children below the age of 18 years.

Complaints Procedure With Respect to Violations of Constitutionally Guaranteed Rights to Equality

2.7 The principle of equality of all persons before the law is enshrined in Article 12(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore. Although there are no special institutions or national machinery with the specific responsibility for overseeing the implementation of human rights, including women’s rights, any woman who is of the view that she is subjected to unequal treatment in legislation and/or unequal treatment in executive decisions can bring the matter before the courts. In addition, a woman aggrieved by any legal provision may also apply to the courts to seek a judicial review of that particular legislation on the grounds that it is ultra vires Article 12 of the Constitution on equality. This will then be subject to adjudication by the courts.

Gender Analysis

2.8 Singapore has taken a stakeholder approach with regard to policy analysis and formulation. This involves taking into account, where appropriate, the impact of policies on different stakeholder groups, including women and men. In submitting Cabinet memorandums, a ministry is also required to consult other appropriate ministries to ensure relevant views and concerns are reflected and taken into account in policy formulation. A gender perspective would be adopted as part of the stakeholder approach on issues where women and girls and/or men and boys are stakeholders. Accordingly, policy analysis and programme formulation for such matters would take into account the needs of the different genders. This is illustrated in the two examples below.

2.9 Singapore has a rapidly ageing population, a key social concern for the Government. However, ageing with regard to women and men throws up different health concerns. Also as older women have had shorter or no careers due to the educational level and employment opportunities, as well as family care-giving decisions when they were younger, they also have different levels of financial resources. Thus, the policy and programme formulation for ageing requires a gender-sensitive approach.

2.10 The low fertility rate in Singapore is another key social concern. Recently, the Government announced its marriage and parenthood package. This involved extensive consultations and feedback from Singaporeans. The Government consulted extensively, and commissioned large scale studies. The needs of women and of men were sought and analysed separately where appropriate, and jointly as couples, where necessary. This was to better ensure that the marriage and parenthood programmes and incentives would achieve policy objectives, and meet the needs of women and men. Thus a gender sensitive approach is needed.

2.11 The Inter-Ministry Committee on CEDAW was set up in 1996 to monitor Singapore’s implementation of the Convention. Where appropriate the Committee would facilitate gender analysis and the implementation of gender sensitive measures. For example, with the support of the Committee, the Women’s Desk has worked with the Public Service Division and the Civil Service College to review the Human Resource training module in the Civil Service. This is to ensure the absence of gender stereotypes. In addition, the Women’s Desk has been invited to conduct a session within the training module to raise gender awareness. The training is expected to start next year.

2.12 The Women’s Desk has started collating gender-disaggregated data from Ministries and agencies. The statistics have been published on the Women’s Desk website to disseminate gender-relevant information for research and general information.

2.13 The Women’s Desk has also identified 3 key partners to enhance state and civil society collaboration and synergy on gender issues. These partners are the Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations (SCWO), the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) Women’s Committee and the People’s Association (PA) Women Integration Network (WIN) Council. Since the memberships of these 3 groups constitute more than 90% of all women’s groups in Singapore, they are a good platform through which to advance key gender matters. Chapter 7 on Political and Public Life gives a fuller explanation of this network.

Article 3

Guarantee of Basic Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in the political, social, economic and cultural fields, all appropriate measures, including legislation, to ensure the full development and advancement of women , for the purpose of guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms on a basis of equality with men.

3.1 Women in Singapore are given the same opportunities as men to exercise and enjoy their basic human rights and develop themselves in the various aspects of life.

3.2 We wish to highlight a significant step taken for women in politics as three female political office-holders were recently appointed by Singapore’s new Prime Minister, Mr Lee Hsien Loong. The Prime Minister has not only announced that he was happy to have more women in his team, he publicly urged more women to step forward to participate in politics.

Article 4

Special Measures

1. Adoption by States Parties of temporary special measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men and women shall not be considered discrimination as defined in the present Convention, but shall in no way entail as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate standards; these measures shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality of opportunity and treatment have been achieved.
2. Adoption by States Parties of special measures, including those measures contained in the present Convention, aimed at protecting maternity shall not be considered discriminatory.

4.1 No update.

Article 5

Sex Role Stereotyping and Prejudice

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures:
(a) To modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, with a view to achieving the elimination of prejudices and customary and all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped roles for men and women;
(b) To ensure that family education includes a proper understanding of maternity as a social function and the recognition of the common responsibility of men and women in the upbringing and development of their children, it being understood that the interest of the children is the primordial consideration in all cases.

Progress in Eliminating Gender Stereotypes

5.1 Singapore continues to make considerable progress in the elimination of gender stereotypes. Comparing the biographies of grandmothers and mothers of the pre and post-Japanese Occupation generation with those of the younger Singaporean women today, it is clear that Singaporean women have made real gains in many aspects of life.

5.2 In particular, this can be demonstrated in three main areas, education, work and family. Singaporean women are better educated and better qualified today, and hence have a wider range of job opportunities available to them. They hold better paying jobs and are able to rise to the same levels as their male counterparts. Through pro-family policies and flexi-work arrangements, women are better incentivised and empowered to pursue their career and family life. For detailed information on the status of women in these three areas, please refer to Chapter 10 (Education), Chapter 11 (Employment) and Chapter 16 (Marriage and Family Life).

Further Progress

5.3 Recognising that gender stereotypes are developed from childhood through people’s surroundings in family and society, efforts have to be made to ensure that unhealthy gender stereotypes are not perpetuated. The media plays an important part in shaping values. The Government can do its part to promote strong family structures and values while addressing gender stereotypes.

5.4 The following areas demonstrate the Government’s efforts so far:

Education

5.5 The national curriculum caters to a broad-based education for all students. Both girls and boys study a common range of subjects at the primary and secondary levels. No attempt is made to steer girls or boys towards subjects ‘commonly associated’ with each gender (for example sciences for the boys and the arts for girls).

5.6 Family life education is promoted in Civics and Moral Education which is a compulsory subject in both primary and secondary schools. Students learn about the important role that each family member plays in building strong family relationships regardless of gender. They are also taught to appreciate that both parents have an equal responsibility in bringing up the children and looking after the interests of the family unit.

5.7 The syllabi and textbooks do not allow for gender stereotypes or bias against either sex. Conscious attempts are made to ensure that all textbooks and other educational materials approved by Ministry of Education do not stereotype the position of women in a derogatory manner that will hinder their progress, welfare or career opportunities.

5.8 In secondary schools, both girls and boys can offer to study Home Economics (formerly a subject for girls) and Design and Technology (formerly a subject for boys) as examinable subjects. Some primary schools also conduct cooking lessons as an enrichment activity and participation from both boys and girls are encouraged.

5.9 The Growing Years Series, which is a part of Sexuality Education taught to each age group at upper primary, lower secondary, upper secondary and post-secondary, emphasises love and respect for self and others. In the area of gender role stereotyping and prejudice, the Series teaches the young to understand the difference between biologically-based and socially-conditioned gender characteristics. Pupils are also encouraged to evaluate their views toward self and others with regard to gender differences and stereotypes, and strongly advised against gender role stereotyping. From this programme, pupils acquire appropriate attitudes towards sexuality.

5.10 Efforts have also been made to educate the young on healthy dating relationships. In February 2003, the then Ministry of Community Development and Sports[2] commissioned a play on dating violence entitled “Hurt”. The play has been shown to more than 27,000 students in secondary schools. The play helps teenagers realise the dangers of dating violence and teaches them about inappropriate violent behaviour that should not be tolerated or inflicted by either sex. By involving both girls and boys in addressing the issue of violence in relationships and educating them of the wrong doing of such acts from a young age, the play seeks to prevent young persons from going down the path of family violence in the future.

Media

5.11 In our previous report we mentioned the role of the Singapore Broadcasting Authority (SBA)’s Free-to-Air Television Programme Code which addressed gender stereotyping and the commercialization of sex and violence against women and girls. Since 1 January 2003, SBA, along with the Films and Publications Department, and the Singapore Film Commission, have merged to form the Media Development Authority (MDA) to focus on and develop the media industry. The organization makes its guidelines clear and consistent across all forms of media.

5.12 Recognising that the media exerts a strong influence over the community, MDA continues to clearly indicate guidelines against gender stereotyping and sexual discrimination. In the case of broadcast media, there are guidelines which state that "programmes should not encourage or in any way discriminate against any section of the community on account of gender, age, disability or occupational status" and "broadcasters must exercise sensitivity and avoid humour which offends good taste and decency, (where) examples include jokes based on race, gender, disability as such humour... can easily cause hurt or humiliation". In addition, the Free-to-Air Television Programme Code requires that "non-consenting sexual relations should not be presented as desirable, (and) when a scene involves rape or indecent assault, strong consideration must be given to minimising the depiction of the details of the crime." Also, the Free-to-Air Radio Programme Code instructs that "Sexual stereotyping which can be hurtful and / or demeaning must be avoided".

5.13 With regard to the Internet, MDA regulates Internet service and content providers with its light touch Internet Class Licence scheme, and requires them to abide by the class licence conditions and Internet Code of Practice. The Class Licence is an automatic licence, meaning that Internet service and content providers need not obtain the prior approval of MDA before starting operations. The Internet Code of Practice gives broad markets on what is offensive or harmful e.g. those that are against public interest, national harmony, or which offends against good taste and decency. MDA's key focus is on pornography, violence and racial or religious extremism.

Public Education Programmes – Engaging Men and Boys in the Promotion of Gender Equality

5.14 Any programme aimed at correcting sex role prejudice but which leaves out the men as a target audience group will certainly not be effective in achieving its objectives. Singapore has begun to recognise that men cannot and must not be alienated in the process of gender equality education. Public programmes have begun to involve men and boys and highlight the importance of their roles in eradicating gender stereotypes and violence against women.

5.15 The Association of Devoted and Active Family Men (ADAM) was registered in 2004. Its goal is to raise awareness on men’s responsibilities and roles in the society - as fathers, husbands and individual members of the family. This complements the efforts by the Centre for Fathering, Singapore. Registered in 1999, the Centre for Fathering champions the role of responsible fatherhood in Singapore by inspiring and equipping young fathers to be more involved in the lives of their children.

5.16 On 25 November 2003, designated by the United Nations as International Day Against Violence Against Women, the White Ribbons Campaign was launched in Singapore. The Campaign was spearheaded by a non-governmental group, The Working Committee 2 for Singapore, an advocacy group for improving conditions for foreign domestic workers and their employers. The Campaign objective was to get everyone, men and women, to make a personal pledge never to commit, condone or keep silent about violence against women, including the foreign domestic workers working in many households in Singapore. Some 60,000 white ribbons were distributed as part of the Campaign.

Actively Challenging the Gender Stereotypes

5.17 Several prominent people in Singapore, mainly women, have been featured in the media. Their very success as individuals causes gender stereotypes to be challenged. The recent appointment of three women political office-holders in August 2004 has further boosted the success of women. Singapore’s new Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong has also publicly urged more women to step forward to take part in the local political scene.

Personal Accomplishments

5.18 In the arena of personal accomplishments, women have been gaining top positions in the private and public sectors once only occupied by men.

5.19 For example, in the rungs of senior management, we have Ms Lien Siaou Sze, senior vice-president of Hewlett-Packard Services Asia-Pacific. She was ranked number 8 on Fortune magazine's list of the world's 50 most powerful women outside the United States in 2003. Mrs Fang Ai Lian is both the Chairman and Managing Partner of Ernst & Young, Singapore as well as a Nominated Member of Parliament. Ms Patricia Yim is the Managing Director of IBM Singapore.

5.20 Ms Olivia Lum and Ms Elim Chew represent the successful women entrepreneurs. Ms Lum is the CEO and President of Hyflux Limited, a publicly listed firm company in Singapore, while Ms Chew is the founder and Managing Director of a fast-expanding retail chain known as 77th Street.

5.21 The International Management Action Awards (IMAA for short) is an annual award jointly administered by the Chartered Management Institute, Singapore and the Standards, Productivity and Innovation Board (Spring Singapore) since 2000. The award is to recognise senior executives who have demonstrated exceptional ability in taking management action to achieve sustainable, tangible results for an organisation, society or the nation. It is open to senior executives in business, the public sector, the arts, and social and community services. Three out of five winners of the awards in 2003 were women. They were Ms Loh Wai Kiew, President and CEO of a waste management company, SembCorp Environmental Management (SembEnviro), Ms Olivia Lum, CEO and President of Hyflux Limited and Ms Mary Yeo, Managing Director of UPS Singapore.

5.22 At the international level, Madam Halimah Yacob, a veteran unionist, qualified lawyer and a Member of Parliament, was the first Singaporean to be elected into the Governing Body of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in 1999. At the national level, Madam Halimah was elected as Assistant Secretary General of the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) in 2000, and appointed as Executive Secretary of the Union of Workers of the Electrical and Electronics Industries, the second largest union in Singapore, in 2004. She also sits as a member on several key statutory boards in Singapore. A mother of five children, Madam Halimah is a strong advocate of work-family balance for both men and women.

5.23 Receiving media attention and public spotlight, such women provide good role models for other women who aspire to challenge gender stereotypes and soar to greater heights. For more information on women in political and public life (Article 7) and representation of women at the international level (Article 8), please refer to Chapter 7 and Chapter 8 respectively.

Public Debate and Project WINGS

5.24 Even before the recent appointments of the two women Ministers of State, Mrs Lim Hwee Hua as Minister of State, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Transport, and Mrs Yu-Foo Yee Shoon as Minister of State, Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, Singapore's women Members of Parliament (MPs) have been persuasive during parliamentary debates. They tackle a wide range of issues, and their competence as Parliamentarians work against any gender stereotyping. They are respected by the media, as well as members of the public. Key achievements include the cessation of a quota for female medical students, accordance of citizenship privileges to foreign-born children of female Singaporeans and more favourable pro-family measures for working mothers.

5.25 On Labour Day, 1 May 2004, the 10 women MPs launched a project aimed at giving women and children in disadvantaged situations a chance to level up. Project WINGS, which stands for Women Inspiring, Nurturing and Grooming Singaporeans, aims to link these women and children to opportunities for economic and social development. Project initiatives include helping non-working women manage their finances and achieve economic independence. The MPs work with the Community Development Councils, the Monetary Authority of Singapore and other organizations to plan a series of programmes for women and children who need support. This also includes two groups of women that sometimes fall through the gaps of social assistance programmes, namely, single mothers and unemployed single women. The project comprises three components which are:

• The JUMPstart Programme, which equips women, particularly non-working women from low-income households, with skills such as budgeting, financial planning and IT literacy, which will enable them to better manage their limited finances and enter the work force if they wish to.

• The PAP Community Foundation (PCF) HEADstart Fund, which was set up last year to help families in financial difficulty. It has already awarded more than S$80,000 to 437 recipients aged between 4 and 10 years.

• The QUICKstart programme, which aims to raise literacy and assist in meeting the educational needs of the young, in particular, children from low-income families, provides free reading programmes and tuition to children in need, at the constituency level.

Article 6

Prostitution

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women.

6.1 Through the years, Singapore has put in place legislation and devoted law enforcement resources to confront the problem of trafficking in persons. We have succeeded in keeping trafficking in persons to a minimal level. We continually monitor the situation.

6.2 Singapore’s tough stance against illegal immigrants, whether they were trafficked or had entered Singapore of their own volition, and against those involved in human trafficking and human smuggling is well-known. We adopt a multi-pronged approach comprising enforcement actions and security checks at the various checkpoints to detect and deter the smuggling of illegal immigrants in and out of Singapore. This has led to the fall in the number of illegal immigrants arrested. Mobile x-ray machines are deployed at the land checkpoints to provide x-ray screening of goods vehicles. The Immigration & Checkpoint Authority (ICA) also makes use of the Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System and fibre scopes to detect illegal immigrants hidden in seat compartments of vehicles. In addition, the Police Coast Guard’s presence is strongly felt with its intensive patrols around Singapore territorial waters. These enforcement actions are complemented by the stringent laws against immigration offenders and those who traffic, harbour or employ them. The various measures are widely publicized in parliamentary debates, in the media and in various other public education efforts to raise public awareness. These efforts have borne fruit as seen from the improving Immigration Offender situation in Singapore in recent years.

6.3 Substantiated cases of forced prostitution are very rare. In 2002 and 2003, there were 11 and 7 reported cases of forced prostitution respectively but none was substantiated. Up till July this year, 8 cases of forced prostitution were reported but only 2 were substantiated. Our laws against trafficking of women are very strict. For example, a client who engages in a commercial sex act with a girl below 14 years old would have committed an offence of rape, regardless of whether the girl has consented to the act. An offence of abetment can be made out against anyone who causes or encourages the commission of the above offence. A person convicted of abetment may be punished with the punishment provided for these principal offences, for example, the abettor for rape can be punished with imprisonment for a term of not less than 8 years and not more than 20 years and shall also be punished with caning with not less than 12 strokes.

6.4 The Penal Code[3] criminalises the selling and buying of a minor who for this purpose is a person below 21 years old, for the purpose of prostitution. The penalty is an imprisonment term of up to 10 years, and a fine. The Penal Code also makes it an offence to assist in bringing into Singapore any women with the intent to sell her for prostitution. This is punishable with imprisonment of up to 10 years and a fine. The Women’s Charter also contains similar provisions on trafficking of women for prostitution and other related offences.

PART II

Article 7

Political and Public Life

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the country and, in particular, shall ensure to women, on equal terms with men, the right:
(a) To vote in all elections and public referenda and to be eligible for election to all publicly elected bodies;
(b) To participate in the formulation of government policy and the implementation thereof and to hold public office and perform all public functions at all levels of government;
(c) To participate in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the public and political life of the country.

More Women in Politics

7.1 The Government, under the new Prime Minister Mr Lee Hsien Loong, made a significant advancement forward for women in politics when he recently appointed three women political office-holders as part of his team in August 2004. He followed this by publicly urging more women to step forward to take part in the local political scene, adding that he was particularly happy to have more women in his team. The three women are Mrs Lim Hwee Hua, Minister of State for Finance and Transport (two portfolios), Mrs Yu-Foo Yee Shoon, Minister of State for Community Development, Youth and Sports and Dr Amy Khor, Mayor of Southwest Community Development Council.

7.2 There has been a two-fold increase in the number of female Members of Parliament (MPs) and Nominated Members of Parliament (NMPs) in this reporting period compared to the previous reporting period. As at September 2004, 10 out of the 84 elected MPs are women and 5 out of the 9 NMPs are women, compared to the 4 out of 83 elected MPs and 2 out of 9 NMPs who are women as at June 1999.

7.3 The 10 women MPs have been active in Parliament, and have debated on a wide range of issues and topics. Their competence has earned them the respect of their fellow Parliamentarians, the public and the media.

Women and Public Life

7.4 Equal opportunities based on the principle of meritocracy and access to education have resulted in women occupying several important leadership positions in various capacities, as Judges, senior Civil Servants, Diplomats (see Chapter 8 on Representation), Commanders of army and air force units and trade union leaders.

Judiciary

7.5 In the Judiciary, women made up 45% and 21% at the Subordinate Courts and Supreme Courts respectively in 2004.

Military Court of Appeal

7.6 Two women were recently appointed to the 10-member panel of legally-qualified persons of the Military Court of Appeal. They were Ms Deborah Barker, a Senior Counsel from the law firm Khattar Wong & Partners and Ms Foo Tuat Yien, a District Judge with the Subordinate Court. Both were appointed for two years, from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2006.

Women in the Public Sector

7.7 Recruitment into the public sector is open and transparent, and the development of every individual, female or male, is based on merit. The opportunities in the Civil Service are open to both men and women.

7.8 There is a higher proportion of women in the Civil Service, compared to men. As at September 2004, women constituted 56% of the Civil Service and formed 62% of the total officers in the Division I and Superscale categories, which are the top two categories of officers in the Civil Service. In the Superscale category, women make up 36% of the total officers.

7.9 As at September 2004, there were 2 female Permanent Secretaries out of a total of 19 Permanent Secretaries and 11 female Deputy Secretaries out of a total of 29 Deputy Secretaries in the Civil Service.

Non-Governmental Organisations and Associations Concerned with the Public and Political Life of Singapore

7.10 Together 3 key bodies represent more than 90% of women’s groups in Singapore and are a powerful resource as well as influence for change with regard to women’s rights in Singapore. These 3 bodies are:

(i) The Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations (SCWO), which is the umbrella body for women’s organisations in Singapore;

(ii) The Women Integration Network (WIN) Council under the People’s Association, which runs programmes for women at the community level and provides leadership opportunities at the grassroots level; and

(iii) The National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) Women’s Committee, which represents the labour movement and champions women’s interests pertaining to labour issues.

The People’s Association WIN Council and the NTUC Women’s Committee are also affiliates of the SCWO.

7.11 The Women’s Desk of the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports, has been working with these apex bodies to address three main issues facing women in Singapore today, namely, equipping women with new skills or updating their existing skills for life-long employability, work-life balance and financial literacy.

The Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations (SCWO)

7.12 The SCWO is the umbrella body for women’s organisations in Singapore. Its aim is to promote and improve the status of women, particularly in education, economic participation, social and community involvement and participation in culture and sports.

7.13 One of the non-profit organisation members of SCWO is the Association of Women for Action and Research (AWARE). With three main areas of focus - Support, Research and Advocacy - they reach out to several thousand women in distress through their telephone counselling Helpline, face-to-face counselling programme and free legal clinics. AWARE also runs educational programmes to raise awareness of issues on gender equality. Other examples of SCWO’s members include the Society Against Family Violence (SAFV), the Asian Women’s Welfare Association (AWWA) and the Singapore Association of Women’s Lawyers (SAWL).

CEDAW Discussion Sessions

7.14 Three sessions on CEDAW have been jointly organised by the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports (MCYS) and SCWO for women’s groups. The latest session was on 20 October 2004 to consult women’s groups and obtain views and inputs for this report.

7.15 The earlier two sessions on CEDAW for women’s groups were held in March 2000 and May 2003. The objectives of the sessions were to promote awareness of the Convention and its provisions, Singapore’s positions on the reservations tendered, disseminate Singapore’s Initial Report and provide an opportunity for the women’s groups to seek clarifications. The May 2003 session was also the platform to share the Concluding Comments of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on Singapore’s Initial and Second Periodic Reports. Participants were provided with copies of Singapore’s Initial and Second Periodic Reports and the Concluding Comments of the Committee, in addition to other handouts.

People’s Association Women Integration Network Council (PA WIN)

7.16 PA WIN which falls under the People’s Association (PA) runs programmes for women at the community level and provides leadership opportunities at the grassroots level.

7.17 Such grassroots activities provide women with a common platform to meet and exchange ideas and views with one another. It also gives them the opportunity to raise issues of concern.

The National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) Women’s Committee

7.18 The NTUC Women’s Committee represents the labour movement and champions women’s interests pertaining to labour issues.

7.19 Of the 410,440 workers represented in the trade unions affiliated to the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC), as at December 2003, 47% were women. During the most recent election in October 2003, 3 out of the 21 members of the NTUC Central Committee, the highest policy-making body of the labour movement, were women. The 3 female members are Madam Halimah Yacob, Assistant Secretary-General and Secretary of NTUC Women's Committee, Ms Diana Chia, Central Committee Member and Chairman of NTUC Women's Committee and Ms Nora Kang, Central Committee Member and Vice-Chairman of NTUC Women's Committee.

7.20 In recognition of her contributions to the labour movement, Madam Halimah Yacob was conferred The Woman of the Year Award in 2004 by a leading women’s magazine in Singapore, Her World. The nominating criteria include being a role model to inspire, lead and influence other women. Madam Halimah is the first unionist to be conferred this award.

Young Women Muslim Association/Persatuan Pemudi Islam Singapura (YWMA/PPIS)

7.21 There are various organisations which help empower Muslim women and one such organisation is the YWMA/PPIS, also an affiliate of the SCWO.

7.22 Through its well established social, educational and community-based projects, YWMA/PPIS has been empowering Muslim women on their rights under Syariah laws. However, in order to be more pro-active and focused, YWMA/PPIS decided to set up a Committee for the Empowerment of Muslim Women (CEMW) in March 2004. The CEMW comprises key members of its Executive Committee, its legal advisor, social workers from its centres and senior staff members. This was a result of several discussions between YWMA/PPIS and the Singapore Council of Women's Organisations (SCWO), following the sessions on CEDAW conducted by MCYS and SCWO for women's groups.

7.23 YWMA/PPIS, an influential Muslim Women's Voluntary Welfare Organization in Singapore, is of the view that Syariah laws do not discriminate against Muslim women. However, there is a lack of understanding of Syariah Laws leading to perceptions of injustice in marriage, divorce and in matters of inheritance for Muslim women and their children.

7.24 CEMW aims to bridge information and service gaps and to serve as a catalyst for the empowerment of Muslim women. It aims to raise awareness among Muslim women, Muslim men and the community at large on the above issues that affect Muslim women. It wants to achieve a supportive environment where Muslim women are accorded respect, given prominent roles and valued as an integral part of the community in Singapore.

7.25 CEMW intends to pursue its objectives through:

• Dialogue sessions with various professional organisations in social and legal services and religious groups. These sessions will provide a clearer and more consolidated understanding of the issues within the Muslim community.

• Creating and providing avenues for information access i.e. through the establishment of an information portal on YWMA’s website, through pamphlets to be distributed at community and counseling centres and the Courts, through advice columns in the local newspapers and through community programmes/stories over local television channels.

• Joint initiatives with other Muslim organisations offering seminars, workshops and possibly road-shows.

7.26 CEMW intends to regularly appraise its efforts and programmes to ensure continued relevance to the community. It also hopes to publish, print, record, sell and distribute printed and multi-media materials on the findings of studies conducted by CEMW.

Article 8

Representation

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure to women, on equal terms with men and without any discrimination, the opportunity to represent their Governments at the international level and to participate in the work of international organizations.

Increased Participation in International Women’s Meetings

8.1 The Women’s Desk in the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports participates in regional and international meetings on women. This not only generates greater awareness of issues facing women internationally, Singapore is also given an opportunity to participate in improving the lives of women around the world and contribute its insights, expertise and experience in empowering Singapore women.

8.2 The Women’s Desk has participated in the following regional/international meetings:

(i) Meeting of Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women’s Affairs (WAMM);

(ii) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Gender Focal Point Network and Women Leaders’ Network;

(iii) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Women’s Committee (ACW);

(iv) United Nations Economic & Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) High-Level Intergovernmental Meeting to Review Regional Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and Its Regional and Global Outcomes; and

(v) UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.

The Women’s Desk intends to continue participating in regional and international meetings on women.

8.3 With increased participation, Singapore’s expertise can be used to contribute towards plans of action and women’s agendas to benefit women generally. At the same time, the input and insight gained from these meetings can be used to further enhance the status of the women in Singapore where appropriate.

8.4 Singapore recently hosted the ASEAN Committee on Women (ACW) Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Workshop in August 2004. This workshop was the first of its kind under the ACW and the objectives were to increase awareness and general knowledge of the role of governments in facilitating wider usage of ICT among ASEAN women. The workshop also aimed to enable participants to produce a draft programme concept for their ministries or agencies to introduce ICT tools to their population, with the aim to facilitate ICT access by women and girls.

8.5 The participants were decision-makers at the Permanent Secretary, Deputy Secretary and Director level (or equivalent) from ministries or agencies whose responsibilities include matters concerning women, education and ICT.

Participation by Women at International Meetings

Convention on the Rights of the Child

8.6 The Singapore delegation presented its initial State Report before the Committee on the Rights of the Child in Geneva on 26 September 2003. The delegates came from MCYS, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, the Attorney General’s Chambers and an NGO and 6 out of the 10 delegates were women. The women delegates included representatives from MCYS, including the then Deputy Secretary, Ms Yeoh Chee Yan and the Director of Social Welfare and Director of Rehabilitation and Protection Division, Ms Ang Bee Lian.

Participation in the Work of International Organisations

UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

8.7 Dr Anamah Tan has been successfully elected to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and will serve on the Committee from January 2005 to December 2008, making her the first Singapore woman to serve on the Committee. Dr Tan, a high-profile family lawyer and veteran women’s rights activist, is also the current President of the International Council of Women (ICW). She has headed several high profile women’s organisations both locally (such as the Singapore Council for Women’s Organisations and the Singapore Association of Women Lawyers) and internationally (such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Confederation of Women’s Organisations (ACWO)). In fact, Dr Tan recently received an award from the ACWO in recognition of her work which contributed to the strength of ACWO and to the lives of women in the South East Asian region.

International Labour Organization

8.8 In 1999, Singaporean trade unionist, Madam Halimah Yacob, was elected to represent workers in the International Labour Organization (ILO), a tripartite UN agency based in Geneva, Switzerland. A qualified lawyer and Member of Parliament, she was elected to serve as a Deputy Member in the Workers’ Group of the ILO Governing Body, and re-elected to a second three-year term in 2002. She was elected as the Workers' Vice-chairperson of the Standards Committee of the International Labour Conference, Geneva, in 2000 and 2001. In 2003 and 2004, she was also chosen as spokesperson for the Workers’ Group in the ILO Tripartite Committee on Human Resources. (Please refer to Chapter 5 for more information on Madam Halimah.)

International Committee of the Red Cross

8.9 Dr Wong Ting Hway is the first Singaporean to work full-time with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Dr Wong, who was with the ICRC from 2002 to 2003, has also worked for Medecins Sans Frontiers from 2001 to 2002 and has done voluntary work in various countries, including Ecuador, Brazil and Nepal. She was recently awarded the Young Woman Achiever 2003 award by Her World, a monthly Singapore magazine.

Foreign Service

8.10 Gender is not a determinant in the assignation of jobs for officers in the Foreign Service but with the increased competence and qualifications of women now, more women are rising through the ranks and occupying the middle management positions in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA). The following chart shows the gender distribution of officers in the Singapore Foreign Service from July 2001 to July 2004.

Gender Distribution of Officers in the Singapore Foreign Service from July 2001 to July 2004












Category
Diplomatic
July 2001 - July 2002
July 2002 - July 2003
July 2003 - July 2004

Positions
Total Officers
Ratio
Total Officers
Ratio
Total Officers
Ratio

Male
Female
F/M
Male
Female
F/M
Male
Female
F/M

(M)
(F)
(M)
(F)
(M)
(F)

1
Senior
49
9
0.18
50
8
0.16
52
8
0.15

Management

2
Middle
62
18
0.29
59
20
0.34
54
19
0.35

Management

3
Officers
112
87
0.78
120
85
0.71
127
88
0.69




337


342


348



Senior Management: Ambassadors, High Commissioners and Directors



Middle Management: Deputy Directors and Senior Assistant Directors



Officers: Assistant Directors and Foreign Service Officers




8.11 Singapore has several Heads of Mission who are women. They include Professor Chan Heng Chee, Singapore’s Ambassador to the United States of America, based in Washington (Prof Chan was formerly Singapore’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York and the High Commissioner to Canada); Ms Seetoh Hoy Cheng, our High Commissioner to New Zealand, who was formerly the Ambassador to the Republic of Lao; Ms Pang Cheng Lian, our non-resident Ambassador to Italy; and Mrs Mohideen, our non-resident Ambassador to Czech Republic. Some recent additions since 2001 include Ms Karen Tan, our Ambassador to the Republic of Lao and Ms Lim Kheng Hua, our Ambassador to the Philippines.

Women’s Representation in the United Nations

8.12 There are more female Singaporeans working in the UN Secretariat than male. As at February 2004, 15 out of a total of 24 Singaporean staff were female, making up 63% of the total Singaporean staff. Ms Noeleen Heyzer, a Singaporean woman, continues to head UNIFEM as its Director. Ms Christine Lee, on temporary contract with the UN, is a member of the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring team, a panel of experts convened by the UN Secretary General dealing with sanctions against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda.

Article 9

Nationality

1. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men to acquire, change or retain their nationality. They shall ensure in particular that neither marriage to an alien nor change of nationality by the husband during marriage shall automatically change the nationality of the wife, render her stateless or force upon her the nationality of the husband.
2. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children.

New Nationality Law

9.1 Previously, a child who was born overseas could acquire Singapore citizenship by descent only if his or her father was a Singaporean. For a child born overseas to a Singaporean mother and a non-Singaporean father, the child could only acquire Singapore citizenship by registration upon the application of its mother.

9.2 However, in April 2004, the Singapore Parliament passed a bill to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to allow overseas-born children to acquire Singapore citizenship by descent from their Singaporean mothers. Hence, Article 122 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore is now gender neutral in that where a child is born on or after 15 May 2004, he/she shall be a citizen of Singapore by descent if at the time of his/her birth, either his/her father or mother is a citizen of Singapore, by birth, registration or descent.

PART III

Article 10

Education

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in order to ensure to them equal rights with men in the field of education and in particular to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:
(a) The same conditions for career and vocational guidance, for access to studies and for the achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as in urban areas; this equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical, professional and higher technical education, as well as in all types of vocational training;
(b) Access to the same curricula, the same examinations, teaching staff with qualifications of the same standard and school premises and equipment of the same quality;
(c) The elimination of any stereotyped concept of the roles of men and women at all levels and in all forms of education by encouraging coeducation and other types of education which will help to achieve this aim and, in particular, by the revision of textbooks and school programmes and the adaptation of teaching methods;
(d ) The same opportunities to benefit from scholarships and other study grants;
(e) The same opportunities for access to programmes of continuing education, including adult and functional literacy programmes, particularly those aimed at reducing, at the earliest possible time, any gap in education existing between men and women;
(f) The reduction of female student drop-out rates and the organization of programmes for girls and women who have left school prematurely;
(g) The same Opportunities to participate actively in sports and physical education;
(h) Access to specific educational information to help to ensure the health and well-being of families, including information and advice on family planning.

The Government’s Continuing Commitment to Education

10.1 The Government remains committed to providing all Singaporeans, both girls and boys, with equal access to quality education which will develop them fully and empower them to choose their own careers and shape their futures. Singapore believes that education is a fundamental resource which must be given to girls and boys in order that they become women and men who are well-educated, share economic and social responsibility and are well-ranked in all fronts globally.

10.2 To realise this aspiration, the Government invested 3.8% of GDP (or S$6.1 billion) in 2003[4] towards education.

Achievements

10.3 During the current reporting period, significant advances have been made in the field of education and a few are highlighted here.

Compulsory Primary Education

10.4 To achieve the twin objectives of imparting our children with a common core of knowledge and skills, and providing a common educational experience, the Government has made six-year primary school education in national schools compulsory. This took effect with the cohort entering Primary One in 2003. In making primary school education compulsory, Singapore has in effect implemented Goal 2 of the UN Millennium Development Goals, i.e. to achieve universal primary education for boys and girls.

Removal of Intake Quota for Female Medical Students

10.5 The Government’s policies are not static and are constantly reviewed in order that change, if necessary, can be effected to suit the current needs. An example of this is the review of the one-third quota on the intake of female medical students at the National University of Singapore (NUS). This quota was introduced in 1979 because comparatively, more female doctors left the workforce prematurely or switched to part-time work.

10.6 In recent years, however, the attrition rate for female doctors has decreased substantially, and is only slightly higher compared to the attrition rate for male doctors. Hence, the intake quota was lifted with effect from academic year 2003. Now, both men and women have equal opportunity to read medicine at NUS based on their individual merit.

Setting up of the Specialised Independent Schools

10.7 Singapore has also begun a qualitative leap to a more flexible and more diverse education system. In line with this approach, the Government has introduced and will be introducing specialised independent schools to cater to students who are talented in other areas such as sports, mathematics and science, and the arts in order that they can further develop their talents. The Singapore Sports School began operations in 2004, the NUS Maths and Science High School will open in 2005 and the Arts School in 2007. These schools determine their own specialised curriculum and programme to develop the special abilities of children. They do not practise gender discrimination when admitting students. Their admission criteria are transparent and merit-based. The following paragraphs describe the recently-opened Singapore Sports School which caters to students talented in sports.

10.8 The Singapore Sports School, set up by the then Ministry of Community Development and Sports, started classes in January 2004. Setting up the Singapore Sports School was one of the major recommendations by the Committee on Sporting Singapore (CoSS) in response to the following issues:

• academic demands in Singapore pose a huge strain on students who also want to excel in sport;

• talented student athletes often have to sacrifice their sporting dreams for their studies; and

• the focus of mainstream schools in general is to provide quality academic education. As such, resources for elite sports development are limited.

10.9 The Singapore Sports School provides talented student athletes with an opportunity to balance both elite sports and studies. This school provides elite sports training for young athletes, while offering these talented students a flexible academic programme to help them strike a balance between sports and studies.

10.10 The school has even gender representation. As at September 2004, girls make up 50% of the first batch of 140 students.

Achievements of the Girls at the Singapore Sports School

10.11 The girls at the Singapore Sports School have done well in sports both locally and abroad. In athletics, the girls’ squad has broken two national age-group Under 15 (U-15) records to date, in the 200m and 1,500m. It also set 7 new C Division (U-14) records in the National Schools Track and Field Championships. These new marks were set in the 100m, 200, 400, 800m, 1,500m, 4x100m and 4x400m relays.

10.12 In swimming, the girls from the Singapore Sports School set 5 new C and B Division (U-17) records in the National Schools Swimming Championships, while Ruth Ho won a gold in the 50m freestyle at the 2004 International Children’s Games in Cleveland, Ohio.

10.13 In badminton, one of the girls, Mok Jing Qiong, won the National Age-Group U-15 girls singles title while the Bowling Academy girls’ team swept all the U-14 titles (singles, doubles, quartet, all-events and masters) at the National Age-Group Tenpin Bowling Championships.

10.14 In sailing, Victoria Chan finished second in the Girls Byte Class at the European Sailing Championships in Italy. Two of the female Optimist sailors were also part of the national team that helped Singapore to win the overall team title at the Asian Sailing Championships in Japan.

10.15 Finally, the table-tennis girls’ squad took home the silver medal in the U-15 doubles and the bronze medal in the U-18 singles at the South-east Asia Youth Championships. They also swept the top two positions in the Women’s Team event and the top three positions in the Women’s Singles event at the National Table Tennis Open ‘B’ Championships.

Third International Maths and Science Study

10.16 Out of 38 countries that participated in the Third International Maths and Science Study (TIMSS) in 1999, Singapore was ranked first in Maths and second in Science. There was no significant difference between the performance of Singapore boys and girls in either Maths or Science in the TIMSS exercise. This is reflective of the equal emphasis for boys and girls in education as well as the equal treatment accorded to both genders.

Statistics

10.17 Singapore has achieved a high literacy rate for women. The literacy rate for resident females aged 15 years and over has improved from 88% in 1999 to 91% in 2003.

10.18 Singapore’s dropout rate in primary and secondary schools is generally very low. In 2003, the overall dropout rate was about 0.2%. The female student dropouts comprise 47.3% of this drop-out rate. Please see table below:

Enrolment
Dropouts
Overall Dropout Rate
% of Female Dropouts
Male
Female
Total
488,239
542
487
1029
0.2%
47.3%

Note :

1) Figures comprise of Singapore Citizen and Permanent Resident in Primary and Secondary schools.

2) Dropout rate is total number of dropout as a percentage of enrolment.

Primary, Secondary and Pre-University Education, 2003

10.19 A total of 358 schools offer primary, secondary and/or pre-university education as at 2003. Please see the following table:

Schools by Type and Level

Type of School
Primary
Secondary
Full School
Junior College
Centralised Institute
Total
Total
175
162
3
16
2
358
Government
132
113
-
11
2
258
Government-Aided
43
21
-
5
-
69
Autonomous
-
20
3
-
-
23
Independent
-
8
-
-
-
8

Note: Full Schools function with Primary and Secondary Sections.

Source : Education Statistics Digest 2003

10.20 The total enrolment in these schools is 530,924, of which about half is female. Nearly three quarters of the teachers are female while two-thirds of the vice-principals and nearly two-thirds of the principals are female. Please see table below:

Enrolment and Education Officers by Level


Primary
Secondary
Junior College
Centralised Institute
Total
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Enrolment
299,939
144,706
(48.2)
206,426
99,368
(48.1)
23,708
12,678
(53.5)
851
528
(62)
530,924
257,280
(48.5)
Teacher
12,025
9,951
(82.8)
10,830
7,186
(66.4)
1,956
1,122
(57.4)
103
58
(56.3)
24,914
18,317
(73.5)
Vice-Principal
140
105
(75)
150
86
(57.3)
19
15
(78.9)
1
1
(100)
310
207
(66.8)
Principal
191
131
(68.6)
166
95
(57.2)
16
10
(62.5)
2
2
(100)
375
238
(63.5)

Note: Full Schools Principals are included under Secondary School.

No. of Principals include 24 Principal Designate.

Source: Education Statistics Digest 2003

10.21 The average class sizes for primary and secondary schools are 38 and 37 respectively while the average class sizes for junior colleges and centralised institutes are 23 and 21 respectively. Please see table below:

Enrolment, Number of Classes and Class Size

Level
Enrolment
No. of Classes
Average Class Size
Overall
530,924
14,684
36.2
Primary
299,939
7,944
37.8
Secondary
206,426
5,650
36.5
Junior College
23,708
1,050
22.6
Centralised Institute
851
40
21.3

Source: Education Statistics Digest 2003

ITE, Polytechnic and University Education, 2003

10.22 Women make up 51% of the full-time student intake at the universities, 49% at the polytechnics and 35% at the Institute of Technical Education (ITE) (an institution offering technical-vocational courses for pupils with GCE ‘O’ or ‘N’ level certificates) in Singapore for 2003.

10.23 The intake levels of females at our polytechnics and universities have increased steadily, from 42% and 50% respectively in 1990/91 to 49% and 51% respectively in 2003. This has helped to close the gender wage gap, from 16% in 1992 to 9% in 2003 for Professionals, and from 39% to 25% for Production Crafts-persons.[5]

10.24 Women are well-represented in traditionally male-dominated subjects, which is a reflection that men and women pursue subjects of their choice and interest rather than conforming to gender stereotype. The intake of females to the following courses in 2003 reflect this:

• at the universities, women made up 68% of the science courses and 75% of the accountancy courses;

• at the polytechnics, women made up 55% of the building and construction courses, 57% of the chemical and life-sciences courses and 45% of the information technology courses; and

• at the ITE, women made up 39% of the info-communication technology courses.

10.25 The tables and charts below show the distribution of female students across the courses offered at our universities, polytechnics and the ITE.

Intake, Enrolment and Output of ITE in 2003 (Full-Time)

Courses
Intake
Enrolment
Output
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
10,566
3,732
(35.3)
17,941
5,615
(31.3)
7,741
2,778
(35.9)
Engineering
6,050
861
(14.2)
11,227
1,555
(13.9)
4,684
703
(15)
Info-Communications Technology
912
355
(38.9)
1,695
639
(38.5)
695
260
(37.4)
Business
2,656
2,146
(80.8)
3,543
2,821
(79.6)
1,879
1,625
(86.5)
Applied and Health Sciences
420
260
(61.9)
746
458
(61.4)
269
156
(58)
Technical Skills
528
110
(20.8)
730
142
(19.5)
214
34
(15.9)

Source: Education Statistics Digest 2003

Intake, Enrolment & Graduates of Polytechnics in 2003 (Full-Time)

Courses
Intake
Enrolment
Graduates
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
17,617
8,694
(49.4)
55,376
26,391
(47.7)
15,404
7,455
(48.4)
Building and Construction
737
405
(55)
2,417
1,315
(54.4)
798
416
(52.1)
Business, Finance and Law
3,336
2,448
(73.4)
10,213
7,485
(72.7)
3,402
2,484
(73)
Chemical and Life-Sciences
1,959
1,117
(57)
5,558
3,162
(56.9)
1,288
830
(64.4)
Information Technology
3,779
1,716
(45.4)
11,815
4,998
(42.3)
2,818
1,084
(38.5)
Media & Design
1,011
628
(62.1)
2,977
1,806
(60.7)
691
374
(54.1)
Electrical and Electronics
3,336
858
(25.7)
11,721
3,204
(27.3)
3,309
956
(28.9)
Health Sciences
1,109
887
(87)
2,505
2,225
(88.8)
535
462
(86.4)
Mechanical and Manufacturing
1,951
399
(20.5)
6,547
1,560
(23.8)
2,080
677
(32.5)
Maritime Studies
362
112
(30.9)
1,266
286
(23.8)
379
73
(19.3)
Pre-School Education
127
124
(97.6)
357
350
(98)
104
99
(95.2)

*Intake includes direct entry to second year

Source: Education Statistics Digest 2003

Intake, Enrolment & Graduates of Universities in 2003 (Full-Time)

Courses
Intake
Enrolment
Graduates
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
Female
(% of total)
Total
11,419
5,779
(50.6)
40,095
19,335
(48.2)
10,010
5,050
(50.4)
Accountancy
704
525
(74.6)
2,169
1,497
(69)
746
524
(70.2)
Arts
1,919
1,382
(72)
6,448
4,649
(72.1)
2,007
1,446
(72)
Business
1,338
847
(63.3)
4,271
2,847
(66.7)
977
693
(70.9)
Computing
1,003
203
(20.2)
4,336
1,172
(27)
980
325
(33.2)
Dentistry
34
15
(44.1)
138
60
(43.5)
32
11
(34.4)
Design & Environment
354
216
(61)
1,351
820
(60.7)
364
201
(55.2)
Engineering
3,618
1,002
(27.7)
14,032
4,252
(30.3)
3,317
873
(26.3)
Law
219
129
(58.9)
752
65
(86.4)
140
81
(57.9)
Medicine
231
99
(42.9)
1,114
441
(39.6)
194
66
(34)
Pharmacy
85
66
(77.6)
344
273
(79.4)
63
48
(76.2)
Science
1,843
1,261
(68.4)
5,069
3,225
(63.6)
1,190
782
(65.7)
Conservatory
71
34
(47.9)
71
34
(47.9)
-
-

Note: 1) Intake, Enrolment and Graduate figures refer to 1st degree only.

2) Intake includes direct entry to second and subsequent years.

Source: Education Statistics Digest 2003

Singapore’s Masterplan for IT in Education

10.26 Singapore's Masterplan for IT in Education was launched in 1997 to provide a comprehensive strategy for creating an IT-based teaching and learning environment in every school. We want every child to be proficient in the use of computers and benefit from learning in an IT-enriched environment. The government committed S$2 billion from 1997 to 2002 to implement its IT Masterplan. This includes funds for computers, full networking of the schools, physical renovations, software and courseware and teacher training. Today, all our schools are equipped with computers.

10.27 The goals of the Masterplan are to:

• enhance linkages between the school and the world around it;

• generate innovative processes in education;

• enhance creative thinking, lifelong learning and social responsibility; and

• promote administrative and management excellence in the education system.

10.28 The implementation milestones are:

1997
22 (Phase 1) Demonstration schools to integrate IT into curriculum
1998
About 90 (Phase 2) schools to come on-stream
1999
About 250 (Phase 3) schools to come on-stream
2000
Core training for teachers in every school will be completed
2002
6.6:1 pupil-computer ratio in primary schools and 5:1 pupil-computer ratio for secondary schools and junior colleges with a recommended 30% IT-based curriculum time

10.29 An all-girls school, Crescent Girls' Secondary School’s mobile-learning programme, m-Learning@Crescent, is one of the world’s first examples in introducing the prevalent use of personalised mobile learning devices for a large cohort of students. This programme is a BackPack.Net initiative which is led by the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore and Microsoft and supported by the Ministry of Education, and involves several industry partners. The programme involves all secondary one students at the school using individual tablet PCs containing digitized textbooks and other pen-based applications for teaching and learning.

10.30 Crescent Girls’ Secondary School was chosen because it has a rich culture of promoting the innovative use of technology for teaching and learning. It was a demonstration school for the IT Masterplan in Education. This equipped the school with the necessary infrastructure and professional development to pioneer emerging technologies such as personalised learning devices for teaching and learning.

Qualitative Shift in the Education System

10.31 Singapore’s new Prime Minister, Mr Lee Hsien Loong, stressed the need for a qualitative shift in education in Singapore in his maiden National Day Rally Speech in August 2004. While the school system in Singapore has gone through many improvements over the years and Singapore students are well-educated and rank well internationally, PM Lee spoke of a need for a qualitative change where experiential learning, initiative and flexibility should be further emphasised over rote learning.

10.32 Recognising the importance of teachers and principals as key resources in implementing this change and providing that qualitative leap, he spoke about increasing the number of teachers in Singapore by almost 3,000 to ensure that students have better-skilled teachers who have more time to focus on the individual needs of the student or group.

10.33 Hence, the Government plans to add 1000 more teachers for primary schools, 1400 more teachers for secondary schools and 550 more for the junior colleges over the next six years. This would mean an overall increase of 15% more teachers per student.

10.34 PM Lee also noted that an increase in teachers should not come with an increase in homework as that would defeat the purpose. Instead, he recommended a reduction on some of the school syllabus so that there would be less pressure on the children and staff, thus giving the children more space to explore and discover their talents and the teachers more space to think of ways to bring out the best in the students.

10.35 These changes will benefit both girls and boys going through the education system in Singapore.

Article 11

Employment

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of employment in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the same rights, in particular:
(a) The right to work as an inalienable right of all human beings;
(b) The right to the same employment opportunities, including the application of the same criteria for selection in matters of employment;
(c) The right to free choice of profession and employment, the right to promotion, job security and all benefits and conditions of service and the right to receive vocational training and retraining, including apprenticeships, advanced vocational training and recurrent training;
(d) The right to equal remuneration, including benefits, and to equal treatment in respect of work of equal value, as well as equality of treatment in the evaluation of the quality of work;
(e) The right to social security, particularly in cases of retirement, unemployment, sickness, invalidity and old age and other incapacity to work, as well as the right to paid leave;
(f) The right to protection of health and to safety in working conditions, including the safeguarding of the function of reproduction.
2. In order to prevent discrimination against women on the grounds of marriage or maternity and to ensure their effective right to work, States Parties shall take appropriate measures:
(a) To prohibit, subject to the imposition of sanctions, dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy or of maternity leave and discrimination in dismissals on the basis of marital status;
(b) To introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits without loss of former employment, seniority or social allowances;
(c) To encourage the provision of the necessary supporting social services to enable parents to combine family obligations with work responsibilities and participation in public life, in particular through promoting the establishment and development of a network of child-care facilities;
(d) To provide special protection to women during pregnancy in types of work proved to be harmful to them.
3. Protective legislation relating to matters covered in this article shall be reviewed periodically in the light of scientific and technological knowledge and shall be revised, repealed or extended as necessary.

Achievements

ILO Convention

11.1 The Government recognises that men and women have the right to equal remuneration and equal treatment in respect of work of equal value. Since the last reporting period, on 30 May 2002, Singapore has ratified a key ILO Convention – Convention 100 on Equal Remuneration to signify its commitment to equal pay for equal work.

11.2 Following the ratification of ILO Convention 100, the 3 key partners concerned with the labour force, namely, the Ministry of Manpower (MOM), the National Trades Union Congress and the Singapore National Employers Federation, issued a Tripartite Declaration on Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Performing Work of Equal Value on 6 November 2002, affirming their commitment to the principle embodied in the said Convention and declaring that this principle will be incorporated into future collective agreements in support of the Convention. In this regard, employers and unions have been requested to incorporate an appropriate "equal remuneration clause" in their collective agreements as and when the agreements are due for renewal.

11.3 A Code of Responsible Employment Practices was also jointly issued by the Singapore Business Federation, the Singapore National Employers Federation and the National Trades Union Congress in December 2002. This Code helps employers promote and observe responsible employment practices in their workplaces regardless of race, age, gender, marital status, disability or other factors that have no relevance to the job requirement. For example, whenever the practical requirements of the job dictate the need for employees of a particular sex, this must be supported by acceptable rationale.

Equal Reward for Work of Equal Value in the Civil Service

11.4 Civil servants are rewarded solely based on their performance and are not discriminated against in any other ways, including gender. With the recent equalisation of medical benefits under the current medical scheme (namely, the Medisave-cum-Subsidised Outpatient (MSO) scheme), all new officers appointed to the civil service will receive similar overall compensation packages regardless of gender if all else is equal.

Wage Differentials in the Civil Service

11.5 The following table compares the median salaries of male and female civil servants, broken down into age groups:

Age Group
Median Salary for all Civil Servants
Median Salary for Female Civil Servants
Median Salary for Male Civil Servants
< 21
S$1,510
S$1,510
S$1,390
21-25
S$1,950
S$1,970
S$1,910
26-30
S$2,670
S$2,940
S$2,460
31-35
S$3,590
S$3,730
S$3,290
36-40
S$3,750
S$4,040
S$3,120
41-45
S$3,750
S$4,240
S$3,230
46-50
S$3,290
S$3,380
S$3,290
51-55
S$4,700
S$4,890
S$4,310
56-60
S$4,890
S$4,890
S$4,700
> 60
S$4,440
S$4,320
S$4,540

11.6 As shown by the table above, there are marginal differences between the median salary for female and male civil servants. In fact, female civil servants are earning marginally more than their male peers at nearly every age band, with the exception of those aged above 60 years. This could be attributed to the lower retirement age for female civil servants.

Equalising Medical Benefits for Dependants of Civil Servants

11.7 Under the current medical scheme, male civil servants can claim medical benefits for themselves and for their dependants, while their female counterparts can only claim medical benefits for themselves.

11.8 With effect from 1 January 2005, the medical benefits for female civil servants on the current medical scheme, namely, the Medisave-cum-Subsidised Outpatient (MSO) scheme, will be equalised so that they are treated no differently from the male civil servants. This will facilitate greater sharing of care giving responsibilities between married couples. Female officers on the MSO scheme can claim medical benefits for their unmarried children below the age of 18 years and for their spouses.

11.9 The MSO scheme was implemented in 1994 and is the current medical benefits scheme for civil servants, and on which all newly appointed officers are placed. Female officers who are on the older medical benefits schemes will also be able to claim these benefits for their unmarried children below the age of 18 years.

Women and Employment

11.10 Our female labour force participation rate was 54% in 2003, up from the participation rate of 51% recorded in 1992.

11.11 The number and proportion of female corporate managers of total managers rose from 27% in 1999 to 31% in 2003. Women also participate heavily in the traditionally male-dominated IT industry. In 2003, women made up 34% of the total IT professionals.

11.12 Please see Appendix 1 for statistics on the following information:

• Table 2: Age - Sex Specific Labour Force Participation Rates, June 1993 – 2003 (total, males and females);

• Table 3: Age - Sex Specific Labour Force Participation Rates by Marital Status, June 2003;

• Table 16: Employed Persons Aged Fifteen Years and Over by Age and Sex, June 1993 – 2003;

• Table 18: Employed Persons Aged Fifteen Years and Over by Industry and Sex, June 1993 – 2003 (total, males and females);

• Table 19: Employed Persons Aged Fifteen Years and Over by Occupation and Sex, June 1993 – 2003 (total, males and females); and

• Table 30: Employed Persons Aged Fifteen Years and Over by Age, Sex and Type of Employment, June 2003.

Wages

11.13 In 2003, the average monthly earnings of females was 72% that of the males. This figure has remained at a steady rate since the previous reporting period.

11.14 Similar to the experience in many countries, females in Singapore earn less than males across broad occupational groups, although the difference is narrower for the higher skilled occupations. This wage gap mainly reflects the tendency for females to disrupt their participation in the labour market for childcare and household responsibilities, hence reducing their years of service and experience. The smaller wage gap differential among the younger age group attests to this. In fact, among workers aged 25- 29 years, females earned more than males in a number of occupations, ranging from 13% for managers to a marginal 0.4% for technicians & associate professionals in 2003.

11.15 However, in manual occupations such as production craftsmen and plant & machine operators, females earned less than males in the same age group. Here the wage disparity could result from the tendency for males and females to hold different jobs within each occupational group. For instance, within the group of plant & machine operators, the females tend to concentrate in occupations such as electronic component assemblers which typically pay less than bus drivers which are dominated by men.

11.16 Apart from occupation and experience, other factors contributing to gender wage disparity include differences in hours worked, qualifications, field of study, job nature and position.

11.17 Please see Appendix 2 for statistics on the following information:

• Table 10: Median Monthly Gross Wage by Gender and Occupation, 2003; and

• Chart 6: Gender Wage Difference by Occupation and Selected Age Groups, 2003.

11.18 Please see Appendix 3 for statistics on the following information:

• Appendix 3A – Table 2.1: Monthly Basic and Gross Wages of Selected Occupations in All Industries, June 2003 (Males); and

• Appendix 3B – Table 2.2: Monthly Basic and Gross Wages of Selected Occupations in All Industries, June 2003 (Females).

Challenges Faced in Economic Downturn and Measures Taken

Background on the Recession

11.19 The Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 plunged Southeast Asia, including Singapore, into an economic recession in 1998. Although growth resumed in 1999-2000, Singapore was hit by another recession in 2001. The synchronised downturns in the major developed economies as well as the global electronics industry led to a sharp deceleration in global growth.

11.20 The economic malaise was further aggravated by the terrorist attacks on the US on 11 September 2001 and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) crisis which permeated Asia in 2003. Further anxieties and uncertainties have also been caused by the discovery of terrorist groups in Southeast Asia linked to Al Qaeda.

External Challenges

11.21 Further, globalisation and rapid technological advances are driving fundamental, long-term changes in commerce, industry and our daily lives. The economic rise of large new players like China and India and their entry into the world economy also brings both challenges and opportunities. In the short term, the entry of China and India into the market will mean dislocation in many countries, as industries restructure and relocate, and trade patterns change. Some workers will lose their jobs, while other industries will need workers, but those with different skills.

Restructuring by Companies

11.22 To survive and grow in this new global environment, companies must continually restructure themselves and upgrade their products and processes. Old jobs are being destroyed, to be replaced by new ones which demand greater knowledge, skills and adaptability from workers. Workers can no longer expect the security of lifetime employment, but must be prepared for job changes several times in their working lives.

11.23 MNCs and financial institutions see more business opportunities in China and are increasing their presence there. Singapore and the rest of Southeast Asia have not been immuned from such trends and over the past years, have seen MNCs shift their operations to China or Hong Kong to save costs and to be at or nearer the biggest Asian market.

11.24 This restructuring is a major reason why Singapore is experiencing higher retrenchments and unemployment. The average unemployment rate has been rising steadily from 3.1% in 2000 to 4.7% in 2003[6].

Restructuring by Singapore

11.25 Set against this economic backdrop, Singapore has to take decisive steps to strengthen itself in order to stay competitive and save jobs. The immediate problems make it more urgent for Singapore to restructure its economy to strengthen its position rather than slow down essential changes.

11.26 The Economic Review Committee (ERC), set up in December 2001 to fundamentally review Singapore’s development strategy, and formulate strategies to upgrade, transform and revitalise the economy, has recommended dealing with the immediate issues by lowering costs and staying competitive in its February 2003 report.

11.27 In 2003, the Government re-tuned the Central Provident Fund (CPF) system to strike a better balance between social objectives and economic concerns. The CPF system is a compulsory social security scheme that provides for retirement, health care, home ownership, family protection and asset enhancement. The mandatory CPF contribution rate was cut by 3 percentage points from 36% to 33% from 1 Oct 2003 to lower statutory costs for employers. For workers aged 50 to 55 years, the contribution rate would be further lowered to 27% by 2006 to help make older workers more employable. To ensure that the future retirement needs of our workers can still be met despite the cut in contribution rate, the CPF Minimum Sum, which is a lump sum set aside by the member at age 55 years to be paid out in monthly payments from age 62 years, would be raised gradually to S$120,000 (in 2003 dollars) by 2013. The Medisave Minimum Sum, to take care of future healthcare expenses, would be adjusted every year to take into account healthcare cost inflation. The current 50% withdrawal rule, which allows CPF members to withdraw half their CPF savings at age 55 years even without setting aside the full Minimum Sum, would be phased out by 2013.

11.28 The ERC also recommended that the Government manage major components of business costs so that Singapore could stay internationally competitive. In particular, foreign worker policies should be flexible enough to allow companies to employ the workers they need, keep their overall costs of production down and make their operations here more viable.

11.29 Finally, the Government must continue helping Singaporeans affected by the downturn. The ERC recommended that the Government set up a national Continuing Education and Training (CET) body to oversee the promotion and development of CET in Singapore. The Government should also step up efforts to help Singaporeans who are out of work find new jobs as quickly as possible. Retrenched Singaporeans are taking longer to find re-employment and, meanwhile, will need assistance. The ERC recommended that the Government refine its assistance schemes to focus on Singaporean men and women who most need help, and make the most effort to help themselves.

Labour Market Measures Taken

11.30 To help businesses tide over the effect of SARS, the National Wages Council recommended wage cuts in companies directly affected by SARS, wage freezes for companies not directly affected but nonetheless affected by uncertain business conditions and pay bonuses to staff for companies still doing well.

11.31 The Government also took other measure to help men and women cope with the economic recession and to adjust to structural changes in the economy.

11.32 As Singapore evolves into a knowledge-based economy, training and learning take on added significance. In April 2000, the Government allocated S$200 million for a 5-year Manpower Development Assistant Scheme for skills upgrading initiatives to prepare the workforce for a knowledge-based economy.

11.33 Employers are given various kinds of financial incentives to provide training and to upgrade their workers’ skills through the Skills Development Fund. The Skills Development Fund also subsidises training for workers who wish to upgrade themselves but who do not have employer support. In addition, the Lifelong Learning Endowment Fund (LLF), established on 12 March 2001, enhances the employment and employability of Singaporeans through initiatives that promote and facilitate the acquisition of skills. LLF provides a steady stream of funding for lifelong learning initiatives for all Singaporeans, including those who are seeking to rejoin the workforce

11.34 In September 2003, the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (WDA) was established to help unemployed Singaporeans gain employment, to upgrade the skills of workers in employment as well as to drive adult learning in Singapore. Working closely with her partners both in the industries and with other government agencies, WDA developed and implemented holistic manpower strategies to enhance the employability and competitiveness of the Singapore workforce. WDA also works closely with the industry partners to identify skills and training needs, and to develop relevant training programmes to help job-seekers acquire the skills needed for the jobs in these industries.

11.35 WDA is developing and implementing a more holistic and robust Continuing Education and Training (CET) framework for skills upgrading by the workforce. This would help to create clearer upgrading pathways for workers to keep their skills relevant and enhance workers’ access to learning and quality training. These elements include developing a framework of skills standards for key industries, introducing a system for employability skills training and enhancing quality assurance of trainers and training organisations. Such a framework would improve the effectiveness of training and better link the outcomes of training with employability.

Employment Act – Managers, Executives, Confidential Staff, Domestic Workers, and Seamen

11.36 While the Employment Act does not apply to executives, managers, confidential staff, domestic workers and seaman, the basis for the exclusion is not gender-biased. Personnel in managerial and executive positions are excluded as they are in a better position to negotiate for their own terms and conditions of employment. Hence, they do not require the protection of the Employment Act which provides for the minimum terms and conditions of employment in Singapore. Seamen and domestic workers are excluded from the Act as it is difficult to enforce the Act because of the nature of their work. The exclusion from coverage under the Employment Act is not gender-biased and is therefore not discriminatory against female workers.

11.37 While the Act excludes certain occupations, the Labour Relations Department of the Ministry of Manpower does provide voluntary conciliation services to those who approach them for assistance in resolving their disputes with their employers amicably. This service is provided free of charge. Executives who are unable to resolve their cases at the Ministry can pursue their claims at the civil court.

11.38 In July 2002, the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act 2002 was passed in Parliament to allow executives who are not employed in senior management positions and who are not performing such roles to be represented by recognised trade unions on an individual basis on specific issues relating to retrenchment benefits, dismissal and breach of contracts of employment. This Act came into operation on 1 September 2002.

Foreign Domestic Workers

11.39 The Ministry of Manpower (MOM) has instituted several measures to protect foreign domestic workers (FDWs) working in Singapore. These are elaborated in the following paragraphs.

Public Education

Information Kit for Employers

11.40 In a move to educate employers of FDWs, MOM specially produced an information kit comprising a handbook for employers, training checklist and cultural guide in May 1999. The kit promotes the building of a harmonious working relationship between the employer and the FDW through cultural understanding, open communication and mutual respect. It also includes information on the rights of the FDW, and the consequences employers face if they are found guilty of abusing them.

11.41 "Employing Foreign Domestic Workers, A Guide for Employers" spells out the responsibilities of employers as well as ways to better manage their workers. Some proposed guidelines for a written agreement between employers and FDWs are listed. Important work permit regulations are also highlighted. The intent of the guide is to help the employers develop a close and cordial working relationship with their FDW based on mutual respect and understanding.

11.42 To reduce conflicts arising from cultural differences and to help employers overcome the language barrier with their FDWs, the kit incorporates a "Cultural Guidebook" on norms and customs as well as everyday vocabulary of workers from the 3 largest source countries of FDWs: Indonesia, the Philippines and Sri Lanka. The "Training Checklist" proposes employers discuss 17 common topics with their FDWs, covering everything from Singapore's laws and culture to exactly what chores you expect your FDW to perform and how to do them.

Advisory for Foreign Workers

11.43 MOM has prepared an advisory booklet for all foreign workers including FDWs who are coming to work in Singapore for the first time. The advisory booklet explains to workers their rights and obligations while working here. It also provides some useful telephone numbers which foreign workers can call in the event of an emergency. The contact numbers for medical help, one-stop social service, the Samaritans of Singapore, the Labour Relations and Welfare Department and the Work Permit Department of MOM are also included. The various embassy helpdesk lines are also provided to the foreign worker. This advisory booklet is presented in English and in 9 native languages of foreign workers.

11.44 In addition, in October 2000, the Ministry produced a "Handy Guide for Foreign Domestic Workers". The guidebook is distributed free to all foreign domestic workers at the Work Permit Services Centre (WPSC) when they first arrive to work here. The guidebook informs FDWs that they are protected under Singapore law, and provides advice on whom they can approach for help should they be victimised. The guidebook is produced in the native language of the FDW.

Penal Code

11.45 The Government takes a serious view of employers who ill-treat or abuse their foreign workers, especially those in domestic employment. Employers who do so are severely dealt with. The police conduct prompt and thorough investigations into all such cases. Errant employers are prosecuted in the courts and heavy sentences such as jail, fine and/or caning, are meted out to those found guilty of physical abuse or ill-treatment.

In 1998, the Penal Code was amended to enhance penalties committed by employers of FDWs or members of the employers’ household against their FDWs by one and a half times the amount of punishment to which he or she would otherwise have been liable for that offence. In addition, convicted employers and spouses will also not be allowed to employ another FDW permanently.

Personal Accident Insurance (PAI) for FDWs

11.46 With effect from 1 March 1997, employers are required to take up a Personal Accident Insurance policy for their FDW before they are allowed to employ the worker. This is a condition for the issue of a work permit. The minimum sum assured is $10,000, and any compensation payable is made to the FDW or her beneficiaries.

Foreign Worker's Unit (Work Related Disputes)

11.47 The Foreign Worker Unit was set up in MOM's Labour Relations Department in November 1997 to resolve the disputes between foreign workers and their employers on their terms and conditions of employment. The conciliation service is provided free-of-charge. The Unit receives about 30 requests from foreign domestic workers each month to help them resolve their disputes with their employers. Most of the disputes are salary-related and almost all are amicably resolved.

Criminal Proceedings Against Employers

11.48 Whenever an FDW is required to assist in investigations by the authorities, arrangements will be made to facilitate her stay in Singapore in order for her to give evidence against her employer in court, if so required. At the same time, the Ministry of Manpower will also allow the FDW (who are required as witnesses) to seek employment through the Temporary Job Scheme (TJS). The Ministry's TJS facilitates the job placements of such FDWs and is opened to other government agencies such as Police and Immigration and Customs Authority (ICA). For FDWs, they have the option to convert their 6-month temporary employment under TJS to permanent employment when the case is concluded.

FDW Hotline

11.49 MOM has a dedicated hotline for FDWs. FDWs in need of help or concerned members of public who know of FDW mistreatment, such as lack of food, sleep or rest, can contact MOM.

Employment Terms

11.50 All work permit holders (including FDWs) and employers are bound by the Employment of Foreign Workers Act (EFWA). They also have to abide by the work permit conditions. In the case of employers, they are bound by the Security Bond conditions to be responsible for the well-being of their foreign workers.

11.51 FDWs are currently not covered under the Employment Act. There is no discrimination based on nationality as both local and foreign domestic workers have been excluded from the Employment Act since it was enacted in 1968. The Government does not see the need to impose standard terms on employers because it is not practical to regulate specific aspects of domestic work including hours of work, rest day work and work on public holidays. Given that FDWs work in a home environment, and the varied habits of households, it is difficult to enforce the terms of the Employment Act. Instead, the Government has been encouraging employers and FDWs to enter into an employment contract with the help of the employment agencies. It is a licence requirement that all the employment agencies that recruit FDWs are required to be accredited and it is an accreditation criteria for these agencies to ensure that their FDW clients have employment contracts while working here.

11.52 Further to the above listed measures, as part of its on-going efforts to enhance the well-being and safety of FDWs in Singapore, MOM has recently introduced three new measures for FDWs and their employers. They are:

(1) Compulsory Orientation Programme for New FDW Employers

11.53 With effect from 1 April 2004, MOM will require all first-time employers of FDWs to attend a half-day Orientation Programme as a processing criteria for their FDW's work permit application. The aim of the programme is to educate new employers on their role and responsibility towards their FDW and to inculcate a greater sense of respect and responsibility for the FDW working in their home.

11.54 The orientation programme will provide advice on cultivating a good working relationship between employers and their FDWs based on mutual understanding and respect, motivating and coaching the FDWs, ensuring their safety at work, as well as keeping employers informed of the rules and regulations governing FDW employment and the penalties for abuse or exploitation of an FDW. MOM has engaged professional training providers to run the programme and a course fee will be payable to the various training providers.

(2) Compulsory Safety Awareness Course for Newly Arrived FDWs

11.55 As many FDW accidents occur within the first few months of an FDW's employment, MOM will now require all newly arrived FDWs (i.e., those with no prior working experience in Singapore) to attend a compulsory half-day safety awareness course before issuance of their work permit card. Effective from 1 April 2004, the safety course will educate FDWs on working safely while performing domestic chores and preventing accidents such as falling from heights during the course of work. The programme is modeled after existing safety orientation courses for foreign workers in the construction and marine sectors.

11.56 The curriculum, developed in consultation with the National Safety Council (NSC) will cover the safety hazards of working and living in an urban environment. FDWs will be advised on the necessary safety precautions to take in order to prevent accidents when performing domestic chores such as cleaning windows, hanging laundry in high-rise buildings or when using electrical appliances. The programme will be conducted in English and Bahasa Indonesia, given that the majority of the FDWs in Singapore speak either language.

(3) New FDW Measures Being Implemented in 2005

11.57 To raise the quality of FDWs in Singapore, MOM will raise the minimum age (from 18 to 23) for FDWs and introduce minimum education requirements for new FDWs with effect from 1 Jan 2005. At the same time, MOM will also introduce new requirements for employers who change their FDWs frequently. Frequent changes of FDWs are often a reflection of difficulty in managing FDWs on the part of the employers. Hence, MOM will require all employers who change their FDWs 5 or more times within a one-year period, to attend the FDW Employers’ Orientation Programme. They may also be required to attend an interview with a Ministry Official from MOM to better understand the circumstances behind the frequent change in FDW. Employers who persist to change FDWs frequently thereafter without satisfactory reasons, may have their applications for FDWs rejected in future.

Child Care Centres

11.58 The Government continues to promote the development of child-care centres to provide the necessary supporting social services to enable parents to combine family obligations with work responsibilities and participation in public life.

11.59 As at 31 August 2004, there were 676 Child Care Centres in Singapore, with a total capacity of 56,211 and a total enrolment of 43,660.

Work-Life Balance

11.60 The Government continues to be active in promoting work-life harmony for working Singaporeans.

11.61 Significantly, at the National Day Rally on 22 August 2004, our new Prime Minister announced that the Civil Service will introduce a five-day workweek arrangement to enable civil servants to spend more time with their families and strike a better work-life balance. The five-day workweek arrangement started on 1 September 2004 in ministries that were ready to do so.

11.62 In our previous report, we mentioned that a Work-Life Unit (WLU) was set up in September 2000 in the then Ministry of Community Development and Sports. Since 1 September 2004, the task of promoting work-life strategy targeted at employers has been transferred to the Ministry of Manpower’s Quality Workplaces Department while WLU will focus on promoting personal work-life effectiveness targeted at working individuals. It will create awareness of personal work-life effectiveness and equip working individuals, dual-career couples and tertiary students with the skills and knowledge to make informed work-life decisions. The Unit will continue to work in tandem with the Ministry of Manpower to ensure consistent messaging to employers and individuals with a view to changing mindsets of both parties to achieve a win-win outcome.

11.63 In our previous report, we also reported on the launch of the biennial Family Friendly Firm Award to recognise companies for their pro-family efforts. The award has been renamed the Singapore Family Friendly Employer Award. In 2002, there were 23 Award winners and 10 Certificate of Merit recipients. The figures rose to a heartening 67 winners in 2004 with 27 receiving the Certificate of Merit.

11.64 The Singapore Civil Service has also put in place various flexible work policies, leave benefits and employee support schemes to assist its officers in achieving work-life balance. These include:

Flexible Work Arrangements

(i) Part-time employment: The key features are as follows -

a. It is open to all officers for flexible durations.

b. Ministries have the flexibility to customise work options between 11 and 29 hours per week.

c. Officers are eligible for pro-rated salaries and benefits according to their work schedule.

(ii) Telecommuting: Ministries are given the flexibility to implement tele-commuting arrangements for their officers where the nature of their jobs allows for it.

(iii) Flexi-time: Ministries can implement flexi-time or staggered work hours, whereby officers can opt to start work anytime between 7.30 am to 9.30 am. This helps officers to tailor their work schedules to better balance work and family commitments.

(iv) Five Day Work Week (as detailed in 11.62)

Leave Benefits

(i) Marriage Leave: Both male and female officers are eligible for 3 calendar days of marriage leave for their first marriage

(ii) Maternity Leave: Married female officers of citizen children are eligible for 12 weeks of paid maternity leave for the first 4 confinements.

(iii) Unrecorded childcare leave: All married officers are eligible for full pay unrecorded childcare leave to look after his/her child below 12 years old when the child falls sick. Such leave is limited to 5 days per year for each child, up to a maximum of 15 days per year if the officer has 3 or more children below 12 years old. Out of this leave entitlement, officers with children below 7 years old also have the flexibility to take 2 days of unconditional childcare leave, which would not be predicated on any condition, e.g. illness of the child.

(iv) No-Pay Leave: Married female officers are eligible for up to 4 years of no-pay leave for each child below 4 years of age. This is to allow officers to care for children during their early formative years. In addition, an officer can apply for no-pay leave to accompany his/her spouse who is on overseas duty or study.

Employee Support Schemes

(i) Holiday resorts are available for use by all staff under the Civil Service Resorts Scheme, thus encouraging family cohesiveness and bonding.

(ii) In addition, various Ministries organise family related activities, health and wellness programmes and other employee support services. Several Ministries also provide on-site child care centres and lactation facilities.

Article 12

Health

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of health care in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, access to health care services, including those related to family planning.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph I of this article, States Parties shall ensure to women appropriate services in connection with pregnancy, confinement and the post-natal period, granting free services where necessary, as well as adequate nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.

Healthcare as a Priority

12.1 The Government places a high priority on healthcare in Singapore. It not only grants women equal access to healthcare resources, but also pays attention to the special healthcare needs of women. The high standards of Singapore’s healthcare system is demonstrated through increasing life expectancy for women (higher than men), decreasing maternal mortality, a low infant mortality rate and an extremely low under 5 mortality rate as detailed below:

• life expectancy at birth for women increased from 80.4 years in 2001 to 80.9 years in 2003;

• the Maternal Mortality Rate dropped from 10 per hundred thousand live and still births in 2001 to 5 in 2003;

• Infant Mortality Rate stands at 2.5 per thousand resident live births; and

• Mortality Rate for children aged under 5 years stands at 3.2 per thousand live births in 2003. UNICEF ranked Singapore as having the second lowest Under 5 Mortality Rate in 2001[7].

12.2 The total government health expenditure per resident has increased from S$479 in 2001 to S$596 in 2003. The total government health expenditure for Fiscal Year 2003 is S$2 billion.

The Healthcare System in Singapore

12.3 Singapore has a dual system of healthcare delivery, comprising public and private institutions. Patients are free to choose their providers within the dual healthcare delivery system.

12.4 Healthcare in public institutions is heavily subsidised and affordable to all Singaporeans. No Singaporean is denied care due to lack of ability to pay.

12.5 The healthcare system in Singapore provides equal access to both men and women; women are not disadvantaged in any way. In fact, there are specific programmes targeted at women, e.g. subsidised breast and cervical cancer screenings.

12.6 Singapore has a dedicated hospital for women and children. The KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital (KKH) has 8 medical specialties for women and 15 medical specialties for Children. The total number of hospital beds at KKH is about 800.

Preventive Programmes

12.7 The Government plays a major role in educating and encouraging the public to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Many programmes and health promotion activities are organised annually; they are open equally to men and women. The Government pays special attention to female illnesses and special programmes are organised for women.

Programmes

12.8 BreastScreen Singapore, a national breast cancer screening programme was launched in January 2002. The programme aims to reduce the mortality rate of breast cancer through screening mammography. Under this programme, women aged 40-49 years are screened annually while women aged 50 years and above are screened once every two years. As at March 2004, 84, 000 women have been screened under the programme. 357 cancers were detected of which 35% were early cancers where the prognosis is good.

12.9 The national cervical cancer screening programme, Cervical Screen Singapore, was implemented in August 2004 for Singaporean women aged between 25 and 64 years to reduce the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer. Women are encouraged to go for screening once every 3 years.

12.10 The nation-wide community health screening programme called “Check Your Health” was launched in 2000 to screen Singaporeans aged 50 years and above for hypertension, diabetes and high blood cholesterol. As at end June 2004, more than 110,000 persons have attended the screening sessions which were held at community venues near homes. Women made up 57% of the total number screened.

Healthcare Financing

12.11 The Singapore healthcare financing system is based on individual responsibility, coupled with government subsidies available equally to men and women to keep basic healthcare affordable for all.

12.12 It is based on the 3Ms, i.e. Medisave, MediShield and Medifund.

12.13 Medisave is the national savings scheme which helps individuals put aside part of their income in Medisave Accounts to meet their personal or immediate family's hospitalisation expenses.

12.14 MediShield is a low cost catastrophic illness insurance scheme designed to help members meet the medical expenses from major or prolonged illnesses for which their Medisave balance would not be sufficient. Annual premiums for MediShield can be paid from the individual's Medisave account.

12.15 Medifund is an endowment fund set up by the Government as a safety net to help poor Singaporeans pay for their medical care. Medifund is meant to be an avenue of last resort for patients who, despite heavy Government subsidies, are unable to pay for their medical expenses.

12.16 In June 2002, ElderShield was introduced as a national insurance scheme to provide the elderly with coverage against severe disabilities. Currently, there are about 380,000 males and 310,000 females covered by the scheme.

12.17 In order to make healthcare charges more transparent to the public, in September 2003, the Ministry of Health introduced comparison tables enabling patients to compare charges for various procedures at hospitals in Singapore. The procedures are individually listed such that women can easily find out the charges for common procedures at hospitals and choose the hospital which suits their needs. Procedures pertaining to women include breast lump removal, delivery (normal and caesarean section) and ovarian cyst removal surgery.

Pregnancy Services and Benefits

12.18 The Government has introduced enhanced benefits for women undergoing childbirth or who desire to have children. These are:

• Allowing the use of Medisave to pay for delivery expenses for a woman’s fourth child born from 1 August 2004. In addition, Medisave can also be used for the delivery and pre-delivery medical expenses of the woman's fifth and subsequent child, if the parents have a combined Medisave balance of at least $15,000 at the time of delivery. Previously, Medisave could only be used to pay for the delivery charges of a woman's first three children.

• Allowing the use of Medisave to pay for ante-natal care (such as consultations and ultrasound) from 1 August 2004. Previously, Medisave could only be used to pay for the delivery itself and not outpatient expenses.

• Couples requiring medical assistance in starting a family can use an increased amount from their Medisave for Assisted Conception Procedures, up to a maximum of 3 cycles, from August 2004.

12.19 These benefits ease the financial strain of childbirth on the woman.

Article 13

Economic and Social Benefits

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in other areas of economic and social life in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the same rights, in particular:
(a) The right to family benefits;
(b) The right to bank loans, mortgages and other forms of financial credit;
(c) The right to participate in recreational activities, sports and all aspects of cultural life.

Economic Incentives

13.1 Singapore has faced many challenges in restructuring and upgrading its economy, and coping with the shocks and uncertainties in its external environment. However it has managed to overcome these challenges and continue to build on its strengths and provide for the men and women of Singapore by providing economic and social benefits through policy initiatives.

13.2 Certain economic incentives were provided as part of an offset package meant to help Singaporean households adapt to the structural changes in the economy since 2001. They include two share schemes which aim at giving men and women equal opportunity to help themselves:

Economic Restructuring Shares (ERS)

13.3 These shares are given out in three lots, with one lot each year starting from 2003. The shares will earn annual dividends, in the form of bonus shares, over 5 years. The bonus shares will be calculated at a rate of 3% plus the real GDP growth rate of the preceding calendar year, with a guarantee of at least 3%. The amount of ERS given out depends on the Annual Value (AV) of the recipient’s home. In addition, Active National Service (NS) men will get an extra $200 worth of ERS and Inactive NSmen will get an extra $100 worth of ERS. The extra share for NSmen will only be given once in the year they qualify.

13.4 In January and February 2004 the Government gave out S$814 million worth of shares. Of this, S$562 million (nearly 70%) has been encashed by the recipients. The third lot, which will be allotted in 2005, is worth an estimated S$900 million.

New Singapore Shares (NSS)

13.5 Introduced in 2001 to help the lower income group tide over the economic downturn, the NSS will earn annual dividends, in the form of bonus shares, over 5 years. The bonus shares will be calculated at a rate of 3% plus the real GDP growth rate of the preceding calendar year, with a guarantee of at least 3%.

Recent Budget Initiatives

13.6 In the 2004 Financial Budget, the current Prime Minister, and then Minister for Finance, PM Lee Hsien Loong announced several key budget initiatives aimed at providing economic support for families and individuals. Some of these opportunities are described in the following paragraphs.

Top Up Medisave Accounts of Older Singaporeans

13.7 The Government topped up Medisave Accounts of Singaporeans aged 50 years and above. The top-ups, which range from S$50 to S$200, vary according to the age of the recipient and the Medisave balances. For more information on Medisave, please refer to Chapter 12 on Health.

13.8 An extra S$100 million has been injected into Medifund to help needy patients meet their medical expenses. This will bring Medifund to its targeted fund size of S$1 billion.

Help Singaporeans Contribute to the Financial Security of their Non-Working Dependants

13.9 The annual tax relief ceiling for individuals making cash top-ups to their own CPF Retirement Accounts and the Retirement Accounts for parent and grandparents increased from S$6,000 to S$7,000, with effect from YA 2005.

13.10 This tax relief will also be extended to cash top-ups to the CPF Retirement Accounts of their non-working spouses[8], who are largely women, starting from YA 2005.

New Package of Measures to Support Parenthood

13.11 A new package of measures to support parenthood was recently announced in August 2004. The measures take a holistic and coherent approach to help parents, especially mothers. The measures include longer maternity leave, infant care subsidies, childcare leave for both fathers and mothers, and financial support.

13.12 The package was the result of extensive public consultation and feedback from Singaporean men and women. The Government took into account feedback gathered from some 1,600 public emails, 380 telephone calls and 650 media stories and letters written to the press. Focus group sessions were also organised. While these measures are meant to address the problem of declining birth rates in Singapore, it also has a huge positive impact on many women in Singapore, as it empowers them to have a family.

13.13 Some of the measures adopted, which will take effect from 1 August 2004 (unless otherwise stated), include:

Making child birth more affordable by allowing Singaporeans to use their ‘Medisave’ portion of their Central Provident Fund (CPF)[9] savings to pay for delivery and pre-delivery expenses for their first 4 children. Medisave can also be used for 5th and higher order births, if couples have sufficient balance to meet their healthcare needs for the future. Previously, couples could only use their Medisave account to pay for the delivery expenses of their first three children.

Assisting couples with fertility problems by allowing them to use more from their Medisave account to pay for Assisted Conception Procedures such as in-vitro fertilisation.

• Providing enhanced financial support for raising children by giving out ‘Baby Bonus’ for each Singaporean baby up to the fourth child of the family. Parents will enjoy a Baby Bonus of S$3000 cash if the baby is their first child, up to S$9000 cash and matching contributions if the baby is their second child and up to S$18,000 cash and matching contributions if the baby is a third or fourth child. The disbursement of the cash component would be done over 2 years, giving parents more immediate support. Previously, the Baby Bonus was only given to the second and third child, with the cash disbursed over 6 years.

• Provision of parenthood tax rebate and working mothers’ child relief for parents with Singaporean children. Parents will benefit from tax rebates of S$10,000 to S$20,000 and working mothers will also enjoy a tax relief of 5% to 25% of their earned income, depending on the birth order of their child. These tax measures will be effective from the Year of Assessment 2005.

• Providing infant care subsidies of up to S$400 per month to parents of Singaporean babies (aged 2 to 18 months) attending licensed infant care programmes. The Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports will continue to look into ways to increase the availability of infant care places if there is good demand.

• The domestic worker levy is lowered from S$345 to S$250 a month for families with Singapore citizen child below the age of 12 years. The levy concession also applies to families with elderly Singaporean parents or grandparents aged 65 years and above.

• Giving working mothers whose Singaporean child aged 12 years and below is being cared for by his or her grandparent a grandparent caregiver tax relief of S$3000. This relief will be effective from Year of Assessment 2005.

Extending the coverage of legislative maternity leave protection to female employees not covered under the Employment Act, i.e. those in managerial, executive and confidential positions. Industry practice is such that this group is almost always granted maternity leave and protection. With the legislative amendment effected on 1 October 2004 to the Children Development Co-Savings Act, statutory maternity leave and protection has been extended for births of up to the fourth Singaporean children for this group as well as for civil servants.

Lengthening the statutory maternity leave period from 8 weeks to 12 weeks from 1 October 2004 to allow working mothers more time to recuperate as well as care for their new-born babies.

• Giving all working mothers (including self-employed) of Singaporean babies financial assistance for unpaid maternity leave from 1 October 2004. Employers are only required to pay 8 weeks of maternity leave for the first two confinements. Because the purpose is to encourage Singaporeans to have more babies, the Government will fund the extended 4 weeks of maternity leave for the 1st and 2nd confinements, and the entire 12 weeks for the 3rd and 4th confinements. Government payments are capped.

Promoting equal employment opportunities for females, pregnant women and parents of young children by putting in place tripartite guidelines on: (i) Best Work-Life Practices; and (ii) Family Friendly Workplace Practices. The guidelines are formulated by the social partners in Singapore. They cover various aspects of employment such as hiring, promotion, treatment of employees pre-, during and post maternity periods, and payment of bonuses. These are in addition to existing Tripartite Guidelines on Non-Discriminatory job advertisements and a set of bipartite guidelines on Responsible Employment Practices formulated jointly by the workers’ and employers’ federations.

• Giving 2 days of childcare leave for working fathers and mothers. Working parents with any child below 7 years of age will be eligible for 2 days of employer-paid childcare leave per year, from 1 October 2004.

CPF Housing Top-Up Grant

13.14 Currently, qualifying singles may receive a CPF housing grant of S$11,000 to buy a resale flat. Singles who have obtained this grant, and who marry on or after 1 August 2004, will now receive a top-up grant to the prevailing CPF family grant quantum. The top-up can be used to offset the mortgage loan of the existing resale flat or for the purchase of another resale flat. Based on the prevailing family grant quantum, a couple can receive a top-up of up to S$29,000.

13.15 The above benefit is equally available to single men and women who eventually marry.

Sports

13.16 Sports is already being promoted in all sectors of society. A greater emphasis on the importance of sports in Singapore was reflected in the change of the name of the Ministry of Community Development (MCD) to the Ministry of Community Development and Sports (MCDS) in 2001. MCDS has been recently renamed the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports (MCYS) in 2004 so as to highlight the importance of youths in Singapore.

13.17 The Singapore Sports Council (SSC) is a statutory board under MCYS. SSC's role is to operationalise MCYS's policies on sports, focusing on the three pillars of Sports Excellence, Sports for All, and Sports Industry.

13.18 The Singapore Disability Sports Council (SDSC) is the national sports body for the disabled in Singapore. It is a voluntary organisation registered with the Commissioner of Charities. SDSC’s goal is to promote, through sports, the well-being of the disabled in Singapore, helping them to live full and independent lives.

28th Olympic Games

13.19 More female athletes than male athletes represented Singapore in the recent 28th Olympic Games held in Athens from 13 – 29 August 2004. There were 10 female athletes out of the total 16 who represented Singapore.

13.20 Generally, the women performed better than the men. Li Jia Wei achieved the best performance in Table Tennis when she reached the Women’s Singles play-off for 3rd/4th placing. She eventually finished 4th, the highest-placed Singapore athlete.

13.21 In comparison, the best performing male was Ronald Susilo, who reached the Men’s Badminton Singles Quarter-Finals.

Cultural Life

13.22 Women in Singapore, similar to their male counterparts, are entitled to participate and contribute in all aspects of our cultural life.

Achievements by Women in the Arts

13.23 In the arts field, women have not only achieved artistic excellence but gained international renown. They include violinists such as Siow Lee-Chin, Min Lee and Kam Ning who have performed with international orchestras, singer Jacintha Abisheganaden, writer Catherine Lim, founder of opera group Chinese Theatre Circle (CTC) Joanna Wong, and composer Joyce Koh Bee Tuan. The local theatre scene is vibrant with talented actresses and playwrights such as Karen Tan, Tan Kheng Hua, Eleanor Wong and Selena Tan.

13.24 Deserving women artists also receive both funding and other forms of support from the National Arts Council. For example, Kam Ning and Joyce Koh were winners of the Council's Young Artist Award. The Council has also set up schemes like the Violin Loan scheme, as well as sent artists overseas to represent Singapore in international competitions. For example, Ms Yee Ee Ping, a leading soprano based in the UK, had won numerous awards including the Outstanding Woman Musician at the Royal Overseas League Music Competition in 1999. Ms Angela Liong, the Artistic Director of the Arts Fission Company, a contemporary dance company, participated at the Asian Comments Festival 2002 in Copenhagen and Laokoon Festival 2003 in Hamburg, Germany.

13.25 Lastly, women artists have also been recipients of the Cultural Medallion award, the country's highest honour in recognition of individuals who have achieved artistic excellence in the fields of dance, theatre, music literature, photography, art and film. The nominees for the Cultural Medallion are short listed through public nomination. Past winners included Joanna Wong (1981) for her work in Chinese Opera, Goh Soo Khim (1981) for her developmental role in the dance education and performance, and stone sculptress Han Sai Por (1995) for her outstanding work in a field traditionally dominated by male practitioners.

Article 14

Rural Women

1. States Parties shall take into account the particular problems faced by rural women and the significant roles which rural women play in the economic survival of their families, including their work in the non-monetized sectors of the economy, and shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the application of the provisions of the present Convention to women in rural areas.
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in rural areas in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, that they participate in and benefit from rural development and, in particular, shall ensure to such women the right:
(a) To participate in the elaboration and implementation of development planning at all levels;
(b) To have access to adequate health care facilities, including information, counselling and services in family planning;
(c) To benefit directly from social security programmes;
(d) To obtain all types of training and education, formal and non-formal, including that relating to functional literacy, as well as, inter alia, the benefit of all community and extension services, in order to increase their technical proficiency;
(e) To organize self-help groups and co-operatives in order to obtain equal access to economic opportunities through employment or self employment;
(f) To participate in all community activities;
(g) To have access to agricultural credit and loans, marketing facilities, appropriate technology and equal treatment in land and agrarian reform as well as in land resettlement schemes;
(h) To enjoy adequate living conditions, particularly in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity and water supply, transport and communications.

14.1 This Article is not applicable to Singapore as we are a city state.

PART IV

Article 15

Law

1. States Parties shall accord to women equality with men before the law.
2. States Parties shall accord to women, in civil matters, a legal capacity identical to that of men and the same opportunities to exercise that capacity. In particular, they shall give women equal rights to conclude contracts and to administer property and shall treat them equally in all stages of procedure in courts and tribunals.
3. States Parties agree that all contracts and all other private instruments of any kind with a legal effect which is directed at restricting the legal capacity of women shall be deemed null and void.
4. States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to the law relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence and domicile.

Equality Before the Law

15.1 Article 12 of the Constitution of Singapore states that ‘all persons are equal before the law and entitled to the equal protection of the law.’

Legal Resources launched by the Ministry of Law Website

15.2 The Ministry of Law included a section in its new website (www.minlaw.gov.sg) to provide useful legal information to the public. Entitled “Legal Resources”, it provides links to frequently sought legal information and law-related agencies, such as the Supreme Courts and the Subordinate Courts, the Law Society of Singapore, the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore and the Singapore Mediation Centre. Users can obtain a diverse range of legal information on Singapore’s legal system, its laws, and specific information relating to legal aid advice, intellectual property, insolvency, land, family-related matters as well as court hearing schedules and listing of lawyers. The website also includes links to information on family related matters such as marriage, divorce, maintenance and children. Direct access to these information can also be made through the following url: http://www.law.gov.sg. This resource is intended to benefit both men and women and provides women with a helpful starting point when faced with family or marital issues.

Singapore Association of Women Lawyers (SAWL)

15.3 As part of SAWL's continuing commitment to the legal education of the community and one of SAWL's missions to demystify the law and make it accessible to the lay public, SAWL's recent projects include an updated version of 'You and the Law'. The book, now in its 3rd edition, simplifies 24 different areas of law in Singapore in easy-to-understand English, including Divorce Law and legal help for victims of family violence.

15.4 Other major projects include providing free legal advice to the public in 10 different community centres in Singapore, providing free talks and seminars on the law to schools, the People's Association, Community Centres and other organisations like welfare homes and through the media (magazines and radio stations).

15.5 The SAWL-Justice FA Chua Library is another project by SAWL, which houses an impressive collection of articles, books, magazines and materials on all aspects of family issues with special focus on women and children. This library is also a resource centre for research on legal literacy and socio economic issues.

15.6 SAWL also runs the Tan Ah Tah-SAWL Scholarship fund for physically disabled students. Todate, some S$200,000 has been disbursed.

15.7 Currently, SAWL is in the process of publishing a book to answer the legal queries of teenagers. More than 100 teenagers from Secondary Schools have been surveyed to assemble their legal queries. This book is expected to be launched in the beginning of 2005.

15.8 The above projects have benefited both men and women but are particularly helpful for women who need legal help for family-related issues like divorce and family violence.

The Law Society of Singapore

15.9 The Law Awareness Committee (the Committee), a standing committee of the Law Society, organises projects and events aimed at creating awareness of the law to the community. Last year, the Law Society undertook the programmes in the following paragraphs.

15.10 During the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Singapore the Committee worked with two daily newspapers to answer any legal questions arsing from the outbreak of the illness.

15.11 The Committee conducted two workshops for the second consecutive year on law awareness for social workers.

15.12 The Law Society also held its bi-annual Law Awareness Weekend for the tenth year. These Law Awareness weekends are intended to create awareness of the law through public education talks, seminars, forums, exhibitions and publication programmes. The focus last year was family law and the legal rights of women under the Women’s Charter of Singapore. Women both participated and benefited from the Law Awareness Weekend.

15.13 The Committee also co-ordinated a programme for lawyers who volunteer to give free legal advice at clinics held at various Family Service Centres to ensure that families in need obtained legal advice and assistance.

Family Court

15.14 The Family and Juvenile Justice Centre (FJJC), an amalgamation of the Family Conciliation and Resolution Centre (FAMCARE) and Psychological Services Unit, was formed in March 2002. This unit, which is staffed by a multi-disciplinary team comprising counsellors, psychologists and social workers and interpreter-mediators, runs the programmes of the Family and Juvenile Courts. Counselling and education programmes, which form the core of their work, cover such areas as marriage, divorce, family violence, substance abuse violence elimination and youth care, among many others. All the services and programmes provided by the FJJC are free of charge.

Project Hope and Project Shine

15.15 Project Hope is a programme under which applicants for maintenance orders who are in critical need of financial assistance at the time that they file their applications may be granted immediate assistance (in the form of food vouchers) in meeting their basic needs and those of their children, pending the determination of the case in court.

15.16 Project Shine is a programme under which both applicants for and respondents to maintenance applications may be referred to community agencies for practical and long-term assistance - for example, for job placement, child-care assistance, tuition services for children and so on.

Family Violence

15.17 The Family Transformation and Protection Unit (FTPU), which is manned by FJJC officers, is a one stop service centre and place of protection for victims of family violence.

15.18 Applicants for personal protection orders will be counselled when they attend at the unit and helped to file their complaints, which are sworn before a magistrate. The FTPU will assess the risk of further family violence to the applicant and work out a safety plan with them.

15.19 Respondents to personal protection orders are usually sent for counselling by the court. Counsellors will assist the respondents in accepting responsibility for any violent behaviour and encouraging them to become involved in rehabilitative programmes and to learn alternatives to violent behaviour. Respondents with alcohol addiction issues will be identified by the counsellors, and may be ordered by the court to attend a counselling programme run by the Institute of Mental Health which will focus on helping them break free of their alcohol addictions.

Legal and Medical Clinics

15.20 The Family Court has set up a Legal Clinic in the court premises, run by volunteer lawyers offering free legal advice on family law to persons who cannot afford to pay legal fees.

15.21 The Family Court also has a medical clinic on its premises, run by volunteer doctors, to offer free medical examinations and to provide medical reports to parties filing complaints in respect of family violence. Referrals to hospitals are also provided, where necessary.

Access to court services

15.22 For the convenience of the public, the Family Registry is open after office hours on one night a week to accept applications for maintenance and personal protection orders. Mediation for maintenance cases may also be conducted during these nights.

15.23 Three community based agencies, namely, Ang Mo Kio Family Service Centre in the north, TRANS Centre in the east and Loving Heart Multi-Service Centre in the west, are video-linked to the Family Court. Members of the public who do not wish to attend at the Family Court to file their complaints may do so via video-link at the Family Service Centre nearest their home.

Access to information - Family Court pamphlets and Family Court website

15.24 Members of the public can easily access legal information as well as information on court services and programmes through a range of pamphlets (which cover topics such as maintenance, family violence, custody and access issues, counselling and mediation).

15.25 There is also a wealth of information on the Family Court website at www.familycourtofsingapore.gov.sg. The website contains, amongst other things, standard court forms which can be downloaded for use by litigants, a section of frequently asked questions and answers on family issues, court judgments and grounds of decisions, articles on family law issues and court procedures, and information on court programmes and hearings. A litigants-in-person package has also been created, which is available both in hard copy and on the family court website. This package contains key information about court etiquette and court procedures for parties who are not represented by lawyers.

Empowering Women

15.26 The main users of the Court counselling services in respect of family violence are women, as significantly more women than men apply for personal protection orders. About 64% of all family violence applicants in 2003 are women. Similarly, the main beneficiaries of Project Shine and Project Hope would be women, as referrals for these programmes come about as a result of maintenance applications taken out by wives and mothers against their husbands/ex-husbands/fathers. Under Singapore law, only wives and ex-wives are entitled to claim maintenance for themselves from their husbands and ex-husbands. As for children of the marriage or the relationship, they would usually be staying with the mothers and the burden of caring and providing for the children would, in practice, rest mainly on the mothers.

An Efficient and Fair Judiciary

15.27 The Singapore Legal System and Judiciary continued to lead the world in 2004, excelling in various regional and international rankings and studies conducted by different eminent organisations.

15.28 The quality of the Singapore Judiciary relative to countries in the Asian region was rated by the Political and Economic Risks Consultancy Ltd (PERC) (an international consulting firm specialising in strategic business information and analysis for organisations in the ASEAN countries, China and South Korea). In PERC’s 2004 Asian Intelligence Report, expatriates working in Asia were surveyed on their perceptions on the overall integrity and quality of the local judicial system and the consistency in the application of laws. Singapore maintained pole position in Asia for the overall quality and integrity of the Judicial system in 2004. Singapore was also ranked number one for consistency in the application of laws.

15.29 In February 2004, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in their Financial System Stability Assessment of Singapore indicated that an efficient judiciary was one of the cornerstones for Singapore’s well-regarded efficient legal system.

Article 16

Marriage and Family Life

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:
(a) The same right to enter into marriage;
(b) The same right freely to choose a spouse and to enter into marriage only with their free and full consent;
(c) The same rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution;
(d) The same rights and responsibilities as parents, irrespective of their marital status, in matters relating to their children; in all cases the interests of the children shall be paramount;
(e) The same rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education and means to enable them to exercise these rights;
(f) The same rights and responsibilities with regard to guardianship, wardship, trusteeship and adoption of children, or similar institutions where these concepts exist in national legislation; in all cases the interests of the children shall be paramount;
(g) The same personal rights as husband and wife, including the right to choose a family name, a profession and an occupation;
(h) The same rights for both spouses in respect of the ownership, acquisition, management, administration, enjoyment and disposition of property, whether free of charge or for a valuable consideration.
2. The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage and to make the registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory.

Laws Governing Marriage and Divorce

16.1 As stated in the last report, there are two separate laws governing marriage and divorce in Singapore. These are the Muslim law, as legislated under the Administration of Muslim Law Act (AMLA), and the Women’s Charter.

16.2 These laws do not impede women, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, from advancing in different areas of their life whilst being married and having children. These laws also do not prevent women from seeking to enter into marriage or eventually dissolving the marriage altogether.

Amendments to the Muslim Personal Law Act

16.3 As shown in the last report (Singapore’s Second Periodic Report to the UN Committee for CEDAW), the Administration of Muslim Law Act (AMLA) which regulated matters relating to Muslim marriages, dissolution of marriages and maintenance, was amended on 1 August 1999.

16.4 These amendments empowered the Syariah Court to legally step in on behalf of the defaulting party in the case of that party’s refusal to sell or transfer ownership of property[10] to the other party, and clarified the legal status of the woman as not legally divorced in spite of a pronouncement of “talak” by the husband until the court makes a decree of divorce[11].

16.5 The Muslim law as administered in Singapore demonstrates the empowered role of the Muslim woman in divorce and settlement. For example a married Muslim woman may apply to the Court for a divorce. The Court shall then summon the husband to enquire whether he consents to the divorce[12]. If he does not consent, the Court may appoint a “hakam” (arbitrator) for each of them to facilitate the consultation process[13]. If the husband still unfairly refuses the divorce requested by the wife, the “hakam” may use his authority to issue the divorce on behalf of the husband, giving the woman the divorce she wanted[14].

16.6 In 1999, AMLA was also amended so that women who were divorced under Muslim law became entitled to a share of their husbands’ pension or provident funds even though the funds were accumulated solely by the husband. This was given judicial recognition by the Syariah Court’s Appeal Board in the case of Dahlia bte Ahmad vs Redwan bin Ali on 20 September 2003. Since the 1999 amendments allowed for new powers and processes to the Syariah Court, a divorce application by an aggrieved wife is mostly concluded, even if contested by her husband, within 6 months. Also it clarified and confirmed that Muslim women may benefit from the civil courts’ powers to issue orders of maintenance, custody and disposition or division of property on divorce. As regards protection from domestic violence, Muslim women continue to enjoy the right to apply to the court for a protection order under Part VII of the Women’s Charter (Chapter 353), after the 1999 amendment to the AMLA.

Marriage Preparation Course for Muslims

16.7 As regards married life, Muslim couples are highly encouraged to attend a marriage preparation course before they are solemnized. The course participants are provided with a reference book called the ‘Jalur Hidayah’(The Guided Path) which educates the couples on the various aspects of married life including shared responsibility in a family, decision making, effective spousal communication, skills in managing finances and equipping the couples with awareness and skills in managing marital challenges.

Career and Family

16.8 Women in Singapore today, both Muslim and non-Muslim, are more accomplished in their chosen careers while successfully balancing their married and family lives. Their successful participation in this dual arena has earned them the recognition of the public as well as international community (see chapters 5, 7 & 8 for more information).

16.9 This has, by large, been possible because of the Government’s support for women in the workforce, economic benefits and subsidies for working mothers and the promotion of family friendly practices in the workplace (see Chapter 11 on Work-Life Balance).

16.10 Muslim women in Singapore have benefited from these developments and have successfully risen to the challenges faced by women in the working world. Just one example of a Muslim woman and mother of five who has risen to political and public prominence is Madam Halimah Yacob, a veteran unionist and a Member of Parliament, who was elected to become the first Asian woman and the first Muslim to sit on the International Labour Committee’s (ILO) tripartite global committee on setting human resource standards (see Chapter 5). Other examples include Madam Nooraini Noordin, the current President of the Singapore Malay Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Ms Zuraidah Abdullah, Commander of the Singapore Police Force Jurong Divisional Headquarters.

PART VI

Article 24

Commitment of States Parties

States Parties undertake to adopt all necessary measures at the national level aimed at achieving the full realization of the rights recognized in the present Convention.

Women and Family Violence

24.1 The Singapore Government does not tolerate family violence. Through the “Many Helping Hands” approach, Singapore seeks to nurture a violence-free environment for families, an environment that is safe, stable and supportive. In 2001, the then Ministry of Community Development and Sports put in place a 5-year plan to close some of the gaps to ensure better protection for children and families.

Inter-agency platforms

24.2 A key platform for the management of family violence in Singapore is the Family Violence Dialogue Group, established in 2001. The Group is headed jointly by Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports (MCYS) and the Singapore Police Force. The dialogue group comprises the Courts, the Prisons, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, the National Council of Social Service[15], and social service agencies such as the Society Against Family Violence. The Singapore Council of Women’s Organisations, the umbrella body for women’s groups in Singapore, is a critical member of the Group. The dialogue group has worked to facilitate work processes amongst the agencies, coordinate public education efforts and develop new areas for collaboration on family violence.

24.3 At the functional level, the National Family Violence Networking System was established in 1996 to put a tight network of support and assistance into place. The island-wide networking system essentially provides multiple access points for victims to obtain help. This system links the Police, Prisons, hospitals, social service agencies, the Courts and MCYS.

24.4 The Singapore Police Force conducts regular dialogues and consultations with social workers based in Social Service Agencies. These dialogues or networking meetings are aimed at improving joint working processes and providing co-ordinated assistance to family violence victims. Such efforts at dialogue and networking have resulted in joint public education efforts in the community and increased rapport between police officers and social workers. The fruits of the growth of the police-social worker network can be seen in the increase in the police referrals of family violence victims to Social Service Agencies from 171 referrals in 2001 to 658 referrals in 2003, resulting in timely interventions to provide support and care to victims, who are largely women and children.

24.5 Another platform for the multi-pronged approach to family violence is the inaugural newsletter for agencies in the field of family violence and child protection. This was launched in October 2003. Entitled “Networkz - Agencies Uniting Against Family Violence,” it aims to provide agencies with updates in the regional family violence networking system including events, programmes, trends, training and resources available, as well as to share the challenges and successes in the field. It is hoped that this initiative will further strengthen inter-agency linkages and spur the agencies to serve the families affected by violence even better.

Police Management of Family Violence Cases

24.6 The Police have added a new guideline in March 2003 to its management of family violence. This guideline requires Investigation Officers to give notice to victims or social workers on the release of a family violence perpetrator from police custody, prior to the perpetrator’s actual release. The rationale for this guideline is to prevent a recurrence of violence against the victim by giving the victim or social worker more time to better protect the victim, including making alternative accommodation arrangements, where necessary.

Manual on Integrated Management of Family Violence

24.7 A common understanding of how to assist family violence cases was established through a manual, coordinated by MCYS in 1999. Updated in February 2003, the manual spells out the protocol, procedures, roles, and responsibilities of each partner agency in the networking system. The manual reflects the government and non-government sectors’ shared goal of working in partnership to develop a seamless approach in serving families in violent relationships and in preventing family violence. The manual also includes services for elder abuse, the role of crisis shelters and the prisons in rehabilitating perpetrators.

National Standards for the Protection of Children

24.8 The National Standards for Protection of Children was launched at the Conference on Psychological/Emotional Maltreatment of Children in February 2002. The standards outline the framework for the management of child protection and establishes a common understanding of the roles and responsibilities of various constituents of the child protection system in Singapore. The standards also guide child protection professionals in the discharge of their duties. With the standards, the public can appreciate how child protection services are carried out promptly and in the best interests of the child.

Role of the Subordinate Courts

24.9 The Family and Juvenile Justice Centre of the Subordinate Courts of Singapore also plays a significant role in the systemic approach in handling family violence cases in Singapore. It partners the Police and MCYS in many public awareness events aimed to increase awareness of the availability of protection orders, thereby enhancing access to the Singapore judicial system. For more information on the Family Court, please refer to Chapter 15 (Law).

Specialised Services

24.10 At the community level, a specialised programme providing a continuum of services to the victims and perpetrators of violence, called Promoting Alternatives to Violence (PAVE) was launched in 1999. PAVE provides remedial, preventive and developmental services. The programmes are specially catered to assist children who are witnesses or are victims of family violence by attempting to break the vicious cycle of family violence through intervention, remedial and empowerment. The programme targets all family members who use or experience violence from a holistic framework.

24.11 Perpetrators with violence issues may approach the Family Services Centres for assistance, or may also be referred to the Community Addictions Management Programme (CAMP) at the Institute of Mental Health. CAMP working together with the Family and Juvenile Justice Centre and RPD, launched Project SAVE in March 2002. This project aims at counselling and rehabilitating perpetrators on their violence issues resulting from the influence of alcohol. By 2004, Project SAVE has also started to manage violence cases resulting from drug and gambling addiction.

24.12 In September 2003, MCYS set up a dedicated Elder Protection Team to facilitate a multi-agency response to cases of elder abuse. It is a multi-disciplinary team with professional expertise in geriatrics, psychiatry, law and social work. TRANS Centre, a voluntary welfare organisation specialising in family violence work, spearheads the operations of the Elder Protection Team.

Public Education

24.13 MCYS works with the media and magazines to educate the public on family violence through articles and advertisements. The Ministry also produced a CD-ROM which introduces new personnel in agencies to the legal provisions and services for families affected by violence.

Information on help on interpersonal violence is now available on the Family Town website (www.familytown.gov.sg). The website explains the different forms of abuse and provides tips and advice on where victims and perpetrators can obtain help. There are also games, quizzes and stories to help children understand family violence.

24.14 Efforts have also been made to educate the young on healthy dating relationships. In February 2003, the then Ministry of Community Development and Sports commissioned a play on dating violence entitled “Hurt”. The play has been shown to more than 27,000 students in secondary schools. The play helps teenagers realise the dangers of dating violence and teaches them about inappropriate violent behaviour that should not be tolerated or inflicted by either sex. By involving both girls and boys in addressing the issue of violence in relationships and educating them of the wrong doing of such acts from a young age, the play seeks to prevent young persons from going down the path of family violence in the future.

24.15 MCYS also provides funding to social service agencies that are keen to carry out public education projects. The co-funding scheme has supported social service agencies in organizing forums and programmes to educate their community. For instance, through one social service agency, a play centering on how a 10 year girl copes with family violence is making its rounds in primary schools.

Increasing Awareness of Men’s and Boys’ Responsibility in Ending the Cycle of Family Violence

24.16 Under section 65(5) of the Women’s Charter, when making a Personal Protection Order (PPO), the Court can order the perpetrator, victim and/or family members of a victim to attend counselling or any other related programme such as rehabilitation or recovery programme for perpetrators or victims of trauma. Attendance is compulsory and non-compliance can constitute a contempt of Court. Through the rehabilitation and counselling of perpetrators (who are mostly male), there will be an increased awareness of men’s and boys’ responsibility in ending the cycle of violence.

24.17 The number of applications for Personal Protection Orders (PPO) has seen a gradual decline from 2000 – 2003. Please see the table below for the number of applications for PPOs per year:


2000
2001
2002
2003
PPO Applications
2,861
2,974
2,944
2,783

Source: Subordinate Court, Singapore

Appendix 1

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Appendix 2

Table 10 : Median Monthly Gross Wage by Gender and Occupation, 2003

Occupational Group
Males
$
Females
$
Female Wages as % of Male
Managers
6,000
5,000
83.3
Professionals
3,954
3,600
91.0
Technicians & Associate Professionals
2,869
2,500
87.1
Clerical Workers
1,937
1,786
92.2
Sales & Service Workers
1,700
1,450
85.3
Production Craftsmen
2,057
1,535
74.6
Plant & Machine Operators
2,118
1,224
57.8
Cleaners & Labourers
1,314
1,002
76.3

%

N046245313.wmf

Chart 6 : Gender Wage Difference by Occupation and Selected Age Groups, 2003

Note : Gender Wage Difference = (1 – (Female Median Gross Wage / Male Median Gross Wage))x100

Source: Report on Wages in Singapore 2003, Ministry of Manpower

Appendix 3

Appendix 3A

TABLE 2.1
MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )
SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
1

MANAGERS
18,461
7,278
5,815
7,783
6,000






12332

Administration manager
200
4,761
4,236
4,942
4,500
12350

Advertising and public relations manager
143
4,985
4,460
5,191
4,500
12331

Budgeting and financial accounting manager
666
6,552
5,850
6,872
6,019
12312

Building and construction project manager
858
4,494
4,200
4,663
4,450
12391

Business development manager
446
6,418
5,600
6,743
5,800
12102

Company director
2,100
10,170
9,200
11,025
9,770
12333

Corporate planning manager
24
8,181
7,218
8,552
7,218
12351

Creative director (Advertising)
15
8,567
6,820
8,749
6,950
12322

Customer service manager
261
6,074
5,232
6,496
5,464
1220

General manager
1,500
11,214
9,800
12,065
10,223
12902

Lodging services manager
94
2,791
2,622
2,947
2,699
12101

Managing director
994
15,110
12,025
15,981
12,988
12311

Manufacturing plant and production manager
1,719
6,035
5,540
6,570
5,830
12310

Operations manager (Commerce)
82
4,359
3,708
4,674
3,922
12318

Operations manager (Community)
113
4,149
4,000
4,337
4,090
12317

Operations manager (Finance)
893
9,231
7,655
9,803
7,931
12341

Personnel / Human resource manager
157
6,542
5,898
6,975
6,000
12315

Procurement manager
246
5,402
4,867
5,655
5,000
12392

Property / Estate manager
191
4,688
4,500
4,839
4,668
12314

Quality assurance manager
240
5,711
5,362
6,112
5,641
12360

Research and development manager
94
6,761
6,168
7,075
6,250
12903

Restaurant and other catering services manager
264
2,564
2,400
2,672
2,476
12321

Sales manager
1,019
5,509
4,720
6,237
5,200
12901

Shop sales manager
420
3,018
2,600
3,114
2,700
12343

Training manager
78
5,970
5,770
6,373
6,165
12313

Transport operations manager
594
4,709
4,250
5,055
4,577
12316

Warehousing manager
117
4,043
3,682
4,184
3,800
TABLE 2.1














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )
SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median














2

PROFESSIONALS
20,941
4,357
3,730
4,687
3,954
24101

Accountant
271
3,858
3,600
3,949
3,700
24902

Advertising account executive
15
2,581
2,600
2,665
2,600
29314

Advertising copywriter
13
4,359
4,934
4,359
4,934
25011

Advocate and solicitor
131
5,615
4,800
5,651
4,800
21455

Aeronautical engineer
743
3,822
3,240
4,471
3,876
21331

Application programmer
464
2,829
2,500
2,908
2,500
21445

Audio and video equipment engineer
104
3,274
3,073
3,437
3,150
24102

Auditor (Accounting)
328
3,238
3,100
3,316
3,100
21456

Automotive engineer
255
3,570
3,200
3,606
3,215
21491

Biomedical engineer
42
3,921
3,812
4,073
3,876
21411

Building architect
141
5,804
4,750
6,325
5,000
21423

Building construction engineer
258
3,346
3,088
3,453
3,200
24903

Business management consultant
99
6,653
5,417
7,110
5,555
21461

Chemical engineer
40
3,525
3,211
3,874
3,453
21462

Chemical engineer (Petroleum)
52
5,967
5,799
6,301
6,098
21130

Chemist
51
4,695
3,845
4,871
3,865
21421

Civil engineer
386
3,569
3,195
3,683
3,238
21311

Computer and information systems manager
773
6,816
6,200
7,128
6,433
21443

Computer engineer
922
5,967
4,950
6,533
5,373
21312

Computer operations and network manager
107
6,907
6,147
7,101
6,540
24202

Credit analyst
15
4,656
3,465
4,664
3,465
21342

Database administrator
74
3,546
2,987
3,769
3,053
22221

Dentist
53
3,754
3,550
3,868
3,600
29321

Editor (Newspapers and periodicals)
231
6,937
6,237
7,331
6,502
21431

Electrical engineer
465
3,913
3,700
4,192
4,070
21441

Electronics engineer
600
3,609
3,411
3,702
3,500
2936

Film, stage and related producer, director and actor
20
3,299
2,962
3,428
2,999
24201

Financial analyst
90
5,115
4,297
5,252
4,454
22211

General physician
144
8,362
8,300
12,232
10,486
22212

General surgeon
102
9,739
9,240
15,647
13,157
21192

Geophysicist
25
4,429
4,434
4,439
4,434
21493

Industrial health, safety and environment engineer
40
4,884
3,975
5,245
4,382














TABLE 2.1














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median














21452

Industrial machinery and tools engineer
305
3,249
3,000
3,494
3,200
21392

Information technology security specialist
25
2,922
2,800
3,257
3,200
29312

Journalist
207
4,407
4,050
4,499
4,125
25012

Lawyer (except advocate and solicitor)
29
7,714
5,648
7,779
5,648
25013

Legal officer
37
7,331
5,685
7,829
5,685
21471

Manufacturing engineer
624
3,864
3,560
4,201
3,851
24901

Market research analyst
47
4,358
3,500
4,669
3,500
21451

Mechanical engineer
924
3,732
3,400
4,060
3,688
21333

Multi-media programmer
24
2,788
2,365
2,853
2,394
21341

Network and computer systems administrator
277
3,448
3,110
3,548
3,200
21322

Network systems and data communication analyst
234
4,126
3,770
4,249
3,894
2224

Pharmacist
21
3,431
2,880
4,283
4,095
21110

Physicist
284
6,673
6,311
6,683
6,311
21432

Power generation and distribution engineer
112
4,652
3,912
4,672
3,912
21472

Production engineer
467
3,783
3,540
4,007
3,782
21496

Quantity surveyor
130
3,315
3,047
3,396
3,100
21444

Semi-conductor engineer
1,913
3,654
3,428
4,137
3,885
21323

Software engineer
963
3,953
3,705
4,059
3,800
22222

Specialised dentist
16
7,395
6,600
9,412
9,351
21422

Structural engineer
144
4,359
3,985
4,634
4,000
21321

Systems designer and analyst
1,169
4,015
3,800
4,126
3,900
21332

Systems programmer
128
3,314
3,125
3,404
3,190
21442

Telecommunications engineer
1,033
3,887
3,607
3,992
3,700
24204

Treasury manager
37
9,609
8,791
9,886
8,791












3

TECHNICIANS AND ASSOCIATE
29,438
2,919
2,400
3,547
2,869

PROFESSIONALS











31242

Aeronautical engineering technician
1,108
2,510
2,266
3,782
3,257
34153

After sales service adviser
415
2,974
2,660
3,593
3,190
31561

Air transport service supervisor
622
2,661
2,550
3,790
3,844
31275

Architectural draughtsman
150
3,010
2,800
3,143
3,000
34110

Assistant accountant
14
2,820
2,760
2,830
2,760




























TABLE 2.1














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median






31001

Assistant civil and structural engineer
282
3,072
3,000
3,406
3,349
31002

Assistant electrical engineer
280
2,742
2,544
3,061
2,923
31003

Assistant electronics engineer
1,009
2,641
2,573
2,926
2,861
31006

Assistant manufacturing engineer
131
2,293
2,271
2,544
2,440
31004

Assistant mechanical engineer
934
2,574
2,383
4,174
3,785
31243

Automotive engineering technician
541
1,908
1,821
2,355
2,237
31213

Building technician
503
2,362
2,204
2,544
2,425
34161

Buyer
68
2,770
2,775
2,866
2,863
31251

Chemical engineering technician
106
2,293
2,200
3,848
3,480
31101

Chemistry technician
99
2,927
2,434
3,487
3,286
31274

Civil and structural engineering draughtsman
49
2,584
2,509
2,674
2,600
31211

Civil engineering technician
119
2,624
2,580
2,702
2,600
34203

Clearing and forwarding agent
95
2,411
2,300
2,524
2,490
39511

Commercial artist
33
3,242
2,836
3,509
3,161
31300

Computer systems operator
147
2,086
2,009
2,579
2,409
31233

Computer technician
200
1,901
1,800
2,104
1,923
39515

Display artist
21
1,927
1,673
1,929
1,781
31271

Draughtsman
61
2,200
2,000
2,546
2,598
31273

Electrical / Electronics draughtsman
11
1,857
1,882
1,911
1,900
3122

Electrical engineering technician
1,366
2,214
2,099
2,655
2,667
31231

Electronics engineering technician
258
2,073
2,026
2,373
2,273
39227

Executive secretary
20
4,229
3,750
4,440
3,850
34191

Exhibition / Convention organiser / co-ordinator
14
2,054
2,075
2,054
2,075
34123

Financial futures dealer and broker
84
9,283
7,731
9,283
7,731
31611

Fire and safety officer
311
2,675
2,500
2,957
2,760
34122

Foreign exchange dealer and broker
26
6,344
5,400
6,630
5,825
39516

Graphic designer
56
2,669
2,450
2,794
2,500
34131

Insurance sales agent and broker
41
2,735
2,509
2,966
2,787
34132

Insurance underwriter
12
5,425
4,754
5,527
4,767
39512

Interior designer
16
2,814
1,818
2,883
1,911
39221

Management executive
1,707
3,541
3,000
3,703
3,182
31261

Manufacturing engineering technician
68
2,004
1,830
2,287
2,097
31272

Mechanical draughtsman
34
2,172
1,851
2,597
2,344
31241

Mechanical engineering technician
948
2,031
1,900
2,605
2,559




























TABLE 2.1














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
32281

Medical diagnostic radiographer
26
3,420
3,334
3,793
3,645
32111

Medical science technician
165
2,024
1,904
2,935
2,907
32284

Medical X-ray technician
11
2,881
2,284
3,374
3,840
31562

MRT service supervisor
76
2,603
2,451
3,048
2,904
32212

Optician
13
1,828
1,830
1,980
1,987
39222

Personnel / Human resource officer
98
3,135
3,016
3,257
3,098
32270

Pharmaceutical assistant / dispenser
16
1,416
1,275
1,524
1,426
31411

Photographer
60
3,520
3,132
3,536
3,153
31102

Physics technician
395
3,375
3,355
3,375
3,355
32221

Physiotherapist
17
3,151
2,820
3,227
2,820
31612

Premises maintenance officer
120
2,478
2,340
2,616
2,500
31262

Production engineering technician
506
2,083
1,856
2,736
2,634
39513

Products designer
65
2,460
2,372
2,732
2,600
32241

Professional nurse
89
2,726
2,646
3,097
2,905
39225

Public relations officer
21
3,130
2,884
3,157
2,884
34162

Purchasing agent
333
3,005
2,845
3,139
2,995
31265

Quality assurance technician
120
2,204
2,000
2,721
2,467
31298

Quantity surveying technician
32
2,393
2,180
2,503
2,291
31563

Road transport service supervisor
194
2,321
2,071
2,479
2,284
39228

Sales and marketing executive
734
2,751
2,600
2,981
2,810
34152

Sales representative
77
2,222
2,160
2,978
2,780

(Medical and pharmaceutical products)





34151

Sales representative (Technical)
1,017
3,279
2,900
4,099
3,200
34121

Securities dealer and broker
162
4,682
2,825
10,094
3,225
31234

Semi-conductor technician
827
1,911
1,899
2,496
2,443
39301

Social worker
15
2,226
1,900
2,325
1,974
31212

Structural engineering technician
640
1,978
1,938
2,336
2,295
31232

Telecommunications technician
1,606
2,143
2,100
2,417
2,381
39223

Training officer
139
3,514
3,045
3,853
3,288




























TABLE 2.1














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
4

CLERICAL WORKERS
10,004
1,720
1,603
2,062
1,937






42224

Airport receptionist / clerk
326
1,399
1,332
1,873
1,780
41303

Audit clerk
30
1,750
1,741
1,813
1,741
42121

Bank teller
14
1,922
1,865
2,454
2,545
41305

Billing clerk
42
1,757
1,675
2,041
1,763
42111

Cashier
74
1,340
1,190
1,478
1,315
41000

Clerical supervisor
1,266
2,332
2,200
2,714
2,520
42225

Customer service clerk
698
1,638
1,609
2,087
1,995
41130

Data entry operator
27
1,268
1,363
1,532
1,541
41421

Data processing control clerk
29
1,807
1,755
2,024
1,920
41205

Filing clerk
82
1,244
1,200
1,351
1,304
42222

Hotel receptionist
45
1,124
1,128
1,335
1,307
41302

Ledger and accounts clerk
242
1,785
1,700
1,918
1,800
41202

Legal clerk
46
1,885
1,799
1,969
1,918
41521

Material planning clerk
447
1,514
1,425
1,861
1,765
42223

Medical / Dental receptionist
15
1,402
1,350
1,628
1,416
42112

Office cashier
36
1,637
1,482
1,890
1,678
41201

Office clerk
996
1,784
1,731
1,946
1,920
41206

Personnel / Human resource clerk
62
1,599
1,670
1,653
1,718
41522

Production planning clerk
125
2,023
1,914
2,514
2,415
42221

Receptionist
24
1,569
1,571
1,927
2,073
41111

Secretary
12
2,276
2,092
2,324
2,092
41306

Securities clerk
18
1,935
1,951
2,020
1,951
41511

Shipping clerk
235
1,612
1,527
2,008
1,927
41512

Stock records clerk
260
1,861
1,880
2,246
2,262
41513

Storekeeper
1,521
1,522
1,462
1,877
1,796
4223

Telephone operator
27
1,534
1,450
1,950
1,829
42210

Travel agency and related clerk
41
1,489
1,449
1,522
1,462






5

SERVICE WORKERS AND SHOP AND
10,199
1,451
1,350
1,848
1,700

MARKET SALES WORKERS











51113

Cabin attendant / steward
1,921
1,692
1,723
2,341
2,220














TABLE 2.1














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
51230

Captain / Waiter supervisor (Restaurant)
402
1,485
1,550
1,519
1,610
51220

Cook
1,188
1,987
1,727
2,229
1,982
51212

House steward
23
1,697
1,504
1,885
1,633
51211

Housekeeper (Hotels and other establishments)
51
1,536
1,433
1,873
1,661
5150

Mail distribution worker
1,006
1,402
1,400
1,750
1,652
51440

Private security guard
2,183
1,038
1,000
1,387
1,250
52103

Sales demonstrator
52
1,117
1,000
1,899
1,530
52101

Sales supervisor
599
1,660
1,606
1,952
1,823
52102

Shop sales assistant
1,036
1,117
1,000
1,679
1,506
51231

Waiter
139
982
950
1,107
1,035






7

PRODUCTION
CRAFTSMEN AND
13,405
1,757
1,626
2,263
2,057

RELATED WORKERS











72314

Aircraft engine mechanic
2,212
1,656
1,555
2,651
2,443
7412

Baker, pastry-cook and confectionery maker
36
1,306
1,228
1,547
1,434
72440

Computer and related electronic equipment mechanic
56
1,554
1,551
1,984
1,987
72411

Electrical fitter
199
1,642
1,587
2,015
1,779
72412

Electrical lift, escalator and related equipment fitter
609
1,474
1,441
1,797
1,628
72413

Electrician
434
1,585
1,531
1,870
1,750
7242

Electronics fitter
273
1,649
1,647
2,520
2,338
72313

Industrial and office machinery mechanic
1,040
1,677
1,639
2,239
2,132
7411

Meat and fish preparer
119
1,332
1,320
1,506
1,531
73113

Precision instrument maker, assembler and repairer
212
1,673
1,654
2,345
2,306
7333

Printing engraver and etcher
13
1,393
1,386
1,645
1,386
72325

Refrigeration and air-conditioning plant installer
137
1,309
1,302
1,682
1,653
74000

Supervisor and general foreman
196
1,398
1,303
1,745
1,598

(Food processing, woodworking, textile






and related trades)





72000

Supervisor and general foreman
1,475
2,418
2,300
2,956
2,761

(Metal, machinery and related trades)





73000

Supervisor and general foreman
34
2,915
2,930
3,199
3,359

(Precision, handicraft, printing and related trades)



















TABLE 2.1














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median






8

PLANT AND MACHINE OPERATORS
16,020
1,600
1,469
2,216
2,118

AND ASSEMBLERS





83244

Airport mobile equipment driver
402
1,274
1,349
1,775
1,766
8252

Bookbinding and related machine operator
85
1,320
1,300
1,794
1,581
83230

Bus driver
3,891
1,274
1,269
2,057
2,062
8150

Chemical processing plant operator
309
1,810
1,679
2,490
2,233
82821

Electrical / Electronic products quality
53
1,265
1,280
1,570
1,479

checker and tester





82811

Electrical equipment / component assembler
13
1,385
1,296
1,527
1,371
82812

Electronic equipment / component assembler
407
1,315
1,200
1,855
1,764
82221

Electro-plater
15
1,181
1,200
1,651
1,609
827

Food and related products machine operator
240
1,289
1,135
1,633
1,442
82000

Machine supervisor and general foreman
1,513
2,551
2,450
3,060
2,950
82822

Mechanical products quality checker and tester
69
1,641
1,462
2,111
1,939
8124

Metal drawer and extruder
33
1,717
1,682
2,451
2,149
8122

Metal melter, caster and rolling mill operator
27
1,186
980
1,710
1,573
82111

Metalworking machine setter-operator
430
1,504
1,489
2,347
2,188
8253

Paper and paperboard products machine operator
118
1,398
1,313
1,758
1,695
8143

Papermaking plant operator
31
1,143
1,270
1,647
1,692
82210

Pharmaceutical and toiletry products
39
1,200
1,131
1,620
1,586

machine operator





82230

Photographic products machine operator
14
1,490
1,375
1,746
1,781
82320

Plastic product machine operator
163
1,218
1,180
1,760
1,673
82117

Precision grinding machine setter-operator
65
1,551
1,619
2,246
2,437
82510

Printing machine operator
506
1,844
1,891
2,431
2,444
8231

Rubber products machine operator
50
1,206
1,186
1,632
1,610
83242

Trailer-truck driver
810
1,520
1,610
2,032
2,109
82223

Wire-coating machine operator
27
1,406
1,383
2,169
2,212




























9

CLEANERS, LABOURERS AND
7,860
1,133
1,110
1,390
1,314

RELATED WORKERS











91303

Aircraft cleaner
291
1,311
1,315
1,839
1,795














TABLE 2.1














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( MALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
92024

Car park attendant
30
1,042
1,000
1,189
1,145
9129

Cleaner in office and industrial establishment
1,396
839
710
996
850
93300

Construction labourer and related worker
526
860
954
964
1,000
91223

Food and drink stall assistant
27
963
765
967
800
93414

Godown labourer
452
1,304
1,290
1,685
1,609
93901

Hand packer
182
1,105
1,004
1,376
1,322
92023

Hospital attendant
113
1,185
1,182
1,284
1,263
91222

Kitchen assistant
362
1,182
1,150
1,471
1,399
92022

Laboratory attendant
21
1,479
1,350
1,681
1,636
91210

Laundry and dry cleaning worker
49
1,003
1,000
1,234
1,193
93200

Manufacturing labourer and related worker
376
987
900
1,238
1,150
92021

Office / Library attendant
203
1,343
1,320
1,517
1,446
91221

Room steward / Chambermaid
67
920
874
1,171
1,065
93416

Store hand
816
1,289
1,260
1,534
1,478




























Source: Report on Wages in Singapore, 2003


































































































Appendix 3B

TABLE 2.2
MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
1

MANAGERS
8,547
5,919
4,958
6,163
5,000






12332

Administration manager
410
4,314
3,996
4,434
4,000
12350

Advertising and public relations manager
193
4,423
4,000
4,470
4,000
12331

Budgeting and financial accounting manager
1,114
5,691
5,000
5,889
5,140
12312

Building and construction project manager
83
4,434
4,180
4,536
4,300
12391

Business development manager
212
5,776
5,107
6,102
5,258
12102

Company director
641
8,526
7,500
8,963
7,546
12333

Corporate planning manager
26
5,883
5,938
6,175
6,148
12351

Creative director (Advertising)
11
6,583
5,000
6,604
5,000
12322

Customer service manager
208
4,664
4,100
4,818
4,230
1220

General manager
418
10,063
9,250
10,592
9,595
12902

Lodging services manager
48
2,802
2,500
2,951
2,554
12101

Managing director
130
14,816
14,000
16,017
14,825
12311

Manufacturing plant and production manager
296
5,470
5,222
5,699
5,425
12310

Operations manager (Commerce)
24
4,577
3,890
4,598
3,890
12318

Operations manager (Community)
180
4,397
4,468
4,397
4,468
12317

Operations manager (Finance)
1,002
6,931
5,932
7,213
5,980
12341

Personnel / Human resource manager
408
5,838
5,220
6,102
5,352
12315

Procurement manager
130
4,583
4,200
4,775
4,275
12392

Property / Estate manager
98
4,280
4,008
4,417
4,210
12314

Quality assurance manager
63
4,982
4,748
5,104
4,748
12360

Research and development manager
32
5,224
5,000
5,483
5,036
12903

Restaurant and other catering services manager
166
2,583
2,431
2,632
2,463
12321

Sales manager
365
4,610
4,062
4,948
4,200
12901

Shop sales manager
304
2,589
2,285
2,889
2,525
12343

Training manager
50
4,922
4,569
5,097
4,686
12313

Transport operations manager
119
4,162
4,000
4,321
4,100
12316

Warehousing manager
12
4,132
4,454
4,210
4,555
2

PROFESSIONALS
10,316
3,967
3,500
4,124
3,600






24101

Accountant
825
3,813
3,605
3,872
3,700

TABLE 2.2














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
21213

Actuary
13
3,859
3,625
3,981
3,741
24902

Advertising account executive
57
2,667
2,504
2,804
2,655
29314

Advertising copywriter
17
3,861
3,750
3,861
3,750
25011

Advocate and solicitor
173
5,382
5,000
5,438
5,000
21455

Aeronautical engineer
70
3,381
3,070
3,524
3,238
21331

Application programmer
416
2,628
2,438
2,719
2,500
21445

Audio and video equipment engineer
17
2,805
2,805
2,891
2,805
24102

Auditor (Accounting)
569
2,900
2,400
2,934
2,400
21456

Automotive engineer
14
3,120
2,973
3,120
2,973
21491

Biomedical engineer
14
3,308
3,155
3,403
3,240
21411

Building architect
72
4,190
3,800
4,377
3,825
21423

Building construction engineer
49
3,012
2,800
3,155
2,800
24903

Business management consultant
83
4,917
4,263
5,287
4,346
21461

Chemical engineer
12
2,848
2,800
2,975
2,800
21462

Chemical engineer (Petroleum)
12
4,099
4,120
4,224
4,270
21130

Chemist
81
3,225
3,000
3,413
3,155
21421

Civil engineer
63
3,187
2,750
3,250
2,900
21311

Computer and information systems manager
459
6,668
6,443
6,786
6,500
21443

Computer engineer
289
5,576
4,740
5,960
4,977
21312

Computer operations and network manager
48
7,150
6,980
7,221
6,980
24202

Credit analyst
41
4,339
3,880
4,437
3,880
21342

Database administrator
51
3,119
2,846
3,191
3,000
22221

Dentist
39
3,335
3,300
3,437
3,350
29321

Editor (Newspapers and periodicals)
150
5,648
5,120
5,839
5,262
21431

Electrical engineer
69
3,667
3,900
3,766
4,033
21441

Electronics engineer
104
3,277
3,149
3,319
3,180
2936

Film, stage and related producer, director and actor
40
3,880
3,120
3,901
3,135
24201

Financial analyst
214
4,584
4,179
4,743
4,240
21498

Food and drink technologist
27
3,784
3,350
3,834
3,350
22211

General physician
78
7,006
6,800
8,942
7,386
22212

General surgeon
27
9,015
8,800
13,725
13,354
21192

Geophysicist
24
3,852
3,390
3,858
3,396
21493

Industrial health, safety and environment engineer
12
3,841
3,657
3,987
3,951
21452

Industrial machinery and tools engineer
24
3,307
3,110
3,397
3,245
21392

Information technology security specialist
10
2,960
2,908
3,114
3,085
29312

Journalist
287
3,680
3,281
3,762
3,430

TABLE 2.2














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
25012

Lawyer (except advocate and solicitor)
50
6,129
5,384
6,283
5,384
25013

Legal officer
63
5,347
4,500
5,506
4,640
29121

Librarian
25
3,404
3,456
3,453
3,671
21471

Manufacturing engineer
173
3,375
3,175
3,648
3,615
24901

Market research analyst
79
3,854
3,506
3,913
3,506
21451

Mechanical engineer
81
3,367
3,032
3,501
3,220
21333

Multi-media programmer
15
2,317
2,208
2,344
2,208
21341

Network and computer systems administrator
111
3,324
2,980
3,449
3,010
21322

Network systems and data communication analyst
102
4,008
3,873
4,108
3,926
21212

Operations research analyst
17
3,487
3,100
3,527
3,100
2224

Pharmacist
90
3,326
2,856
3,795
3,427
21110

Physicist
48
5,967
5,919
5,967
5,919
21432

Power generation and distribution engineer
12
5,777
7,146
5,790
7,221
21472

Production engineer
197
3,495
3,295
3,597
3,416
21496

Quantity surveyor
249
2,964
2,800
2,995
2,835
21444

Semi-conductor engineer
554
3,370
3,200
3,643
3,500
21323

Software engineer
429
3,775
3,534
3,910
3,630
22222

Specialised dentist
26
7,599
6,625
9,541
8,354
21422

Structural engineer
32
3,653
3,290
3,802
3,315
21321

Systems designer and analyst
770
3,819
3,695
3,906
3,761
21332

Systems programmer
88
2,784
2,518
2,859
2,795
23402

Teacher of the deaf
17
2,103
1,800
2,103
1,800
23403

Teacher of the mentally handicapped
16
1,423
1,392
1,423
1,392
21442

Telecommunications engineer
225
3,678
3,464
3,740
3,496
24204

Treasury manager
38
4,486
4,221
4,598
4,448












3

TECHNICIANS AND ASSOCIATE
24,007
2,522
2,374
2,697
2,500

PROFESSIONALS











34201

Advertising salesman
31
2,239
2,050
2,239
2,100
31242

Aeronautical engineering technician
19
2,763
2,456
3,258
3,080
34153

After sales service adviser
141
2,903
2,650
2,988
2,700
31561

Air transport service supervisor
34
2,467
2,232
3,416
3,397
34171

Appraiser and valuer
23
2,731
2,337
2,737
2,337

TABLE 2.2














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
31275

Architectural draughtsman
123
2,557
2,420
2,637
2,609
34110

Assistant accountant
180
2,843
2,750
2,979
2,795
31001

Assistant civil and structural engineer
74
3,485
3,683
3,512
3,695
31002

Assistant electrical engineer
42
2,257
2,127
2,363
2,154
31003

Assistant electronics engineer
232
2,538
2,435
2,704
2,547
31006

Assistant manufacturing engineer
55
2,218
2,095
2,347
2,168
31004

Assistant mechanical engineer
59
2,320
2,142
2,738
2,382
32245

Assistant nurse
445
1,998
2,027
2,222
2,222
31243

Automotive engineering technician
17
1,954
1,750
2,075
1,922
31213

Building technician
157
2,283
2,200
2,313
2,200
34161

Buyer
168
2,537
2,410
2,633
2,500
31251

Chemical engineering technician
16
1,877
1,638
2,477
1,892
31101

Chemistry technician
99
1,944
1,812
2,228
2,064
31274

Civil and structural engineering draughtsman
49
2,410
2,495
2,512
2,540
31211

Civil engineering technician
67
2,353
2,319
2,411
2,350
34203

Clearing and forwarding agent
53
2,015
1,879
2,292
2,125
39511

Commercial artist
38
2,605
2,500
2,792
2,660
31300

Computer systems operator
132
2,161
2,006
2,531
2,450
31233

Computer technician
75
1,935
1,802
2,014
1,900
32250

Dental nurse
46
2,139
2,053
2,392
2,270
32293

Dental technician
12
3,020
3,123
3,028
3,123
3223

Dietician and public health nutritionist
18
2,293
2,110
2,293
2,168
39515

Display artist
18
1,910
1,718
1,910
1,718
31271

Draughtsman
55
1,936
1,891
2,044
2,000
31273

Electrical / Electronics draughtsman
35
2,259
2,100
2,313
2,138
3122

Electrical engineering technician
56
2,301
2,226
2,525
2,493
31231

Electronics engineering technician
44
2,058
2,132
2,591
2,388
39227

Executive secretary
942
3,571
3,400
3,635
3,469
34191

Exhibition / Convention organiser / co-ordinator
20
2,353
2,100
2,592
2,100
39514

Fashion and garment designer
14
1,753
1,400
1,796
1,460
34123

Financial futures dealer and broker
108
4,675
3,006
7,184
5,906
31611

Fire and safety officer
10
2,836
3,064
3,033
3,064
34122

Foreign exchange dealer and broker
18
4,470
4,535
4,639
4,535
39516

Graphic designer
113
2,139
2,000
2,231
2,050
32243

Industrial nurse
36
2,956
2,872
3,324
3,197
34131

Insurance sales agent and broker
139
2,591
2,435
2,841
2,650

TABLE 2.2














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
34132

Insurance underwriter
36
3,559
3,052
3,593
3,262
39512

Interior designer
16
2,460
2,036
2,500
2,103
39221

Management executive
6,215
2,954
2,630
3,065
2,785
31261

Manufacturing engineering technician
33
1,487
1,329
1,838
1,620
31272

Mechanical draughtsman
34
2,404
2,373
2,704
2,723
31241

Mechanical engineering technician
62
1,822
1,768
2,032
2,018
32281

Medical diagnostic radiographer
37
3,651
3,622
3,864
3,930
32111

Medical science technician
128
2,263
1,974
2,400
2,152
39303

Medical social worker
34
3,107
2,852
3,194
2,852
32284

Medical X-ray technician
11
3,420
4,178
3,523
4,278
32244

Midwife
16
2,346
2,290
2,458
2,296
31562

MRT service supervisor
14
1,991
1,851
2,259
2,264
32222

Occupational therapist
29
2,645
2,550
2,652
2,550
32212

Optician
10
2,088
2,170
2,234
2,373
32211

Optometrist
27
2,487
2,430
2,796
2,775
39222

Personnel / Human resource officer
670
3,029
2,820
3,086
2,900
32270

Pharmaceutical assistant / dispenser
283
1,131
972
1,214
1,059
31411

Photographer
16
2,875
2,754
2,889
2,754
31102

Physics technician
166
3,091
3,095
3,091
3,095
32221

Physiotherapist
58
2,753
2,705
2,781
2,718
31612

Premises maintenance officer
27
1,897
1,800
1,969
1,900
33110

Pre-primary education teacher
2,399
1,123
1,061
1,132
1,073
31262

Production engineering technician
132
2,175
2,102
2,446
2,347
39513

Products designer
28
2,394
2,224
2,509
2,435
32241

Professional nurse
1,458
2,601
2,418
2,927
2,756
39225

Public relations officer
107
2,592
2,331
2,629
2,362
34162

Purchasing agent
534
2,634
2,471
2,725
2,528
31265

Quality assurance technician
126
1,847
1,737
2,085
1,919
31298

Quantity surveying technician
50
2,059
2,062
2,074
2,090
39212

Research officer
10
2,615
2,317
2,624
2,318
31563

Road transport service supervisor
28
2,363
2,260
2,484
2,328
39228

Sales and marketing executive
966
2,621
2,500
2,701
2,551
34152

Sales representative
140
2,082
1,900
2,865
2,918

(Medical and pharmaceutical products)





34151

Sales representative (Technical)
421
2,719
2,600
3,751
2,970
34121

Securities dealer and broker
123
3,226
2,500
3,812
2,700
31234

Semi-conductor technician
146
1,937
1,895
2,175
2,113

TABLE 2.2














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
39301

Social worker
51
2,024
2,000
2,126
2,011
32242

Specialised nurse
61
3,674
3,550
3,841
3,826
31212

Structural engineering technician
11
2,431
2,263
2,455
2,263
31421

Telecommunications service supervisor
14
2,298
2,047
2,543
2,245
31232

Telecommunications technician
321
2,077
2,100
2,216
2,203
39223

Training officer
127
2,801
2,674
2,951
2,795












4

CLERICAL WORKERS
25,432
1,718
1,645
1,872
1,786






42224

Airport receptionist / clerk
765
1,406
1,347
1,814
1,746
41303

Audit clerk
74
1,512
1,500
1,594
1,549
42121

Bank teller
76
1,591
1,559
1,880
1,803
41305

Billing clerk
220
1,602
1,549
1,756
1,640
41301

Bookkeeper
22
1,864
1,760
1,899
1,851
42111

Cashier
1,207
1,074
974
1,226
1,109
41000

Clerical supervisor
1,677
2,135
1,947
2,436
2,265
42225

Customer service clerk
2,423
1,653
1,600
1,864
1,787
41130

Data entry operator
140
1,251
1,221
1,377
1,347
41421

Data processing control clerk
68
1,699
1,686
1,870
1,874
41205

Filing clerk
56
1,469
1,405
1,528
1,486
42222

Hotel receptionist
113
1,095
1,005
1,339
1,267
41203

Insurance / Underwriting clerk
90
1,865
1,728
2,000
1,868
41302

Ledger and accounts clerk
2,650
1,838
1,800
1,940
1,856
41202

Legal clerk
75
1,843
1,800
1,940
1,888
41204

Library clerk
72
1,369
1,328
1,461
1,434
41521

Material planning clerk
176
1,757
1,605
1,977
1,866
42223

Medical / Dental receptionist
546
1,378
1,338
1,525
1,429
42112

Office cashier
45
1,268
1,160
1,520
1,318
41201

Office clerk
5,673
1,634
1,589
1,729
1,665
41206

Personnel / Human resource clerk
527
1,735
1,700
1,814
1,766
41522

Production planning clerk
285
1,711
1,650
1,931
1,918
42221

Receptionist
615
1,482
1,450
1,539
1,500
41111

Secretary
1,982
2,471
2,441
2,543
2,500
41306

Securities clerk
31
1,810
1,740
1,858
1,744
41511

Shipping clerk
376
1,742
1,654
1,878
1,812

TABLE 2.2














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
4141

Statistical clerk
62
2,047
2,000
2,092
2,056
41512

Stock records clerk
236
1,690
1,628
1,848
1,715
41513

Storekeeper
183
1,436
1,403
1,672
1,595
4223

Telephone operator
189
1,315
1,450
1,559
1,634
42210

Travel agency and related clerk
154
1,619
1,526
1,671
1,561
41122

Typist
136
1,411
1,280
1,508
1,362
41304

Wages clerk
36
1,700
1,700
1,869
1,870












5

SERVICE WORKERS AND SHOP AND
9,932
1,226
1,207
1,524
1,450

MARKET SALES WORKERS











51113

Cabin attendant / steward
2,502
1,381
1,300
1,891
1,787
51230

Captain / Waiter supervisor (Restaurant)
646
1,468
1,461
1,468
1,602
51391

Child-care worker
11
1,366
1,215
1,437
1,230
51220

Cook
699
1,199
1,068
1,368
1,261
51311

Hair stylist / Hairdresser
44
1,426
1,475
1,633
1,530
51212

House steward
12
1,354
1,006
1,592
1,201
51211

Housekeeper (Hotels and other establishments)
139
1,624
1,454
1,972
1,753
5150

Mail distribution worker
49
1,340
1,250
1,470
1,453
51392

Masseur (Non-medical)
51
1,186
1,000
1,746
1,901
51440

Private security guard
114
946
897
1,264
1,184
52103

Sales demonstrator
91
1,056
1,010
1,511
1,393
52101

Sales supervisor
1,009
1,427
1,405
1,678
1,614
52102

Shop sales assistant
2,374
1,024
942
1,416
1,212
52105

Telemarketer
32
1,563
1,419
1,675
1,568
51131

Tourist guide
11
1,287
1,231
1,287
1,231
51231

Waiter
340
988
987
1,129
1,114












7

PRODUCTION
CRAFTSMEN AND
1,639
1,326
1,286
1,629
1,535

RELATED WORKERS











72314

Aircraft engine mechanic
38
1,738
1,676
2,072
1,977

TABLE 2.2














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
7412

Baker, pastry-cook and confectionery maker
35
1,123
1,037
1,276
1,203
72440

Computer and related electronic equipment mechanic
28
1,498
1,430
1,709
1,630
72412

Electrical lift, escalator and related equipment fitter
11
1,089
1,215
1,150
1,296
72413

Electrician
30
1,577
1,506
1,670
1,535
7242

Electronics fitter
196
1,429
1,415
1,887
1,769
72313

Industrial and office machinery mechanic
144
1,391
1,323
1,750
1,669
73131

Jewellery worker
13
1,032
930
1,593
1,652
74404

Leather goods maker / assembler
10
922
890
1,083
1,046
7411

Meat and fish preparer
60
989
954
1,123
1,051
73113

Precision instrument maker, assembler and repairer
189
1,522
1,513
2,138
2,001
7333

Printing engraver and etcher
11
1,325
1,270
1,405
1,355
72325

Refrigeration and air-conditioning plant installer
87
1,352
1,364
1,799
1,756
74000

Supervisor and general foreman
267
1,296
1,200
1,458
1,345

(Food processing, woodworking, textile






and related trades)





72000

Supervisor and general foreman
35
2,360
2,371
2,663
2,810

(Metal, machinery and related trades)





73000

Supervisor and general foreman
11
1,634
1,600
1,765
1,618

(Precision, handicraft, printing and related trades)





7432

Textile, leather and related pattern maker and cutter
34
1,275
1,144
1,456
1,346






8

PLANT AND MACHINE OPERATORS
13,175
991
921
1,333
1,224

AND ASSEMBLERS











83244

Airport mobile equipment driver
27
1,323
1,399
1,701
1,705
81700

Automated assembly line and industrial robot operator
23
681
680
1,050
1,041
8252

Bookbinding and related machine operator
217
951
937
1,147
943
83230

Bus driver
193
1,277
1,269
2,056
2,083
8150

Chemical processing plant operator
26
1,428
1,265
1,775
1,680
82821

Electrical / Electronic products quality
615
1,080
1,110
1,392
1,366

checker and tester





82811

Electrical equipment / component assembler
20
1,145
1,115
1,273
1,235

TABLE 2.2














MONTHLY BASIC AND GROSS WAGES OF SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES, JUNE 2003
( FEMALES )














SSOC
Occupation
Number
Basic Wage ($)
Gross Wage ($)
2000
Covered
Mean
Median
Mean
Median
82812

Electronic equipment / component assembler
8,119
941
903
1,275