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Greece - 7th periodic reports of state parties [2011] UNCEDAWSPR 8; CEDAW/C/GRC/7 (13 March 2011)

United Nations
Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women
Distr.: General
14 March 2011
Original: English

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination

against Women

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Seventh periodic reports of States parties[*]



Paragraphs Page

List of Abbreviations 3

I. Introduction 1–7 6

II. Summary 8–21 7

III. Measures for the application of the provisions of the Convention 22–286 10

Article 1. Elimination of discrimination against women 22–23 10

Article 2. Legislative and judicial protection against discrimination 24–58 11

Article 3. Gender mainstreaming 59–70 19

Article 4. Quotas and affirmative action to promote equality 71 22

Article 5. Gender roles and combating of stereotypes 72–77 22

Article 6. Violence against women 78–135 23

Article 7. Women’s participation in decision-making in political

and public life 136–147 34

Article 8. Women’s participation in international and

European institutions and the diplomatic corps 148–153 36

Article 9. Women’s equal rights: citizenship and multiple discrimination 154–171 37

Article 10. Eradication and vocational training 172–190 41

Article 11. Employment and social insurance 191–251 47

Article 12. Health and family programming 252–264 64

Article 13. Equal participation in sports and culture 265–273 66

Article 14. Women from rural areas 274–284 68

Article 15. Women’s legal equality 285 72

Article 16. Equality in family and marriage 286 72


1. Responses to the concluding observations of the Committee on the sixth

periodic report 73

2. National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013 81

3. List of agencies that provided data and information for the

seventh periodic report 85

4. List of GSGE employees that contributed to the preparation

of the report (June 2009) 88

5. Tables 89

List of abbreviations

ACCI Athens Chamber of Commerce and Industry

AEVT Account for Employment and Vocational Training

ATC Adults Training Centre

AWR Association of Women’s Rights

CASS Centres of Accompanying Support Services

CI Community Initiative

COP Competitiveness Operational Program

CSC Civil Servants Confederation

CSF Community Support Framework

CSR Corporate Social Responsibility

DFAAE Distributive Family Allowances Account for Employers

DP Development Partnership

EFI European Fund for Integration

ERC Equality Regional Committee

ERC Educational Research Centre

ERT State Radio and TV

ESCG Economic and Social Council of Greece

ESF European Social Fund

EU European Union

EWL European Women’s Lobby

FCC Economic and Commerce Cases

FIWU Federation of Industrial Workers’ Union

GCGW General Confederation of Greek Women

GNHS Greek National Health System

GSGE General Secretariat for Gender Equality

GSRT General Secretariat for Research and Technology

HAF Hellenic Air Force

HAGS Hellenic Army General Staff

HAUW Hellenic Association of University Women

HCC Health Central Council

ΗCHR Hellenic Committee for Human Rights

HCIDC Hellenic Centre for Infectious Diseases

HCPCM Hellenic Confederation Professional Craftsmen and Merchants

HEI Higher Education Institutes

HFE Hellenic Federation of Enterprises

HFPA Hellenic Family Planning Association

HMOFA Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs

HMOHSS Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity

HMPI Hellenic Migration Policy Institute

HNDGS Hellenic National Defence General Staff

HOSMIH Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium-sized Industries and Handicrafts

HPF Hellenic Police Force

HRDC Human Rights Defence Centre

HSA Hellenic Statistical Authority

ICAE Institute for Continuing Adult Education

ICHWS Inspection Corps for Health and Welfare Services

ICT Information and Communication Technologies

IOM International Organization for Immigration

IPDRA Integrated Programs for the Development of Rural Areas

IPPF International Planned Parenthood Federation

LEI Local Employment Initiatives

LGEI Library for Gender Equality Issues

LGO Local Government Organization

LIC Labour Inspection Corps

MEO (OAED) Manpower Employment Organization

MFHR Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights

MM Mass Media

MOERA Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs

NCGT National Confederation of Greek Trade

NCGW National Council for Greek Women

NCNGWE National Chamber Network of Greek Women Entrepreneurs

NCPALG National Centre for Public Administration and Local Government

NCSR National Centre for Social Research

NCSS National Centre for Social Solidarity

NCW National Council of Women

NGCLC National General Collective Labour Contract

NGO Non-governmental organization

NSJ National School of Judges

NSRF National Strategic Reference Framework

OBSEC Organization of the Black Sea Economic Corporation

OP Operational Program

OPEIVT Operational Program for Education and Initial Vocational Training

OPEPPT (EPEAEK) Operational Program of “Education and Primary Professional Training”

OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

PCACU Pan-Hellenic Confederation of Agricultural Cooperatives Unions

PCAE Prefectural Committees for Adult Education

PCFE Prefectural Commission of Folk Education

PLLE Public Law Legal Entity

PMGDAP Project Management Group for Drafting Anti-criminal Policy

PrLLE Private Law Legal Entity

RCGE (KETHI) Research Centre for Gender Equality

ROP Regional Operational Program

RSCVMSE Research Support Centre for Victims of Maltreatment and Social Exclusion

SBPO School Book Publishing Organization

SCS Second Chance Schools

SIDC Service for International Developmental Cooperation

SII Social Insurance Institute

SLD Special Legal Department

SPO School Professional Orientation

SSS Supplementary Support Services

TCG Trafficking Combating Group

TI Training Institute

TVS Technical Vocational Schools

UGW Union of Greek Women

UN United Nations

VEI Vocational Educational Institute

VL Vocational Lyceum

VS Vocational School

WHO World Health Organization

WRU Women’s Rights Union

WWSF Women’s World Summit Foundation

YMCA Young Women’s Christian Association

I. Introduction

1. Since the 1970s, gender equality policies have comprised a separate body of international and European public policy. The significant input of international and European institutions, as well the action of women’s and feminist organizations, have contributed to the dynamic developments vis-à-vis gender equality issues since then. Currently, the new European Union (EU) Convention includes gender equality as a primary goal. The Council of Europe has chosen to give priority to the combating of violence against women. As it continues its efforts to implement the International Convention on Elimination of Discrimination against Women, the United Nations has declared the safeguarding of women’s rights a millennium priority.

2. The Hellenic Constitution recognizes the necessity for the State to take measures to promote substantive equality between men and women, with aim “the removal of inequalities that actually exist, especially against women” (art. 116 of the Constitution, para. 2). The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, ratified into Greek law since 1983 (Law 1342/1983), expresses the will of the Hellenic State to assume responsibilities and undertake measures to foster gender equality.

3. The preparation of the seventh periodic report of Greece refers to the years 2005 to 2008. It includes measures, policies and actions developed within the framework of the implementation of the “National Priorities in Policies and Action Axes on Gender Equality 2004–2008”, as executed by the Government elected in the national elections of March 2004. The Action Axes refer to: (a) combating trafficking of women for the purpose of their economic/sexual exploitation; (b) the establishment — for the first time — of legislative regulations are: combating of domestic violence and sexual harassment in the workplace; (c) promotion of women’s employment through a full range of interventions; (d) combating of gender stereotypes via educational and awareness-raising programmes tailored to the education community; and (e) the adaptation of affirmative action to increase women’s participation and representation in decision-making structures and processes.

4. The current Greek Government, elected on 4 October 2009 national elections, has established the improvement of men and women’s quotidian lives as one of its priorities, with particular on mitigating hardship due to the economic crisis. The General Secretariat for Gender Equality (GSGE) has prepared a National Action Plan on Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013. Its main goal is to achieve substantive equality between men and women across the entire spectrum of social life (political, economic, labour market, family, culture) (see annex 1). Incorporating the actions of the “National Action Plan for Prevention and Combating of Violence against Women 2009–2013”, this Program has national appeal. It encompasses a number of planned actions underpinned by the basic principles and theoretical approaches on gender equality. All required economic and human resources have been ensured to implement it. The strategic goals of the Program are grounded in:

(a) Protection of women’s human rights, with emphasis on the development of actions vis-à-vis groups of women experiencing multiple discrimination;

(b) Prevention and combating of violence against women in their family/private life, in the workplace and in society more broadly;

(c) Support for women’s employment and their economic independence; and

(d) Enhancement of their artistic creativity that promotes gender equality.

5. In order to implement the National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013, the GSGE utilizes the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) – the programming of European Union Funds at national level for the 2007–2013 period. (Axis III “Enhancement of gender equality policies across the entire range of public action”, OP “Public Administration Reform”, funded by the EU and national sources). Specifically, the tasks included in the initial planning of the 2007–2008 Axes were further tailored and subsequently included in the economic NSRF framework during 2010. Their tailoring has been based on the new political priorities of the Government as of 2009, which were set forth in the National Action Plan. Completion of the tasks shall begin gradually in 2011.

6. This report is the outcome of cooperation between the GSGE and governmental bodies and organizations, independent authorities, women’s organizations and NGOs. Maria Stratigaki, as Secretary-General for Gender Equality would like to thank them for their contribution. In addition, she would like to thank all the members of the GSGE who collected and processed the data and information, as well as her associates, Nafsika Moschovakou and Matina Papagiannopoulou, who were responsible for the final composition of the report.

7. By submitting this report, Greece commits to continue to contribute to the removal of inequalities and discrimination against women, to effectively safeguard their rights, and enhance their active participation in all spheres of social, economic, political and cultural life.

II. Summary

8. The seventh periodic report of Greece (2005–2008) to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women presents the policies, actions and plans developed and carried out during this period in Greece to remove gender stereotypes and discrimination, as well as empower women in all sectors of economic, political and social life. During that period, Axis III of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) — “Public Administration Reform” — was designed, including policies to be implemented after such period.

9. According to articles 1 and 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, during 2005–2008, the Greek institutional framework on gender equality was reinforced and improved. Some basic legislative regulations include the following: (a) the EU Directive on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions shall be incorporated into Greek Legislation (Law 3488/2006); and (b) the establishment of a law to combat domestic violence (Law 3500/2006). In addition, some crucial legislative regulations were adopted on gender equality in the field of combating trafficking in human beings and protection of women-victims, the implementation of quotas in national elections and research and technology committees, as well as in the protection of socially vulnerable groups. The actions taken by women’s organizations gave an important boost to the configuration and ratification of these legislative regulations.

10. Taking into consideration that gender mainstreaming (art. 3) in combination with affirmative actions can promote gender equality and contribute to its substantiation at all levels, during 2005–2008, institutional mechanisms were enhanced and activated to implement gender mainstreaming in public administration, by creating policy tools and awareness-raising actions for civil servants. Furthermore, during this period, some affirmative actions were undertaken, as stipulated in article 4 of the Convention, to promote balanced and equal participation of women in all levels of governance, including by establishing quotas per gender on the national election ballots, as well as in research and technology committees.

11. In addition, emphasis was given to the importance of to reducing stereotypes and changing of social roles of in order to achieve gender equality (art. 5). To this end, action plans were designed for the reconciliation of family and professional life more specifically and more generally for awareness-raising purposes on gender roles. As a result, some agencies such as the Research Centre for Gender Equality (RCGE), the Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Protection, the Hellenic Ministry of National Defence, the State Radio and Television (ERT), etc and NGOs became engaged in the expansion of equality policies and the weakening of stereotypical notions regarding gender roles within family/personal life and professional life. As far as the reconciliation of family and professional life is concerned, it should be stressed that apart from the development of actions, relevant legislative regulations were introduced to support women/mothers.

12. During 2005–2008, the issue of prevention and combating of actions undertaken to the detriment of women in general, and more specifically trafficking of women aiming at their economic/sexual exploitation and domestic violence, was given centre stage in actions undertaken to protect women. More specifically, according to article 6 of the Convention, important actions were undertaken at inter-ministerial, ministerial and non-governmental levels. The Service for International Developmental Cooperation (SIDC) of the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs (HMOFA) cooperated with Ministries, International Organizations and Greek non-governmental organizations, by funding programmes for awareness-raising and combating trafficking in Greece as both a transit and acceptance country for victims as well as in origin countries. In addition, the Hellenic Police Force (HPF), in order to successfully confront this phenomenon, formed anti-trafficking services. It also developed education and training actions in relation to the recognition of victims, their special treatment, and the achievement of cooperation among agencies for the protection of victims more generally. Within the same framework, the Hellenic Ministry of Justice organized awareness and education actions targeted to judicial officers. The National Centre for Social Solidarity, Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity (HMOHSS) established services for provision of counselling, acceptance and temporary hospitality to victims of trafficking.

13. Regarding the issues on prevention and combating of domestic violence against women, it should be stressed that a law combating domestic violence (Law 3500/2006) was ratified, covering a significant legislative gap. This law introduced vital reformations which penalized behaviours within a family which were not previously regarded as criminal offences. Moreover, the counselling procedure of victims having experienced domestic violence was established as a new competency for Local Government Organizations (LGO), according to the new Municipal and Community Code. Apart from the legislative regulations, the GSGE developed actions to support women-victims via its two Counselling Centres. The Hellenic Police Force (HPF), within the framework of awareness-raising of police personnel, organized one-day information events at Police Schools on domestic violence. The National Centre for Social Solidarity (NCSS) continued to provide support services to victims of violence. Finally, women’s organizations contributed to the ratification of the law, as well as to the development of education and awareness-raising actions.

14. The promotion of women’s participation in the decision-making (art. 7) was conducted through legislative regulations that stipulate gender quotas in national elections and increase of women’s participation in decision-making through affirmative actions. In addition, for the same period, women’s participation in representation of Greece at international level (art. 8), according to the HMOFA statistics, has increased. Moreover, the GSGE, via its active participation in European and international fora and bodies, as well as a number of women’s organizations — through their presentation in international conferences — contributed to the promotion of equality subjects through the development of foreign relations and collaborations.

15. Furthermore, special emphasis to the case of women immigrants was given, aiming at the drawing of an effective immigration policy that included gender mainstreaming and the protection of women immigrants’ rights, according to article 9 of the Convention. Therefore, the legislative framework that is related to immigration issues was enriched in relation to the implementation of the principle of equal treatment irrespective of gender or national origin. At the same time, the GSGE and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner cooperated in the drafting of Action Plans of the Equality Regional Committees (ERC), aiming at the detection and resolution of problems that women immigrants deal with. In addition, the GSGE and the Research Centre for Gender Equality (RCGE) enacted action plans to support women immigrants.

16. The Greek State, from 2005 to 2008 has developed a framework of coordinated actions on the combating of gender discrimination and safeguarding of gender equality rights during school education and lifelong learning (art. 10). Within the framework of the Operational Program “Education and Primary Professional Training” (OPEPPT II), 3rd Community Support Framework (CSF) (2000–2006), several programmes were carried out on: (a) the expansion of the school timetable (all-day schools) at primary level, to diminish early school leaving and facilitate parents (especially of mothers); (b) the promotion of women’s participation in postgraduate programmes; (c) the enhancement of gender studies in tertiary education; and (d) the education and awareness of teachers on gender equality issues. Within the framework of such programmes, highly significant educational tools, researches and awareness-raising tests were conducted to include gender issues in the educational process via the organization of numerous informational and educational one-day events.

17. The issues of women’s employment and reduction of gender discrimination in the labour market (art. 11) were treated by cross-cutting measures, but also via special programmes for unemployed women aiming to enhance their effective access to the labour market and the elimination of social exclusion. More specifically, the OP “Employment and Professional Training” aimed to increase women’s employment rates via a number of measures and interventions developed to remove inhibitory factors and obstacles that preclude women from entering/remaining in the labour market. Within the framework of the Community Initiative EQUAL, some actions were undertaken to promote gender equality in the fields of employment, entrepreneurship, compatibility and reconciliation of family and professional life. In addition, the GSGE implemented a full range of interventions to support women. Among them, it signed a memorandum of agreement with the main employment organizations and the Greek Network for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to facilitate women’s participation in employment and provision of equal opportunities for their professional progress.

18. In 2006, the Law 3488/2006 on the “Implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions” defined, for the first time, sexual harassment as gender discrimination in the workplace, entitling the victim to claims for compensation. Such legislative regulation defined the Greek Ombudsman as monitoring body for the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women in private and public sectors, with the cooperation of the Labour Inspection Corps (LIC).

19. Article 12 of the Convention stipulates the taking of proper measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the health field. In Greece, access to Health and Public Health Services is free of gender and nationality discrimination. During 2005–2008, several actions were undertaken to provide women with information and awareness-raising on health issues (reproduction, sexual health, etc). In 2007, at strategic policy level, the HMOHSS executed National Actions Plans for sexual and reproductive health, HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. These were compiled in a gender sensitive manner, including with the contribution of involved NGOs.

20. Aiming at the promotion and enhancement of women in all sectors of culture (art. 13), some relevant programmes, actions and one-day events were carried out. Within the framework of the aforementioned activities, educational programmes were organized by museums, as well as one-day events by governmental and non-governmental agencies. These aimed to promote women’s role, the female aspect in art, the enhancement of women’s artistic creation and cultural development more broadly.

21. The special conditions faced by women living in rural areas merit special measures to eliminate discrimination based on gender in such geographical areas (art. 14). To this end, significant regulations have been incorporated into legislation for women of rural areas, such as in cases of social insurance and social welfare. In parallel, the Hellenic Ministry of Rural Development and Food has developed a strategy to foster women’s entrepreneurship in rural areas via training programmes and provision of information. Moreover, actions and activities were carried out to support the creation of women’s cooperatives across the country, to provide information on extra-rural employment and improvement of women’s professional potential and skills.

III. Measures for the application of the provisions of the Convention

Article 1

Elimination of discrimination against women

22. The principle of equality is established in the Greek judicial system and Constitution from 1975. Article 4, paragraph 2 of the Constitution stipulates that Greek men and women have equal rights and obligations. Article 5 extends the principle of non-discrimination to all persons within Greek territory. The Constitution, as reviewed in 2001, expanded substantive gender equality and, according to the provisions of article 116, paragraph 2, all deviations from the principle of gender equality are abolished. In addition, the State is obliged to take affirmative action to eliminate discrimination against women. In cases that, due to special conditions, women belonging to socially vulnerable groups cannot — or face difficulties — exercising their legal rights, specially-stipulated legislation shall apply (i.e. protection of violence victims from trafficking in human beings and sexual exploitation, entitlement to free legal counselling and support according to the conditions of law 3226/2004, special support and assistance regulations for the victims of domestic violence as stipulated by law 3500/2006).

23. In order to facilitate the access of women to justice, but also to improve the standards of their legal protection, in the initial planning of the OP “Public Administration Reform” Axis III the GSGE included the registration and systematic study of the current legislation of gender equality in public and private sectors, as well as in the respective cases law. The aim is to improve and simplify the regulations for their effective implementation in administration, courts and monitoring mechanisms. In addition, the programming of this OP includes the systematic assessment of the consequences of legislative and normative regulations and the results of their implementation, according to the principles and procedures of good legislation on gender equality. (The realization of these two tasks shall begin in 2011).

Article 2

Legislative and judicial protection against discrimination

24. The enhancement of the legislative framework on gender equality comprises an important political tool for the protection of women’s rights. During the past years, the implementation fields have also expanded in Greece in order to cover the new needs that have arisen in the labour market, the family and the community in general. The first part of the report paras. 25–50) for this article presents briefly, and in chronological order, the most vital points of all the legislative regulations that promote gender equality for the period 2005–2008. In addition, it mentions the three laws related to previous periods (2004) not included in the sixth periodic report of Greece. Next, special reference is made to National General Collective Labour Contracts, which in Greece have the validity of law (paras. 51 and 52.), as well as to actions of women’s organization which have promoted legislative regulations and supported their implementation paras. 53–58).

Legislative regulations on gender equality

Special provision on women’s employment, Law 3250/2004 “Part-time employment in Public Sector, Local Government Organizations and Public Law Legal Entities”

25. According to the Law 3250/2004 (G.G. 124A/7-7-04), personnel selected should include: (a) mothers of minors (10 per cent); and (b) parents with three or more children, as well as their children, (10 per cent) (Law 3454/2006 on the “Strengthening of family and other provisions” expanded these provisions to parents of three children apart from large family parents). In addition, in three cases of such law (60 per cent) should be covered by women, provided that there are enough respective petitions: (a) unemployed men and women over 30 years of age who have used up regular unemployment benefits; (b) unemployed men and women five last years before their retirement; (c) unemployed men and women; (d) unemployed men and women up to 30 registered in the Manpower Employment Organization (MEO) for at least 18 months.

Leave to judicial officers mothers for child-rearing

26. Article 1 of Law 3258/2004 (G.G. A144/29-7-04) on the “Amendment of provisions of the Code of Organizations and Courts and Judicial Officers Status and other provisions” provides for a paid, nine-month leave to judicial officers mothers to rear their child.

Provision of residence permit and labour permit to victims of trafficking in human beings

27. Article 34, paragraph 7 of Law 3274/2004 (G.G. A’ 195/19-8-04) on the “Organization and operation of the Local Government Organizations of first and second class” stipulates that the deportation of foreigners residing illegally in Greece and accused of acts of prostitution may, upon order by the misdemeanour judge and approval by the appeal judge, be suspended until the issuance of irrevocable decisions. As long as the deportation suspension period lasts, a residence permit shall be provided upon decision by the Secretary General of the Region according to the provisions of Law 2010/2001. The aforementioned residence permit is also a labour permit, is granted for six) months, and is renewable for an equal period of time until the issuance of an irrevocable judgment. The aforementioned judgments are respectively implemented for the cases of article 12, Law 3064/2002.

Medically assisted reproduction

28. Law 3305/2005 (G.G. A 17/27-1-2005) on the “Implementation of the Medical Assisted Reproduction” specifies the provisions of the Law 3089/2002, providing them biomedical character, and defining the special terms of Medically Assisted Reproduction.

Removal of retirement cessation due to husband’s death when the wife is younger than 40 years old and right to redeem insurance time up to 150 days for establishment of retirement right

29. Article 4 of Law 3385/2005 (G.G. A’ 210/19-8-05) “Regulations on the promotion of employment, empowerment of social cohesion and other provisions” amends article 62, Law 2676/1999, related to women’s retirement due to death of their husband, and respectively to men’s retirement due to death of their wife. Up until now, a woman or a man younger than 40 years of age, losing his/her spouse, would take his/her spouse’s pension for only three years. The pension would then cease, and would be paid again after the 65th year. The new law does not interrupt the pension for the widowers/widows upon completion of the three-year period, even if the surviving spouse is younger than 40 years of age at the date of his/her spouse’s death. In addition, article 6 provides the possibility to those who, for whichever reason may not have completed 15 years of insurance coverage (i.e. 4,500 stamps) — men which have reached the age of 65, and women the age of 60 — to claim up to 150 days of pension time.

Law 3386/2005 (G.G. A’ 212/23-8-2005) “Entrance, residence and social integration of third country nationals within the Greek Territory” (art. 1 (c) and arts. 46–52)

30. This law clearly defines the term victim of trafficking in human beings, as the natural person who has been the victim of offences as stipulated in articles 323, 323A, 349, 351 and 351A of the Penal Code, regardless of whether this person has legally or illegally entered the country (art. 1 (c)). The inclusion of chapter I (arts. 46–52) aims at the overall regulation of the protection and assistance to victims of trafficking in human beings within the framework of combating the phenomenon and according to the EC Directive 2004/81/EC. It defines that a third country national who has been characterized as victim in trafficking of human beings by a competent prosecutor shall be provided with a residence permit of 12 months, since he/she cooperates in the combating of trafficking in human beings. This permit shall be renewed for an equal period of time in order to facilitate research or legal procedure. The residence permit shall safeguard access to labour market and medical and pharmaceutical treatment. Before award of the residence permit, the competent prosecution authority shall provide victims of trafficking in human beings with a deliberation period of up to one month (such period may be extended for minor victims), in order for them to recover and escape from offenders’ influence and make an unbiased decision in relation to their cooperation with prosecution authorities. According to article 79, paragraph 1 of the same law, a pregnant woman cannot be administratively deported during her pregnancy or for six months after delivery.

Abolition of 10 per cent per cent admission quota for women in Fire fighting Academy Schools of the Hellenic Fire Corps (Law 3387/2005)

31. Paragraph 3 of article 12 of Law 3387/2005 (G.G. 224/12-9-2005) abolishes the requirement of 10 per cent admission of women to the Fire fighting Academy Schools of the Hellenic Fire Corps.

Diminished military service for members of large families, children of single mothers, etc (Law 3421/2005)

32. According to Law 3421/2005 (G.G. 302/A’/13-12-2005) “Greek Military Service and other provisions”, if desired, persons entitled to diminished military service may be assigned to the following service categories:

(a) Six-month term: (1) all brothers out of six or more alive brothers and sisters and the two elder brothers out of five alive brothers and sisters; (2) the only or the elder son whose parents both are unable to provide economic support or have passed away; (3) The father of two alive children; (4) those whose wife is unable to provide any kind of economic support.

(b) Nine-month term: (1) the two elder brothers out of four alive brothers and sisters; (2) the only or elder son out of three alive children; (3) the only or older son of a parent that cannot provide any kind of economic support or has reached his/her 70th year of age or has widowed; (4) the only or older son of a deceased parent or single mother; (5) The father of one alive child.

Abolition of 15 per cent quota on employment of women in the Municipal Police Force” (Law 3448/2006)

33. The provision of paragraph 1 of article 30, Law 3448/2006 (G.G. 57/15-3-2006) stipulates the abolition of the 15 per cent quota on employment of women in the Municipal Police Force. In addition, the provision of paragraph 4 of the same article regulates the employment in the Municipal Police Force for persons for whom there is a final cessation judgment by an administrative court.

Support for families with three children (Law 3454/06)

34. The Law 3454 (G.G. 75/7-4-2006) on the “Support for family and other provisions” provides economic support and expands social benefits to large families of parents with three children. Among other things, the following are stipulated: (a) payment by the Greek State of the lump sum of 2,000 Euros to any mother that gives birth to a third child from 1 January 2006 onwards; (b) the obligation of State agencies to employ a fixed percentage of parents of three-children families and children of those families; (c) provision of “Culture Card” to parents and children of families with three children; and (d) granting of “large family” status to a parent with spouse, who is responsible for the custody of three children, minor and single, and who is the sole person liable for their rearing, etc.

Law 3463/2006 “Ratification of Municipality and Community Code”

35. This Law stipulates, as a new competency of Local Government Organizations, the counselling of persons who have experienced domestic violence.

Law 3488/2006 (G.G. 191/11-9-06) on the “Implementation of the principle of equal treatment between men and women in relation to their access to employment, professional training and progress, terms and working conditions”

36. The Law 3488/2006 incorporates the Community Directive 73/2002/EC, replacing the Law 1414/1984, while it regulates related issues on the equality of salaries between employed men and women. The legal provisions are implemented re: persons employed in the private and public sector under any labour status, and prohibit any kind of direct or indirect discrimination due to gender or family status. Finally, the Greek Ombudsman, as independent authority, shall be assigned as monitoring agency for the implementation of the equal treatment principle between men and women. The legal provisions provide a strict definition of sexual harassment in the workplace, as it is a “gender discrimination” (art. 4, para. 2) and a punishable action. It establishes penalties [imprisonment from six months to three years and economic penalty of at least one thousand (1,000) Euros, art. 16, para. 4]. It creates compensation claims for the victim (art. 16, para. 1). In addition, sexual harassment is defined as a disciplinary offence (art. 16, para. 3). Moreover, according to article 22 of the same law, part-time employees of the private sector are also entitled to a leave due to an illness of a protected member (minor or incapable child) or in order to be informed of their children’s school performance. More specifically, up to 10 days may be given per year [six for one child, eight for two children, 10 days for more than two children], without payment, in case of depended children’s illness, while, there is the possibility to be absent from work for four days per year, with employer’s permit, for visiting children’s school, up to the age of 16 years old.

National Committee on Equality between Men and Women (Law 3491/2006)

37. Article 8 of Law 3491/2006 (G.G. 207/2-10-2006) establishes for the first time a National Committee on Equality between Men and Women. The National Committee shall consist of the Minister of Interior, as President, who shall be substituted by the General Secretary for Equality who also participates as a member, as well as the General Secretaries of the Ministry of Interior and other Ministries, A and B class Local Government representatives, the Economic and Social Council of Greece (ESC), social partners, NGOs activated in the field of gender equality, as well as independent entities. The objective of the Committee is to contribute to the design of a national strategy for equality between men and women, to the design of necessary of policies and measures, the monitoring of their implementation and the assessment of their effects at national and regional level.

Prevention and combating of domestic violence (Law 3500/2006)

38. Ratification of the Law 3500/2006 (G.G. 232/A’/24-10-2006) aims at the combating of domestic violence and covers a significant legal gap, contributing to the prevention and combating of a social phenomenon of rather disquieting dimensions, afflicting mostly women and minor children. This law recognizes that the phenomenon of domestic violence is firstly expressed against women, infringing the constitutional principal of gender equality (art. 4, para. 1 of the Constitution), resulting in the definite and negative prevention of women from freely developing their personality. The provisions introduce four crucial reformative sections: (a) sexual intercourse without mutual consent of the two spouses is considered a crime of domestic violence; (b) prohibition of the use of physical violence against minors as a disciplinary means of his/her rearing; (c) all such measures shall apply in the cases of stable cohabitation between a man and a women who have not been married; and (d) it establishes the constitution of legal intervention for domestic violence offences of misdemeanour character. The offender and the victim are called before a competent prosecutor or court to make any and all possible effort to re-establish harmonious cohabitation.

39. The Law 3500/2006 defines six additional behaviours in the domestic sphere as penal, which had not been regarded to date as culpable offences. In particular: (a) Actions of domestic violence executed before a minor against another member of the family shall be severely punished; (b) Actions of domestic violence against a pregnant woman shall be also severely punished; (c) actions of domestic violence against a family member who cannot defend himself/herself (elderly, handicapped people, patients, etc) shall be also severely punished; (d) grave penalty shall be imposed in case the victim is a minor who experiences deliberated physical pain or physical exhaustion, which jeopardizes the minor’s health; (e) a respective penalty is stipulated in case of psychological pain, capable of causing grave psychological damage, especially through repeated isolation of the victim; and (f) penalties shall also be imposed on any attempt to intimidate or bribe witnesses that are examined within the course of civil or penal domestic violence hearings, so as to provide substantive protection to the victim. For the first time, the exercise of domestic violence is consider important grounds for a marriage break-up – e.g. misconduct, bigamy, threat against one’s life. Its basic goal is active social protection, support and sympathy to victims of domestic violence.

Changes to income taxation, simplifications to the Code for Books and Records and other provisions (Law 3522/2006)

40. According to the Law 3522/2006 (G.G. 276/22-12-2006): (a) tax deduction of 10 per cent to mothers of large families is abolished; (b) tax reduction due to children of those residing or being employed at a frontier region is provided to the wife when the husband does not meet all requirements; (c) the tax exemption is increased from 1,900 to 2,400 Euros, without any supporting documents for handicapped people (handicap more than 67 per cent, officers, war victims, blind people, people suffering from kidney diseases, people suffering from Cooley’s anaemia).

Support to public sector employees with family obligations (Law 3528/2007 and Law 3584/2007)

41. With the aim of supporting women’s attempts to reconcile family and professional life, and to provide special care for members of families requiring greater protection (single parent families, large families, three-children families, single mother, etc), articles 59 and 60 of the Code of Municipality and Community Employees (Law 3584/2007. G.G. 143A’) promote some innovative regulations. The new “Status Code for Public Civil Administrative Employees and PLLE Employees” (Law 3528/2007. G.G. 143A’) and the new “Status Code of Municipality and Community Employees” (Law 3584/2007. G.G./A’/143/28-6-2007) include, upon proposal by the General Secretariat for Gender Equality, the following beneficial measures for the employed parent (either mother or father): (a) civil servant mother’s right to make use of diminished shift or leave of nine months with pay is also given to the civil servant father, provided that the mother shall not make use of her right. Such right is also granted to a single parent in cases of single parent families; (b) in case of a fourth — or more — child, the after-delivery leave increases per two months each time; (c) a period of three months of leave without pay, up to two years which the civil servant employee is entitled to rear his/her child with full payment in case of a third child and more; (d) for a parent who is single or widowed or divorced or handicapped per 67 per cent and more and who has children up to four years old, the short-time shift — per one hour — is expanded for six months or the nine-month leave with payment is increased per one month respectively; (e) in case of a fourth child, the short-time shift is expanded for two more years; and (f) the use of short-time shift or the nine-month leave with pay is expanded to the single parent family (single mother, widowed parent, parent responsible for his/her child custody according to a judicial judgment), under the same terms and conditions that exist for married parents.

Incorporation of the provision of paragraph 1a of article 6 of Law 2839/2000 (G.G./A/196/12-9-2000) into Law 3528/2007 and Law 3584/2007 on the quota per sex in the public authorities, PLLEs and LGOs councils

42. In each public authority and PLLE council, the number of members per sex, as defined by the service, must be equal to at least a third of the members defined according to the current provisions. These service offers employment to an adequate number of employees that meet all legal requirements for employment, and since the member assigned are more than one. The same provision vis-à-vis LGOs councils is incorporated into the “Status Code of Municipality and Community Employees” by paragraph 5 of article 7 of Law 3584/2007. G.G./A/143/28-6-2007.

The Ministerial decision (ΔΙΔΑΔ/Φ.53/1222/οικ.20561/9-8-2007-G.G. 1613 B’/17-8-2007)

43. This decision increased the leave term provided to employees to be informed on their children’s school performance from four to five days per year in case of two or more children, and to six days per year in case the children attend schools courses at institutions of different educational levels.

Ratification, implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (Law 3625/2007)

44. Law 3625/2007 (G.G.2 290/A/24-12-2007) ratifies and puts in force the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, adopted by resolution 54/263 (25 May 2000) by the UN General Assembly. This law enhances the legal framework to confront trafficking in human beings, lechery with minors for pay, execution of trips aiming at sexual intercourse or other lechery actions against a minor, or child pornography. Its provisions are of significant importance for the prevention and reduction of the aforementioned culpable offences, which are conducted against minors – the vast majority of which are minor women (girls). Some respective provisions are amended and some supplements are added to the Penal Code to prevent and punish these culpable offences using the imposition of severe penalties. Such provisions also regulate cases for the protection of minor victims’ personal life, introduce new procedures for their legal protection, and expand the institution of free legal assistance and appointment of lawyer to all minor victims of such offences.

Provision of large family allowance to three-child families (Law 3631/2008)

45. According to paragraph 1 and 2 of article 6 of Law 3631/2008 (G.G. 6/A’/29-1-2008) on the “Establishment of National Fund for Social Cohesion and other provisions”, from 1 January 2008 the mother who has three alive children shall be provided with an annual allowance for each child under the age of 23, equal to the allowance for each child of a large family. In case that one child meets the requirements for provision of the allowance of paragraph 1 of article 63 of Law 1829/1990 (G.G. 101 A’), as currently in force, the higher allowance shall be paid for such child. The amount of the total monthly allowance cannot be less than the minimum total allowance for a large family parent, except in such case that the previous point is implemented. Such allowance is provided regardless any other allowance, salary, pension, payment, compensation or income, is free of any tax, levy, contribution or deduction for the State or third party. It shall cease on the first day of the following year when the benefited single attains his/her 23rd year of age. By no means can such allowance be converted into the beneficiary’s pension. The allowance shall be paid under the same terms and conditions to the father, who has three alive children by different marriages, as well as legally recognized or adopted children by himself, when he is the sole responsible for their rearing and the mother does not receive any allowance for those children.

Establishment of minimum 1/3 quota for each sex for scientists’ recruitment to national agencies and committees for Research and Technology (art. 57, Law 3653/2008)

46. Article 57 of Law 3653 (G.G. A/21-3-2008) on the “Institutional framework for research and other provisions” defines a participation quota of 1/3 minimum for each sex in the recruitment of scientists to national agencies and Research and Technology Committees. A requirement for the implementation of this quota is that the candidates must have all necessary qualifications for the respective posts.

Establishment of quota for each sex, during national elections

47. Article 3 of Law 3636/2008 (G.G. 11/A/1-2-2008) on the “Amendment of Law 3231/2004) on the “election of members of parliament” stipulates that a minimum of a third of the candidates within political parties — nation-wide, not per election region — must be of each sex.

Protection of Family – Maternity (Law 3655/2008)

48. Law 3655/2008 (G.G. 58/A’/3-4-2008) on “Administrative and organization reformation of the Social Security System and other insurance provisions” establishes the following: (a) special leave for the protection of maternity of six months under MEO funding and full insurance coverage (art. 142, para. 1) (see Ministerial Decision No. 33891/606 (G.G. 833/B/9-5-08); (b) Decrease by 50 per cent of insurance contributions for the first twelve months of employment after delivery (art. 141, para. 2). When the mother chooses to work just after the birth of a child, for one employment year she shall pay half of the amount of her contributions; (c) expansion of nominal time for mother (art. 141, para. 1). The recognition of nominal time shall expand from 1.5 to 2 years; and (d) pension for mothers (art. 144). A mother with minor children having completed the required pension period can obtain a full pension when she completes her 55th year of age.

Reforms for family, children and society (Law 3719/2008)

49. Law 3719/2008 (G.G. 241/A/26-11-2008) on the “Reforms for family, children and society and other provisions” establishes the cohabitation agreement as an agreement between two heterosexual persons by which they organize their cohabitation. In addition, such agreement regulates the relations that deal with contracting parties’ inheritance, inheritance rights, their children’s last name and parental custody, and contracting parties’ last names. Therefore, such regulations establish the cohabitation of men and women with legal status equal to that of marriage. The same law also amends provisions of family law, Civil Code, aiming at the simplification of related procedures, such as the reduction of constant separation of spouses from four to two years (automatic divorce). Other provisions aim at the further improvement of wives’ status, such as article 28 of the law that adds a third paragraph to article 1388 of the Civil Code, whereby, upon agreement between the spouses, each one may add to his/her last name the last name of the other one.

50. Ratification and implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on the protection of children against sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (Law 3727/2008). Law 3727/2008 (G.G. 257/18-12-2008) ratifies and sets into force the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse, as adopted by the Ministerial Committee on 12/07, at the 1002nd conference of Deputy Ministers. In addition, the new law expands existing national legislation on the protection of children against sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, while at the same time aims at the direct and systematic awareness-raising of society on the protection of victims through promotion of general protection measures and through procedures to benefit children by respecting children’s rights. More specifically: (a) it prohibits adults who have been convicted of or are being prosecuted for actions of sexual exploitation or child abuse from working in a profession related to children; (b) it imposes penalties of imprisonment for at least two years on adults who — through internet or other communication means — get in touch with a minor who has not completed the 15th year of age and who, through gestures or lechery proposals, insults the minor’s dignity within the context of his/her sexual life; (c) introduces a new article in the penal code re: the offence of recruiting children for sexual purposes. The introduction of this new provision covers the pursuing of children for sexual purposes including via use of contemporary technology, mainly through the internet and mobile phones, where minors have increasing access; (d) finally, it introduces the ability to design informational and educational programmes at private and public agencies, on the protection of children’s rights and immediate diagnosis of sexual exploitation and abuse; and (e) includes provisions on protection of and assistance to victims who have experienced such offences, with parallel protection of witnesses during penal procedures.

National General Collective Labour Contracts

51. The National General Collective Labour Contract of 2006 and 2007 aims to support women’s employment and facilitate reconciliation of employees’ professional and family obligations. Article 7 on “Support of Family and enhancement of women’s employment”, stipulates the following:

• Promotion of a legislative regulation to pay unskilled worker’s wage from the Distributive Family Allowances Account for Employees to men and women employees that receive parental rearing leave, according to article 5 of Law 1483/1984, as currently in force, and additionally to pay insurance contributions to competent social insurance institutions. The parental rearing leave (which currently is provided to the parent without payment) lasts three and a half months and is provided until the child reaches the age of three and a half years.

• Promotion of actions through the Account for Employment and Vocational Training (AEVT) to facilitate replacement of employed women with unemployed men and women during the formers’ absence during pregnancy and child-rearing leave periods.

• In case of acquisition of a child through the process of a surrogate mother, the parents are entitled to the leaves concerning the rearing of the child, as if they were its natural parents. During breast-feeding, surrogate mother and the mother of the child both are entitled to short-time shift, according to the article 9 of the NGCLC 1993, as currently in force.

The National General Collective Labour Contract of 2008 and 2009

52. Article 4 on “Absence permits for observation of the child’s school performance” stipulates that for each child up to 16 years of age, that is a student, both parents may take up to four working days every calendar year for parental leave without abridgment of their salary and upon permission by the employer in order to remain abreast of their child’s school performance. According to article 5 on “Increase of the leave in case of a dependent member’s disease in three-child and large families”, from 1 January 2008, the unpaid leave of article 7 of Law 1483/1984 is increased by two days in case of illness of dependent members and is defined at 14 working days per calendar year, when the employee is responsible for three or more children. Additionally, article 6 on “Reconciliation of professional and family life of foster parents” applies correspondingly to foster parents all NGCLC and Arbitrary Decisions provisions in force and related to the protection of the family and the facilitation of employees who are natural parents.

Non-governmental organizations actions

53. During drafting and embodiment of the aforementioned legislative regulations, women’s NGOs played a significant role through their comments and substantive proposals. The Women’s Rights Union (WRU) and the Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights (MFHR) in view of the amendment of the Law 3231/2004 on the election of the Members of the Parliament, requested the establishment of the quota for participation of women as a third of the total number of candidates by each political party in each election region. This proposal and the explanatory report was signed by 23 women’s organizations, including the General Secretary for Women of the General Confederation of Greek Workers (GCGW) and the Civil Servants Confederation (CSC), and were submitted to the government, political parties and the members of the Parliament. In addition, WRU contributed to the ratification of Law 3653/2008 on quotas in research agencies and committees. The WRU and MFHR, with recourse to the Council of State, reacted to the incorrect implementation of some municipalities of Law 2910/2001 on quotas in Prefectural and Ministerial Elections. Such incorrect implementation led to the limitation of women candidates on voting papers in those Municipalities. The Council of State accepted the claim, and cancelled the election results in the Municipality of Trizina, which has falsely implemented the law, and imposed the repetition of the elective procedure. Finally, the WRU expressed its criticism re: the provisions of Law 3719/2008 on the reformations for family, children and society, asking for the women to be able to keep their last name after marriage. Upon counselling, 26 organizations concluded a resolution demanding total rescinding of the Bill.

54. During 2005–2008, the Union of Greek Women (UGW) conducted events and open discussions on the new legislative regulations concerning the following issues: (a) insurance and pension rights for women; (b) reform of the insurance system; (c) the new insurance law and its effects for women employees; and (d) consequences of the Family Law changes for women.

55. The Greek Delegation of the European Women’s Lobby (EWL) was significantly active re: legislative regulations related to gender equality issues, including via attending the Hellenic Parliament, participating in committee conferences of the Hellenic Ministry of Justice, the Hellenic Ministry of Employment, the Hellenic Ministry of Interior, and by drafting proposals and opinions to improve existing legislation on each current topic concerning women’s organizations. In addition, in cooperation with other organizations, it intervened re: ratification of equal treatment laws (Law 3488/2006), domestic violence (law 3500/2006) and law 3636/2008 on participation quotas for women in national elections.

56. The Union for the Women of Crete cooperated with the GSGE, the EWL and other women’s organization re: the submission of proposals to support affirmative action legislation for women.

57. In 2005, on the occasion of Mother’s Day, the NGO Mothers — Scientists — Large Families organized a one-day event on the establishment of gender equality in the International Law and the Greek Constitution.

58. The National Council of Women (NCW) undertook the following actions: (a) submitted a complaint to the Hellenic Ministry of Interior as well as to the National Committee for Equality on infringement of the legislation concerning parental leave, also in cases of women civil servants; (b) protested re: the changing of women’s last name after marriage and the respective amendment which alters the articles of the Civil Code, as currently in force; (c) it co-signed (with other organizations): texts agreeing to equalization of retirement ages between women and men if, and only if, sufficient state provision of sufficient support services to mothers while their children are infants is provided, instead of early retirement; texts supporting women’s participation in national, local and European elections.

Article 3

Gender mainstreaming

59. Gender mainstreaming is recognized as one of the most important policies, as well as requisite tool for the achievement of gender equality in all sectors of economic and social life. The combination of gender mainstreaming with affirmative action contributes to substantive gender equality at all levels. Gender mainstreaming in public administration, with the involvement of all levels of public agencies, can upgrade the services provided to citizens and equally orient them to men and women. The institutional mechanisms and the agencies that promote gender equality issues in Greece are the following: (a) the GSGE; (b) the RSGE; (c) the Gender Equality Department of the Hellenic Ministry of Labour and Social Security; (d) the National Committee for Equality between Men and Women; (e) the Special Permanent Parliamentary Committee for Equality and Human Rights; (f) the National Committee on Human Rights; and (g) the Greek Ombudsman. In parallel, Regional Committees for Equality have been established at regional level.

60. During the period under examination, as far as institutional mechanisms are concerned (paras. 61–63 below), the General Secretary for Gender Equality has been upgraded (2008), a new Circle for Gender Equality has been created by the Ombudsman (2008) and the National Committee for Equality has been established (2006). At the same time, significant awareness-raising actions for public sector employees on gender equality have been developed, such as: evaluation reports, configuration of tools, training of officers, etc. (paras. 64–70 below).

Institutional mechanisms to implement a national gender equality policy

61. The General Secretary for Gender Equality (GSGE) is the competent governmental agency for designing and monitoring of the implementation of policies for gender equality in all sectors. The GSGE is an independent Public Authority charged with promoting and realizing the legal and substantive gender equality in all sectors of social, political and economic life. It was established by virtue of article 27, Law 1558/1985 (G.G. 137/A), as a separate Public Authority. PD 5/2008 (G.G. 17/A) a new Organization facilitated proper and more efficient operation of the Authority. The GSGE includes services at central level: General Secretary Office, General Directorate for Coordination consisting of the Directorates for Programming, Development and Employment, Labour Relations and Social Policy, Documentation and Information, European Policy and International Cooperation, Administration-Finance and Organization and the Legal Department, Communication and Public Relations Office. It also has regional organs, i.e. the Counselling Centres).

62. The Greek Ombudsman is an Independent Authority established by the Greek Constitution (art. 101A). It began operation in 1988, and provides its services for free. Its main goal is to intervene between public administration and citizens to protect the latters’ rights, and legal compliance and redress of maladministration of public bodies (Law 3094/2003). May 2008, a new circle of activities was established, the Circle for Gender Equality. By virtue of Law 3488/2006 (art. 13), and based on article 2, paragraph 7 of the European Directive 2002/73/EC, the Greek Ombudsman has been assigned as competent agency for monitoring the implementation — in private and public sectors — of the principle for equal treatment between men and women in relation to their access to the labour market, professional training and development, working terms and conditions. Within the framework of this specific competency, potential infringements of the principle for equal treatment between men and women by the public sector may be investigated when it acts either as an employer or as provider of services to the employee (i.e. maternity provisions), as well as potential infringements by private sector employers either physical or legal entities.

63. Law 3491/2006 established the GSGE National Committee for Equality between Men and Women, with the participation of representatives by agencies and ministries. Its objectives are: (a) conducting dialogue with the civil society on the design of policies which promote gender equality in all sectors, according to the international and European acquits; and (b) submission of proposals and measures are: their implementation, as well as assessment of their effects at national and regional level. The general administrative, scientific and technical support of the Committee is assigned to the GSGE services, while the scientific documentation of each project is assigned to the GSGE services in cooperation with the RSGE.

Gender mainstreaming actions

64. As of 2004, the GSGE has actively participated in the preparation of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2007–2013 to foster gender mainstreaming as a cross-cutting policy, to demonstrate the political, economic, social and developmental character of gender equality, and to directly connect to national developmental priorities. In 2008, a study on the “Establishment of an Observatory Mechanism to Monitor the Implementation of Gender Equality Policies in Public Activity” was designed to expand the potential to develop a structure which could monitor gender mainstreaming in public policies.

65. The GSGE is realizing an Action Plan entitled: “Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in Public Administration” within the framework of the Community Program “PROGRESS” 2007–2013. The Program is addressed to senior political and administrative officials of Ministries who design, recommend, implement, monitor and assess the policies and actions of their respective competency on equality between men and women. Its goal is not only the training/awareness-raising of such officials, but also mainly constant motivation re: the necessity of gender mainstreaming in all policies and actions, as well as the promotion and distribution of good practices that are designed and implemented in all priority sections for gender equality. More specifically, the Program includes the following actions: (a) two-day Educational Seminars for 140 senior officials in Public Administration in three Greek regions (Attica, Central Macedonia and Epirus), in collaboration with the National Centre for Public Administration and Local Government (NCPALG); and (b) drafting of the “Good Practices Guide for the Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in Public Administration” by the RSGE, which is a combination of theory and examples of good practice of gender mainstreaming at national and European level.

66. During the initial preparation of the OP “Public Administration Reform” Axis III, the GSGE stipulated actions vis-à-vis awareness-raising and training of Public Administration and Local Government officials on gender equality issues. These, aim to combat gender stereotypes in public administration to facilitate the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in policy design the taking of additional measures on behalf of women.

67. In 2008, the GSGE conducted a study on the cross-sectional incorporation of gender equality policies in the OP “Digital Convergence”, and the strengthening of social cohesion, within the framework of the C’ Community Support Framework (CSF) – OP “Information Society”. The objective was the creation of more and better jobs, and the improvement of the quality of life, taking into consideration the current lack of access and skills that some groups of women experience are internet skills and technologies, and the resultant special characteristics and needs of these target groups. The study observed existing requests/demands of specific groups of women/users, so as to develop ICT applications and services which promote equality in employment, information, public participation, active ageing and support of informal care.

68. During 2005–2006, the RSGE, an agency supervised by the GSGE, participated as partner in the European Program Socrates — Grundtvig 1. entitled “GEcel — Civil Education and Learning for Gender Mainstreaming”, coordinated by the German Federal Agency for Civil Education. Its object was the creation of global gender mainstreaming in all policies. In addition, in 2005, the RSGE, in collaboration with the CEcel PROJECT GROUP, published a handbook entitled “Examples of Good Practices in Training – Highlights and Pitfalls. Civic Education and Learning for Gender Mainstreaming”.

69. The RSGE conducted a two-day event entitled “Gender Equality in Expanded Europe: Challenges and Perspectives” (Kalymnos Island, June 2006), funded by the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Representatives from the following attended: 19 women’s NGOs from Greece and 17 from Turkey, the European Committee, the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the EWL, and Local Agencies of Kalymnos as well as other women’s organizations.

70. The Hellenic Ministry of National Defence has undertaken the following measures: (a) Gender Equality Offices were established, recruited and activated in the General Staff of the Military Forces (Hellenic National Defence General Staff-HNDGS, Hellenic Army General Staff-HAGS, Hellenic Navy-HN and Hellenic Air Force-HAF); (b) several actions and events (one-day events, conferences, workshops) were conducted throughout Greece to achieve multiple ends; (c) a circular/order has been issued with a glossary of basic equality terms; and (d) in collaboration with the HMOFA, they assessed the possibility to draft a national action plan for the implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution No. 1325 on women’s role in peace and security issues.

Article 4

Quotas and affirmative action to promote equality

71. During 2005 to 2008, several crucial legislative regulations were promoted for the equal participation of women in decision-making at all levels. These aimed to increase women’s participation in the Hellenic Parliament and research and technology agencies and committees. Such regulations (Law 3636/2008 and Law 3653/2008) are set forth in detail in article 2 of the present report. These legislative regulations, in combination with the implementation of the respective regulations taken during the previous period, contributed to increased participation rates for women in political decision-making as described in detail in article 7 hereof.

Article 5

Gender roles and combating of stereotypes

72. The achievement of gender equality requires the removal of stereotypes and the redistribution of gender social roles. Therefore, the promotion of change in roles and stereotypes based on gender includes actions related to the stereotypes that are expressed through mass media and the reconciliation of family and professional life, as well as special interventions and awareness-raising measures in the fields of education and culture. More specifically, many programmes were designed to eradicate gender stereotypes in education within the framework of the OPEIVTII (C’ CSF), described in detail in article 10 hereof. Furthermore, emphasis should be given on the fact that the GSGE, in cooperation with the Institution for the Promotion of Journalism Athanasios Botsis, continues to award the annual Gender Equality Prize to editors that raise issues aiming at strengthening women’s status at all levels of everyday life. The following section refers to actions undertaken by public agencies and women organizations related to mass media (see below), and to the reconciliation of professional and family life (see below).

73. The development of actions for information and awareness-raising on the elimination of stereotypes related to the gender roles in family and the workplace has been stipulated during the drawing of the OP “Development of Human Resource” by the Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Protection (NSRF).

74. During the period 2004–2008, the Project “Media with sensitivity: Removal of stereotypes and professional discrimination” was carried out by the Development Partnership (DP) “EVAISTHISIA” within the framework of the CI EQUAL (B’ Circle). The target-group included: women, graduates of Mass Media schools or University Communication Departments. The objectives of the Project was two-fold: multiple-faceted support of women journalists (and future journalists) through the implementation of special actions to foster: (a) professional development and progress, overcoming potential obstacles arising in their working environment deriving from gender discrimination; (b) awareness, training and specialization in gender equality of men and women journalists, covering any information gap they detect in respective information issued.

75. The Hellenic Ministry of Defence undertook the following actions to eradicate gender stereotypes: (a) it prepared an assessment study on notions and behaviours in Air Force Academy students; (b) implemented a one-year pilot programme to support women officers in large Greek cities consisting in seven counselling centres recruited by psychologists; (c) conducted focused interventions in Units of the three Hellenic Special Forces Branches and the Supreme Joint War College to eliminate gender prejudices.

76. State Radio and TV broadcast documentaries, shows and movies the goal of which was to emphasize women issues. Between June 2006 and December 2007, numerous publicity actions were undertaken (radio-TV reportages and presentations) to promote women’s entrepreneurship within the framework of the co-funded European Program INTERREG-ARCHIMEDWBC.

77. In order to eliminate prejudices and stereotypes between men and women, the Women’s Rights Union (WRU) systematically publishes the biannual Magazine “Women’s Fight”, documenting changes in gender roles.

Article 6

Violence against women

78. The phenomenon of violence against women (domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, prostitution, trafficking in women aiming at economic/sexual exploitation, etc) comprises a systemic and common infringement of their human rights. It is an obstacle to any effort for development, peace and gender equality in all societies. The prevention and confrontation of domestic violence was, for Greek state as well as for Greek civil society, a field for the development of coordinated actions and policies, contributing to the promotion of legislative regulations, measures and actions to combat this phenomenon. The ratification of the new law on domestic violence is set forth in article 1 hereof. All policies and actions undertaken during the respective period are presented herein, and refer to the combating of trafficking in women aimed at their sexual exploitation (para. 79 below) and at the combating of domestic violence (para. 113 below). The following policies and actions include those undertaken not only by governmental agencies, but also by non-governmental organizations, which play a central role in this field.

Trafficking in women

79. In this field, Law 3064 on trafficking in human beings has been implemented. According to the Hellenic Police Force, the number of offenders of trafficking in human beings, from 2003 to 2008, consists in 1,259. 60.84 per cent were of Greek nationality, 8.9 per cent of Albanian, and 8.1 per cent of Romanian. The victims came from 36 countries. During 2005–2008, most victims (75 per cent) came from Romania (35.5 per cent), Russia (22.7 per cent) and Bulgaria (16.9 per cent). The trafficking in human beings from Russia had a fair decrease, as during 2007–2008 it was 20.9 per cent, having fallen from 30.3 per cent during 2003–2004. The number of cases that were assigned to the Hellenic Police Force, as well as the number of offenders and victims during 2004–2008, gradually decreased. More specifically, offenders arrested in 2008 were less per 44 per cent of those arrested in 2004. The number of victims decreased to 57 per cent of those in 2004, and cases less than 38.5 per cent of those of 2004.

Inter-ministerial cooperation

80. In November 2005, the members of the Special Inter-ministerial Committee of General Secretaries — established on 5/5/2004 — consisting in twelve (12) NGOs and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), agreed to a Memorandum of Understanding for combating of Trafficking in Human Beings and the provision of assistance and protection to the victims.

81. In November 2006, the Special Standing Committee, established in April 2006 to coordinate implementation of current provisions, approved and set into force the National Plan of Operative-Interservice Action for the combating of trafficking in women and minors. The goals of this plan, as set within the framework of the Program ILAEIRA (HPF actions – see below), are as follows: (a) Coordination of the actions taken by competent agencies for the detection of illegal organizations, arrests of offenders, seizure of illegal income, exercise of their penal prosecution and delivery of victims; and (b) constructive cooperation between the competent agencies for the protection of human rights, recognition and meeting of victim’s special needs by the provision of assistance and protection, as well as their safe repatriation.

Hellenic Ministry of Interior

82. The GSGE, within the implementation framework of the Completed National Action Plan against trafficking in human beings, as prepared by the aforementioned Inter-ministerial Committee in 2004, developed: (a) the provision of assistance to victims of trafficking through the two Counselling Centres (Athens and Piraeus) for violence against women (consultative, psychological and legal support); and (b) the information provision/awareness-raising of public opinion through a TV spot produced by the GSGE and through an information leaflet in four languages (Greek, English, Albanian and Russian). Within the framework of the Council of Europe campaign for combating trafficking in human beings, a meeting was held in Athens, on 5–6 December 2006, entitled “Action against Trafficking in Human Beings – Prevention, Protection, Prosecution” (minutes published in 2007).

83. From 2005 to 2006, the GSGE, in cooperation with the RSGE, carried out the Project “Education — Social Exclusion — Prostitution — Immigration”, with Albania, Georgia, Moldavia, Ukraine and Greece benefiting. It was founded by the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Hellenic Family Planning Association, member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), was a partner of the Project. The goal of the Project was the confrontation of women’s social exclusion, unemployment, sexual exploitation and (compulsory) prostitution, which is combined with immigration, in these countries (Albania, Georgia, Moldavia, Ukraine, Greece). The RSGE, in cooperation with IPPF Branches in the aforementioned countries, run four educational and information seminars in each of the countries on gender equality, human rights, immigration and trafficking in human beings – and, secondly, on sexual and reproductive health, professional orientation and women entrepreneurship, as well as access of women to the labour market. Forty agencies and organizations, of international and local range, that deal with respective issues were informed. In addition, approximately 25 women participated in the seminars that had been victims of sexual exploitation and (compulsory) prostitution, and were under the protection of the respective official agencies of each country. These persons were informed, among other things, on health issue, sexual rights and prevention.

84. The RSGE and the GSGE in cooperation with the IOM Greek Delegation, during 2006–2008, carried out the Project: “Support of Regional Policies against Trafficking in Women”, in Serbia (Kosovo) and Bosnia-Herzegovina, in cooperation with IOM Delegation from Kosovo and Sarajevo, founded by the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The object of the Project was the information of young people, especially women, on risks of trafficking in human beings, related education of students in schools of Kosovo and Sarajevo, and the psycho-social support of women who have been victims of transnational trafficking in human beings. Eight educational seminars were conducted in different areas of Kosovo, with the participation of students by 28 secondary schools. Totally, 415 students, boys and girls, were educated in Kosovo. Educational material was provided to 35,000 children of several nationalities, translated into Albanian, Serbian and Roma language. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, 21 educational seminars were conducted in 8 cities, with the education of 491 students, boys and girls, from 14 to 18 years of age. Relevant material was provided to 20,000 children throughout the country, apart from the students participated in the Seminars. In addition, psycho-social support was provided to 53 women victims of transnational trafficking, 42 from Kosovo and 11 from Sarajevo.

85. From 2007 to 2008, the RSGE and the GSGE, in cooperation with the IOM Greek Delegation, carried out the Program “Prevention and Support Actions for Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings”, in Albania, in cooperation with IOM Tirana Delegation, funded by the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The object of the Program was the prevention of trafficking in women in Albania, mostly through educational actions in schools, as well as psychosocial support of trafficking victims. 650 educational seminars were carried out in 102 secondary schools in the area of Tirana, where 21,220 students, boys and girls, were educated. Information material (leaflets and posters) was distributed to 50,000 young people from 14 to 18 years old. 31 women trafficking victims benefited.

86. From 2007 to 2008, the RSGE and the GSGE, in cooperation with the IOM Greek Delegation, carried out the Program “Education of Greek Agencies for Education of Hellenic Agencies for dealing with trafficking in human beings”, founded by the HMOFA. The object of the Program was to inform and strengthen the existing structures of Greece which are focused on the combating of trafficking in human beings, especially women, through a cohesive educational action to members of the competent agencies. Another goal was the creation of properly trained personnel to be able to successfully, and in compliance with the international and European legislation, deal with cases of transnational trafficking in human beings. Totally, 10 three-day educational seminars were conducted in Athens, Thessalonica, Patras, Volos, Herakleion, Preveza, Ioannina, Kalamata, Komotini and Mytilini. Such seminars trained police officers, port officers, judges, refugees and shelters personnel and other agencies that accept victims of trafficking, social agencies, social and medical workers, psychologists, teachers, personnel from Equality Offices in Municipalities and Prefectures and NGOs (almost 300 persons in all cities). In addition, a two-day conference on “Actions and Policies to Confront Trafficking in Human Beings” was conducted in Athens with the participation of 150 persons. The Program presented its effects as well as practices utilized to fight trafficking in women. The minutes of the conference were issued in 2008.

87. From 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008, within the framework for the Project “Scientific counsellor on the actions taken by the GSGE for the provision of specialized services for women” (art. 11 hereof), the RSGE included women trafficking victims in project target groups, and developed tools and methodologies to provide counselling to these groups for which the respective agencies and structures have to follow a special approach. Furthermore, the RSGE, in cooperation with the IOM, trained 200 members who participated in the provision of services in Athens and Thessalonica, implementing specialized methodology to stop trafficking in human beings. As a result, the “Guide for Counsellors: Trafficking in Human Beings” was issued in 2008.

88. The RSGE participated in a membership meeting held in Istanbul on 18–20/3/2005, aiming at promoting Greek Turkish dialogue on women’s human rights. This meeting was conducted within the framework of the European Program for the promotion of Greek Turkish dialogue, coordinated by the Research and Support Centre for Victims of Maltreatment and Social Exclusion (RSCVMSE) and the Turkish Organization “Turkish Social Sciences Association” (TSSA). It aimed to create a database including Greek and Turkish NGOs activate in the field of women’s human rights and the trafficking of human beings for their economic/sexual exploitation.

89. The RSGE provided recommendations in education seminars on “The phenomenon of trafficking in human beings” held by the Training Institute, NCPALG, within the framework of the Training Program “Combating of violence against women and justice” (2006: Athens, Thessalonica, Ioannina, Patras).

Policies and actions by the Hellenic Police Force

90. Two groups continued operations in the Hellenic Police Force (HPF): the Trafficking Combating Group (TCG) and the Project Management Group for the Design of Anti-criminal Policy (PMGDAP). Their goal was to coordinate HPF actions for combating of trafficking in human beings. In addition, anti-trafficking groups were created in central and regional areas, recruited with proper personnel and sufficiently equipped. From 29 December 2005, upon assessment of the action by Anti-Trafficking groups in the Security Directorates of Attica and Thessalonica, similar groups were formed and set into force in 12 Police Directorates of the country. By virtue of PD 48/13-3-2006, Anti-trafficking Departments were established in Security Directorates of Attica and Thessalonica. In total, during the period addressed, the HPF had 17 specialized Anti-Trafficking Services.

91. Regarding the education and training of the HPF staff, the Hellenic Police Academy has included in all educational levels the issue of trafficking in human beings. HPF staff participates in education seminars and events organized by competent state agencies and NGOs on issues related to the recognition of victims, special handling of them – and in general, for the achievement of constructive collaboration among the agencies for the protection of victims. It is stressed that on 4–5 September 2008, 25 police officers of the Special Police Services of Attica were trained in a seminar organized in the US Embassy in Athens on “Research on trafficking crimes”.

92. Some HPF personnel participated in 2008 in training seminars and one-day events organized by competent agencies and NGOs on the recognition of victims, their special management – and generally on the achievement of constructive cooperation of the agencies related to victims’ protection.

93. A documentary was created and broadcast by ALPHA TV station, in December 2008, to inform public opinion on trafficking in human beings, and to encourage victims to cooperate and trust prosecution authorities to assist them in disengaging from criminal trafficking networks.

94. The Hellenic Police Force cooperates with NGOs through the NCSS (SOS Emergency Line 197), with the Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and the General Secretariat for Gender Equality to provide assistance to victims. It also cooperates with the IOM for victims’ safe repatriation.

95. In relation to combating of cross-border crime, bilateral meetings between adjacent Regional Police Authorities of neighbouring countries (Albania, FYROM, Bulgaria) are conducted by rotation, on the borders of the two countries, on a regular or ad hoc basis, whenever deemed necessary by both sides.

96. In view of combating organized crime and all kinds of criminality, at international level, information is exchanged with EUROPOL, INTERPOL, SECI, as well as through bilateral relations, police cooperation agreements are concluded between EU members and Third Countries. In addition, police connections are in place in countries such as Italy, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Turkey, Albania, Russia, Ukraine, FYROM, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia-Montenegro, Romania (apart from the police connection SECI) and Lebanon.

97. The HPF designed “ILAEIRA”, a Plan of Entrepreneurship – Interservice Action for combating trafficking in women and children to confront and eliminate trafficking in women and children and effective action of all the agencies involved. Twenty-one (21) countries and four European-International Organizations (Europol, Interpol, Eurojust, Frontex) responded to this initiative from Greece. The plan was officially presented on 7–8 December 2006 in Athens, with the participation of senior officers (400 conveners), cooperating countries-organizations at international level and Ministries, Agencies and NGOs involved, at national level.

Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs

98. The Service for International Development Cooperation (SIDC), Developmental Cooperation agent, collaborated both with International Organizations (IOM, UNHCR, etc.) and Greek NGOs, funding programmes on public opinion awareness-raising and combating trafficking in human beings in Greece, as a transit and acceptance country for victims, and in countries of origin. From 2003 to 2007, SIDC and NGOs entered into 74 contracts on Anti-trafficking Programmes. The SIDC funding mostly focuses on actions with clear effects, including programmes for the recognition and reference of victims, operation of hospitality shelters and provision of psychosocial support, provision of legal and administrative assistance and support, voluntary repatriation, actions at origination countries, information and awareness-raising campaign and training programmes for the competent public agencies.

99. The IOM, via funding and cooperation by the SIDC, carries out a series of actions aiming at the improvement of the system for recognizing and assisting victims. In 2006 and 2007, relevant one-day events were held by the cooperation of the Hellenic Union of Judges and Prosecutors, during which the majority of Greek judges and prosecutors participated. A counselling forum was activated with the consular/diplomatic authorities of the victims’ origination countries.

100. Corresponding actions in the sectors of protection, prevention and repression of the trafficking in human beings were taken by the HMOFA and NGOs, nine of which have entered into a Memorandum of Understanding: Arsis, Antigoni, Solidarity, the Human Rights Defence Centre (HRDC), the Hellenic Council for Immigrants, RSCVMSE, the Public Law European Centre, the Medical Rehabilitation Centre for Torture Victims, Klimaka, the European Network of Women, the International Union of Police Officers.

101. The funding of agencies and NGOs’ Programmes was approved in 2008. Part of those programmes is a sequel to older ones, such as the “Ariadni Network” by the HRDC NGO to develop a website, exchange good practices and heighten awareness of the public re: combating of trafficking in human beings in South-eastern and Eastern Europe, the programme for the provision of legal psychological support of foreign trafficking victims, the NG “Greek Council for Refugees” and the continuation of funding for the operation of the SOS line to support trafficking victims.

Hellenic Ministry of Employment

102. Within the framework of the Community Initiative (CI) EQUAL – B Circle, the following projects were concluded through Development Partnerships (DP). The target groups were mainly women victims of trafficking and other vulnerable groups of women:

• The project “Total support of unemployed and maltreated women for social and professional (re)habilitation” by “EIRINI” DP whose main goals were: (a) the elimination of discrimination, support of rights, education and employment of the target group; (b) support (psychological, legal, educational and consultative) to victims as a foundation to improve their life conditions; and (c) vocational rehabilitation and promotion in the labour market.

• The project “ASPIDDA: Combating exploitation – Creating perspectives” by ASPIDDA DP – Development Partnership to Promote Equal Rights for Trafficked Persons. whose goals were as follows: (a) the prevention and combating of the phenomenon; (b) the assertion and protection of fundamental human rights of trafficking victims; (c) the configuration of conditions for coordinated and holistic personalized support of target groups members for their full reintegration into social networks and the labour market; (d) the alteration of notions/behaviours towards trafficked people and the configuration of solidarity conditions in society; and (e) the improvement and enhancement of the effectiveness of policies and measures designed and implemented at national and European level for the combating of the phenomenon and the formation of conditions of equal and decent social and professional integration of trafficked persons.

• The project “NOSTOS” by “NOSTOS” DP. Target group: victims of transnational trafficking whose main objective was the provision of specialized services of acceptance, support, strengthening and promotion of professional skills, aiming at: (a) information on the phenomenon of trafficking and its dimensions; (b) the recognition that such victims exist; (c) victims’ multilateral support through solid structures and specialized services; and (d) the ability to safeguard legal residence to trafficking victims.

Hellenic Ministry of Justice

103. From 4 May 2006, a special standing committee has been operating in the Hellenic Ministry of Justice to draft a ratification law and adapt the Greek legislation vis-à-vis the provisions of: (a) United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three Protocols (one of which is the United Nations Protocol for the prevention and penalty of trafficking in human beings); and (b) the Council of Europe Convention on action against trafficking in human beings.

104. Within the framework of the campaign for the protection of human rights, the Ministry of Justice organized, in cooperation with the Council of Europe, a Regional Conference for the promotion of the Council of Europe, the Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Athens, 26–27/6/2008).

105. In 2007, a special standing committee was established to recommend legislative initiatives and promote actions re: combating of trafficking in human beings. The Committee is able to: (a) develop institutional cooperation with the competent services (National School of Judges, Police Officers School, National Centre for Public Administration and Local Government); (b) prepare an education programme; (c) make decisions on conducting of educational seminars, and d) education of persons aiming at the training of more officers/teachers.

106. In the area of education and awareness: (a) on 17–18 May 2005, a two-day event was organized in Athens by initiative of the IOM aiming at the education of those offering services to state shelters for trafficking victims, and shelters where NGOs operate via funding by the Greek State. Special teachers from all over Europe attended; (b) The IOM Greek Delegation organized a seminar in the National School of Public Administration (April 2008) for school graduates and undergraduates, for their information on the phenomenon of trafficking in human beings; (c) The Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Protection organized an educational seminar for labour inspectors (Alexandroupoli, 23–24 June 2008) regarding trafficking in human beings; (d) The Hellenic Ministry of Macedonia-Thrace and the seat of the Stability Pact for SE Europe (Thessalonica), organized a two-day international Conference (Drama, 26–27 June 2008) on “Greek-Bulgarian Cooperation against Trafficking in Children”; (e) With support of the Hellenic Ministry of Justice and the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Athens Prosecutors Bar and the IOM organized an International two-day Conference (Volos, November 2008) on transnational cooperation to combat organized crime in South-eastern Europe; (f) Participation of the Hellenic Ministry of Justice — through assignment of prosecutors — in a two-day event on “Crimes against children by the use of technology, confrontation of trafficking in minors pornographic material through the internet”, organized by the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children, Interpol, Microsoft and The Child’s Smile” (Athens, 11–14 March 2008).

Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity – National Centre for Social Solidarity

107. The main state agency for the provision of support and hospitalization to victims of illegal economic/sexual exploitation related trafficking is the National Centre for Social Solidarity (NCSS). The NCSS cooperates with all agencies involved, such the Hellenic Police Force, the Prosecution and NGOs with whom it has entered into programme contracts for the operation of shelters for hospitality (Child’s Smile, International Corporation for Family Support). Victims of trafficking reach the NCSS either via the Phone Line (197) or the Social Support Centres, or they are addressed by the Hellenic Police Force, the prosecution or NGOs involved.

108. The NCSS offers: (a) temporary hospitality shelters for trafficking victims (one in Athens and one in Thessalonica) including accommodation, food, psychological support, medical and pharmaceutical treatment for victims of trafficking in human beings; (b) emergency Telephone Line for Social Help (197), which operates twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Victims can declare cases of trafficking, and counselling and psychological support is provided, while they are referred to the NCSS competent authorities or other agencies; and (c) the Service of Acceptance, Temporary Hospitality and On-site Intervention (also operating 24/7) offers hospitality in extremely acute cases, until initial procedures such as the collection of personal data or medical examinations, etc. are completed.

109. During 2006, the NCSS provided psychosocial support to 14 cases of trafficking in human beings, all of which were referred there by the Hellenic Police Authorities. The majority were women from the age of 16 to 30 years from the former Soviet Union countries. Five of them were hospitalized in NCSS Shelters. Furthermore, the Phone Line 197 dealt with five calls, by providing counselling services, information and reference to the NCSS service and the Anti-Trafficking Department of the Hellenic Police Force. In 2007, 16 new trafficking cases came to the NCSS Social Support Centres, and its Shelters offered hospitality to 21 incidents. All of them were women, from 16 to 30 years of age, and had come from Romania. In 2008, the NCSS shelters operated from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2008. Hospitalization was offered to seven women and the Phone Line Service managed seven cases. The NCSS cooperated with the following agencies: KLIMAKA, “STORGI” Shelter, “FRONTIDA” Shelter, IOM.

110. The Hellenic Centre for Infectious Diseases Control (HCIDC) recently opened an Office for research and combating of trafficking in human beings to obtain information, combat the phenomenon, and connect with health agencies and competent department of ministries, as well as train medical personnel and social services in relation to approach and treatment of trafficking victims. The office programmes, in cooperation with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), created a database on epidemics and carried out research on the phenomenon to enhance services.

111. The Hospital Training Centres designed the following programmes on: “Issues of Gender Equality and Combating Violence Phenomena”: (a) Women and violence: Psychosocial confrontation of domestic violence, rape and sexual trafficking in women; and (b) Confrontation of trafficking in women for sexual exploitation and support of victims.

Non-governmental organizations actions

112. The Federation of Industrial Workers’ Union (FIWU), within the framework of EUROPAID/AEMEAS “Italy, Albania and Greece against trafficking in women and children” designed and published a report on trafficking in Greece. In addition, the Union of Greek Women (UGW) organized a Pan-Hellenic conference on “trafficking in women and children for the purpose of sexual exploitation”. In addition, the NGO “Greek Social Support” participated in the drafting of an “Optional Protocol against trafficking in women”, which has been ratified by the Greek Government. In parallel, it designed programmes against trafficking in women, domestic violence and Women’s Rape and there is also a SOS telephone line for violence victims.

Domestic violence against women

113. The ratification of Law 3500/2006 on “Combating Domestic Violence” (G.G. 232/A’/24.10.2006) was the most important step in the field of combating domestic violence. The application of the law was accompanied by numerous actions not only from the public administration but also from women’s organizations, as explained below.

Public administration actions

114. The GSGE participated: (a) in the preparation of the United Nations Secretary-General’s report on gender mainstreaming in National Policies and Programmes, emphasizing actions to eliminate any kind of violence against girls, by sending updated data and information on actions undertaken in Greece; (b) submitted to the United Nations voluntary grant of 12,650 Euros for the funding of a Secretary – General research on the elimination of any kinds of discrimination against women; (c) by submitting proposals to the Greek Permanent Representation in Brussels at the negotiations conducted at the EU for the new special programme DAPHNE III to combat violence within the framework of the programme “Fundamental Rights and Justice”; and (d) in the Council of Europe campaign to combat violence against women including domestic violence (2006–2008).

115. Throughout the period examined, the GSGE provided violence victims with assistance through its two Counselling Centres (Athens and Piraeus), which provide psychosocial support and legal consulting. According to the new GSGE organization (PD 5/2008 GG17/A/8-2-08), the competencies of the Counselling Centres include: (a) psychosocial support to victims of violence; (b) provision of legal information and consultation on gender equality issues; (c) Information of citizens on employment and labour relations issues; (d) cooperation with agencies that offer Counselling Centres and hospitality shelters to violence victims all over the Greek Territory; (e) recording and processing of data according to the cases managed by the Counselling Centres; and (f) information and awareness-raising of the public on Centres’ competency issues.

116. The Shelter of Maltreated Women continued operating throughout the period under examination, by offering hospitality to maltreated women and their children. The Shelter is run by the Municipality of Athens in cooperation with the GSGE. In addition, women who have experienced violence are now entitled to be integrated in the Program of Provision of Supplementary Support Services (SSS) by the RSGE entitled: “Improvement of integration conditions for vulnerable groups of people in the labour market”, which is detailed in article 11 hereof.

117. The questionnaires for case recording were reviewed, and the existing statistics data base which processes such information was upgraded. The data refer to women that access the GSGE Counselling Centres and provide information not only on the victims but also on the offenders. A web-based information system is developed, whose use shall modernize the operation of the GSGE Counselling Centres and upgrade support of women using them. In 2005 and in 2006, annual reports were published under title “Quantitative analysis of data for women victims of domestic violence” arising from the recording of maltreatment cases notified in the Counselling Centres.

118. Every year, on 25 November, International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, a campaign is run to inform the public in cooperation with ATTIKO METRO SA and TRAM SA. On 25 November 2008, in view of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, the GSGE and the RSGE — in cooperation with IANOS Publishing House — organized a press conference/debate on “Violence against Women”.

119. Regarding the interpretation and implementation of Law 3500/2006, the GSGE organized an invent on “Updated Data on Domestic Violence” in cooperation with the Laboratory of Penal and Research of the Kapodistrian University of Athens (28 march 2007). In addition, it organized a one-day event on “Domestic Violence: Perspectives after Law 3500/06” in cooperation with the Prosecution of the Athens Appeal Court and the Laboratory of Penal and Research (28 June 2007).

120. The GSGE published information leaflets on domestic violence in Greek, English, Arabic and Persian. The publication of the leaflet for domestic violence in Arabic and Persian was deemed necessary within the implementation framework of the Memorandum of Understanding with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Greece. In addition, the Hellenic Ministry of Justice, in cooperation with the GSGE, published information material on domestic violence legislation including a leaflet and a spot broadcasted by TV stations.

121. In cooperation with the NCPALG TI, the GSGE carried out in Athens, Patras, Thessalonica, Ioannina and Herakleion training and awareness-raising seminars for Judges, Prosecutors, Police Officers and Medical and Social Care Personnel. Their aim was the more effective management of domestic violence and trafficking cases.

122. The GSGE conducted (November 2008) an information meeting with several psychosocial support agencies, where representatives by the Association for the Prevention and Handling of Violence in the Family (Cyprus) presented the operation and effects of the programme “Love without Pain”. The meeting aimed to expand Cypriot experience in the field of dealing with domestic violence offenders, and is included in the implementation framework of the penal mediation institution (Law 3550/2006, art. 11).

123. The GSGE participates in the Network for Violence and Injury Prevention which aims at the cross-cutting information on the prevention of injury and violence, and at the implementation of the respective National Action Plan. Within the framework of the Network, it takes part in the preparation of Greek representation to the respective Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO), in the completion of the National Questionnaire in relation to the implementation of WHO resolutions on injury and violence issues by the Members States, in the processing of the country’s profile within the framework of PHASE Program under title: “Effects of interpersonal violence in Public Health”, etc.

124. Within the framework of DAPHNE II (2007–2009), the Municipality of Athens participated in the interstate action “Developing strategies to work with Men Who Use Violence in Intimate Relationships” (MUVI). The objective has been to develop strategies to provide counselling structures to men-offenders who commit domestic violence. The GSGE supported the research group by coordinating the study/recording of the status quo. The profile of offenders and the circle of violence development were outlined by these, and at the same time emphasis was given to points where interventions had to be made. Within the framework of the Program, on 7 October 2008, an event was held to present research results, which was conducted at European level with the participation of experts from Greece and abroad. An educational seminar entitled “Counselling services to men that use violence in intimate relationships” was also organized by teachers by the Norwegian Centre “Alternative to Violence”. The seminar offered education on new counselling methods, based on the experience and the techniques followed in the Norwegian model, to 30 professionals by the sectors of health and care of social and educational services.

125. The RSGE conducted a survey entitled “Women and Homicide: Research on Women Detention Facilities in Korydallos” (2005). The survey investigated the crime of deliberate homicide executed by women, within the framework of domestic violence. According to the survey results, no maltreatment cases or violent treatment behaviour against detainees were referred to in the report files, which may prove the social indifference for this phenomenon, as such kinds of cases are proven to exist through detainees’ interviews. More specifically, during the interviews, several claims of maltreatment were made, mainly from wife/partner’s side, and secondly (few cases) from parents/relatives’ side.

126. The HPF, within the framework of the actions to combat offences against women in the domestic environment, forwarded, among other things, the following orders and directives to all national authorities: (a) Handbook on “Combating domestic violence”, published by the HPF Headquarters intended to foster more proper management of the cases by providing directions to HPF personnel; (b) Informational Handbook on designing a crime prevention policy, which includes full analysis of obligations and possible actions that police officers must undertaken when it comes to a domestic violence case; and (c) two information guides for social-care agencies by the Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity.

127. In parallel, the educational programmes of Police Schools were enriched by subjects that cover domestic violence. A series of educational seminars were held from 8 February 2008 for policemen and police officers on combating domestic violence. Apart from those actions and in view of training, the HPF personnel participated in training programmes and events organized by NCPALG TI on equality issues and combating violence against women, etc.

128. The Hellenic Ministry of Justice participated, through the assignment of prosecutors as lecturers, in a series of educational seminars organized by the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs and addressed to HPF officials on combating cases of domestic violence. The seminars covered the full spectrum of the respective legislation framework (Law 3500/2006) and the procedure of penal mediation. They lasted two days each, and were conducted from 11 February 2008 to 7 March 2008.

129. The Vocational Educational Institutes of the hospitals implemented the following programmes on gender equality issues and confrontation of violence: (a) women and violence: psychosocial support of domestic violence, rape and trafficking in women for sexual purposes; (b) health professionals on diagnosis and treatment of patients that are victims of domestic violence; (c) address issues of violence in domestic, social and “therapeutic” environment of dependents.

130. The Northern Aegean Regional Committee for Equality, in cooperation with the GSGE, hosted on 24 November 2008 an event on “Violence against women: Confrontation Practices”: (a) Women and violence: Psychosocial confrontation of domestic violence, rape and trafficking in women; (b) Health Experts on diagnosis and treatment of patients, domestic violence victims; and (c) Confrontation of violence phenomena within the domestic, social and “curative” environment of the dependent person.

Non-governmental organizations actions

131. The Association of Women’s Rights (AWR) developed a series of actions (i.e. ad hoc constitution of a six member Committee, participation in the Ministry of Justice group which designed the bill on domestic violence, etc.) in order to set forth its notes and recommendations on the initial bill of the Law 3500/2006. The notes and recommendations by AWR were mainly focused on the need to improve and supplement the Bill provisions and the need to integrate it in Codes that regulate respective issues (Penal Code, Code of Penal Procedure, Civil Code, Code of Civil Procedure) so as to become known to judges, lawyers and interested persons, and be implemented as the case may be. In addition, the AWR stressed the necessity to create a special group of family social workers, to constantly educate the responsible police officers, and to build sufficient structures for prevention of domestic violence and provision of effective support of domestic violence victims.

132. From 1980 the AWR has been running a Legal Counselling Department, which provides free legal advice as well as psychological and social support to women that face problems of unequal treatment, infringement of rights, violence and abuse within the home and workplace and elsewhere. The Counselling Department refers to women, all over Greece, in relation to issues of domestic violence, sexual harassment, labour, divorce, nutrition, single-parenting, maltreatment and negligence of children, sexual abuse, juvenile delinquency and aggressiveness.

133. In December 2008, the AWR held a public conversation in the Cultural Centre of the Municipality of Kifisia on “Parallel Violence – Women and children of domestic violence”. Public conversions were organized: in the Municipality of Peristeri (8 March 2005), in the Municipality of Korydallos (8 March 2007), in the AWR Regional Department in Arachova (9 March 2006), in Mesologgi (12 May 2007), in Chalkida (2007), in the Municipality of Keratsini (2008), in the Municipality of Moschato (2008) and by the Association of Greeks from Egypt (2008). In addition, the AWR announced its convictions and recommendations re: rape against a girl in Evia, and its contest regarding the handling of the case by the mass media (see Woman’s Fight Magazine issue 81/2007). Furthermore, every year on 25 November — International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women — the AWR issues a respective resolution.

134. On 12–14 May 2006, the National Council for Greek Women (NCGW) housed in Athens the Spring Session of the European Centre of the International Council of Women (ECICW) with the participation of representatives from the National Councils for Women of 17 European countries and 150 Greek women. The session was supported by the GSGE, the Hellenic Ministry of Tourism, the Municipality of Athens, the GCGW and others. In view of the session, the NCGW organized a seminar on “Types of violence against children and women in modern society”, where it decided to publish its minutes. Parts of such material were translated and included in a European publication which was broadly distributed in 2007.

135. In addition, the NCGW carried out the following actions: (a) in January 2006, it submitted to the GSGE notes on the Bill for Combating Domestic Violence, mostly related to the conditions regarding its implementation (creation of special implementation services, specialized education and training of responsible officials, protection measures for victims, acceptance and support structures and others); and (b) submitted its comments regarding the Law 3500/2008 on Domestic Violence and expressed its grave reservations.

Article 7

Women’s participation in decision-making in political and public life

136. Despite the fact that several steps have been made to increase women’s participation in decision-making centres, women continue to be under-represented in politics, political parties, in the Hellenic Parliament and the government and the public administration (see annex 5, table 1). As of 2000, Greece has been implementing quotas requiring that a third of the persons listed on municipal election voting papers be women, as well as in the collective bodies of public sector agencies, including service councils of ministries. Governmental actions continued to be undertaken during the period under examination, and are briefly described below. Basic goal of these interventions has been to upgrade their skills and knowledge, their personal empowerment and support, in order to expand their participation in decision-making centres at all levels.

137. During the designing of actions on gender equality, in view of the NSRF 2007–2013, it was stressed that the systematic and substantive participation of women is a crucial parameter of good governance. Within the framework of the OP “Public Administration Reform” Axis III, several actions have been stipulated to strengthen women’s participation in decision-making such as awareness-raising campaigns, development of information programmes for elected and candidate women at national, regional and municipal level, as well as support of women’s organizations and other NGOs, activated in the promotion of gender equality.

138. During 2005–2008, further legislative regulations were promoted for the empowerment of women in relation to their participation in decision-making in private and public life, as described in detail in article 2 hereof.

139. In February, supervised by the GSGE, the RSGE as Coordinating Agency completed the European Program “Equal Participation in Decision-Making Centres: Women in the Heart of Europe”. The Project aimed to provide information and awareness-raising of citizens re: the importance and the value of women’s participation in decision-making in politics, economy and society; the safeguarding of women’s equal representation on voting ballots in national and European Parliament elections; strengthening and preparing women candidates to declare their nomination on voting papers.

140. From October 2006 to December 2007, the RSGE ran the European Program “Localizing Gender Equality through Development”. The main object of the Program was to promote broader women’s participation in local development, in civil and public decision-making and in economic life as well. Several awareness-raising and information actions were undertaken regarding the benefits arising from women’s participation in local development (TV spot broadcasted on local and national range channels, information material distributed throughout Greece). A 10-month pilot counselling programme was carried out in the RSGE Departments (Thessalonica, Patras, Herakleion, and Volos). More than 250 women benefited. Furthermore, a survey was held, with the participation of cross-state partners. Upon completion of the Program, a two-day European Conference was held in Athens (27–28 November 2007) on: “Woman and Local Development”. Its minutes were published in 2008. Within the framework of the Program, two researches were conducted on: (a) “Women’s Participation in Decision-Making in Greece” (2006); (b) “Assessment of the Developmental Initiatives that Support Women’s Participation in Local Development” (2008). The research was published in 2008 in Greek, French, Spanish and Italian.

141. The RSGE participated as partner at interstate level in the Program “Taking Gender Equality to Local Communities”, coordinated by the National Committee for the Promotion of Equality in Malta. The Program aimed at substantive and broader participation of women in actions and policies in local communities, emphasizing decision-making nodes. The RSGE participated in the creation and publication of a leaflet (5,000 pieces) including good practices for gender equality by the country participants, which was distributed in several sectors and to interested parties during RSGE events.

142. The RSGE also published the following books: (a) “Handbook for Trainers: Communication Skills for Women in Politics”, Athens 2005. The handbook was also published in English, Hungarian and Italian; (b) European Conference Minutes: “From Theory to Action: for equal participation between Women and Men in Politics”, Athens 2005; (c) “Women’s Participation in Decision-Making in Greece”, Athens 2006.

143. Regarding women’s participation in the National Parliament, their percentage accounts for 16 per cent in 2007 and to 17.3 per cent in 2009, a significantly lower percentage than expected. However, there is a clear increase in women that have been elected in the Hellenic Parliament (see annex 5, table 1).

144. According to data that Greece submitted to the Council of Europe, the proportion between men and women in political representation level is as follows (2008 statistics): Ministers: 16 men, 2 women/Vice-Ministers: 22 men, 1 woman. In 2009, the composition of the government was as follows: Ministers: 10 men, 5 women/Vice-Ministers: 16 men, 3 women, Deputy Ministers: 2 men, 0 women.

145. To this day, the post of mayor has remained a male one. Men mayors reach the percentage of 97 per cent, while women mayors just 3 per cent (32 women mayors out of 1,034). However, it should be stressed that there is an increase of 1 per cent in the percentage of women mayors compared to the previous elective period (in 2002 the percentage of women mayors was 2 per cent, 22 women mayors). Due to the quota law, all parties have a large number of women nominees in their voting papers (1/3), but few of them are elected. In general, the rates of women candidates in elected posts of Local Government are significantly higher than those of elected women. As far as women candidate mayors, their failure percentage is significantly higher (50 per cent). Table 2 shows the rates of women candidate mayors, as well the rates of municipal and local counsellors in Municipal Elections of 2006.

146. Greek women’s participation percentage in the European Parliament in 2009 declined compared to 2004 (see annex 5, table 3). It is attributed to the cutting down of Greek posts in the European Parliament (two less posts in 2009 comparing to 2004).

147. According to the Hellenic Ministry of Interior, women’s participation in responsible posts has been significantly increased. Women direct General Directorates at a percentage of 48.9 per cent. In addition, there has been significant increase in the percentage of women that direct Divisions and Departments during last years – up from 45.7 per cent to 55.6 per cent respectively (see annex 5, table 4).

Article 8

Women’s participation in international and European institutions and the diplomatic corps

Women’s Participation in International and European Organizations

148. The GSGE is consistently active and contributes to the promotion of gender equality principle by its effective participation and interventions in European and international fora. As a competent State agency, it participated, during the period under examination, to the following Working Committees/Groups in the European Union: (a) EU Advisory Committee for equal opportunities between Men and Women; (b) EU High Level Group for gender mainstreaming in all policies and actions; (c) EU High Level Group for gender mainstreaming in Structural Funds; (d) Committee on Women’s Entrepreneurship (Women’s Engineering Society – WES); (e) Management Board of the European Institute for Gender Equality. Furthermore, the GSGE actively participated in the Steering Committee for Equality between Men and Women (CDEG) and the Council of Europe Committee for Combating Violence against Women.

149. At international level, the GSGE participates in tasks of respective Committees: it participates in the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), UNESCO, the International Labour Organization, etc.

150. The GSGE participates in the Gender Network, the Development Assistance Committee and the DAC Programs, within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). On 10 June 2006 the GSGE took part in the Second “Peer Review” of Hellenic Development Assistance in the OECD DAC, which was conducted in the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with the Inter-ministerial Committee. Several information meetings were held on 7–8 June 2006, while on 17–23 June 2006 the final agenda “Peer Review of Greece” was designed.

151. From 2005 to 2008, the Hellenic Delegation of the European Women’s Lobby (EWL) unfailingly participated in all Conferences held by the EWL Management Board and the General Assembly, expressing their beliefs and submitting their proposals on all issues and especially those related to equal treatment between men and women, as well as in the EWL Constitution and Institutions Committee. Furthermore, it participated in the following conferences: (a) Session of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women; and (b) International Labour Organization. In parallel, it is member of “AGORA”, a newly-established forum by the European Parliament in which participates, the most representative NGO of each country. It took part in all events held by the EWL at National and European Level for the European Year for Equal Opportunities in 2007.

152. From 2005 to 2008, the Hellenic Social Assistance actively participated in UN International Conferences with Accreditation, as well as in: (a) International Meeting for the Elderly (Madrid 2002), organized with Western Michigan University; (b) Round Table Debate on Harmonization of Generations and Women’s Role and Family Participation in Elderly Suffering from Incurable Diseases; (c) Government Meeting on Sustainable Development as Accredited Member (Johannesburg 2002); and (d) NGOs Forum, with honorary Invitation by the International Women Organization Women, Environment Development (WEDO).

Women’s Participation in the Diplomatic Corps

153. During the period under examination, according to statistics of the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, women’s participation as ambassadors, diplomats, scientific personnel, experts in economic and trade issues has clearly increased. More specifically, regarding the diplomatic sector (central and external service), there are 169 women ad 413 men. According to the statistics of the sixth periodic report (2001–2004), 130 women and 411 men participated. It is notable that no woman has been appointed an ambassador. In the Diplomatic corps, approximately 30 per cent are women, in economic and trade issues 37 per cent, in the field of experts 47 per cent. However, women’s presence in fields of specialized scientific personnel is significantly high, reaching 76 per cent (see annex 5, tables 5 and 6).

Article 9

Women’s equal rights: citizenship and multiple discrimination

154. The achievement of gender equality calls for undertaking initiatives and actions for women who face multiple discrimination and are threatened by social exclusion. The equal participation in economic, social and political life by such groups of women requires special efforts by gender policies and specialized actions in order for them to have equal rights in the fields of education and labour market. During 2005–2008, several actions were designed and carried out specifically aiming at women refugees, immigrants, single-parent leaders, Roma, Muslims with cultural particularities, and others.


155. The Hellenic Ministry of Interior, as Competent Authority in Greece for the European Fund for Integration (EFI) of Third Countries Citizens, included in its Multiannual Program 2007–2013, as well as in the Annual Programs 2007, 2008 and 2009, actions intended to strengthen women immigrants’ status, as an extremely vulnerable social group. It should be noted that all actions within the framework of the EFI framework refer — among other things — to women immigrants. And, the principle of equal opportunities and non-discrimination between genders play a primary role in the assessment of proposals by final beneficiaries.

156. The GSGE and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner in Greece designed and entered into (5 July 2005) the reviewed Memorandum of Understanding intended to mutually promote the rights of women and minor girls who have been provided with asylum or those who have requested humanitarian status in Greece, according to the Geneva Convention of 1951 and the PD 61/1999. On 4 July 2006, within the framework of implementing the Memorandum of Understanding terms, a meeting was held in Athens between the two agencies and the ERCs to inform and raise awareness on protection of women immigrants, and to develop cooperation bonds between the aforementioned agencies in the Region. More specifically, the ERCs of Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Central Macedonia, Northern Aegean, Southern Aegean, Crete and Attica participated in the meeting. They decided to revise an action plan by regional committees, which had begun implementation and includes visits to local detention centres and acceptance centres for refugees intended to detect problems. ERC also participated in seminars of refugee law, held in regional areas with the participation of the High Commissioner, the Hellenic Ministry of Public Order and NCPALG TI.

157. On 14 December 2006, a visit was paid to the Foreigners Directorate of Attica, Hellenic Ministry of Public Order. More specifically, the visit took place in detention facilities for foreign women, who were requested to discuss problems they face. At the same time, written information material by the GSGE was distributed in several languages. The two agencies mutually submitted a report with their remarks to the competent Ministry, an obligation imposed by the Memorandum.

158. The Project “Integrated Intervention in favour of Women” (OP “Employment and Vocational Training 2000–2006 by the C’ CSF), in which the GSGE was the final beneficiary, supported unemployed women. Among others, 116 women immigrants and 113 women refugees benefited within the framework of two Action Plans in the Region of Attica. In such Program, the RSGE, Scientific Counsellor of the GSGE, from 1 January 2005–31 December 2008 trained 200 members of the Project Actions Plans on women immigration issues.

159. The RSGE, within the framework of the CI EQUAL B’ circle (2005–2008), participated as partner in the following Projects:

• “Implementation of new working methods in culturally different groups: Smart adaptation of enterprises and improvement of women immigrants’ skills” by the DP “Intercultural Administration and Technological Adaptations”. Target group: enterprise officers and women immigrants. Its basic goals were: (a) strengthening and active participation, through new working applications (teleworking), of population groups (women-mother immigrants), who — due to special social conditions — face discrimination and therefore additional problems in their participation in the labour market; and (b) “smart adaptation” by enterprises not only in a new working environment but also in a new consuming group, through sensitized behaviour and knowledge of specialties of different cultural population groups and their consuming standards.

• “Social Amfiktionia” by the DP “Social Amfiktionia”. Target-group: (a) young unemployed persons, either with low professional skills or with other problems which prohibit them from entering into labour market; (b) women that face problems in relation to their access to the labour market due to their low professional skills; (c) culturally “different” persons (i.e. Roma). The main goal of the Project was the design and implementation of a strategy to foster social entrepreneurship by persons from the target-group, namely young persons, women and Rom through re-configuration of corporate relations among public, private and social sector.

160. The RSGE conducted a research on “Women’s Immigration in Greece. Findings of the RSGE Pan-Hellenic Research”, which was presented in the scientific conference “Immigration, experiences, perspectives, policies”, held on 23–24 November 2006, in Athens, by the Hellenic Migration Policy Institute (HMPI). Furthermore, the RSGE published four publications on women’s immigration: (a) “Handbook for Immigrants: Rights and Obligations” (2008); (b) “Guide for Women Refugees: Rights and Obligations (2008); (c) “Brief Guide for Women Immigrants” (2008); and (d) “Women’s Immigration in Greece: Findings of the RSGE Pan-Hellenic Research” (2007).

161. Within the framework of the CI EQUAL B’ circle, the following Projects were carried out:

• “Complete Intervention for the Development and Support of Special Social and Vulnerable Groups’ Entrepreneurship in remote areas”, by the DP “Equal-Methorios”. Target-group: unemployed women and immigrants-repatriates. The goal of the Project was the creation of new enterprises by unemployed women, immigrants and repatriates, men and women. In addition, the creation of support structures for the newly-established enterprises in the northern part of Greece (borders with Albania and FYROM) and especially in the Prefecture of Kozani and Florina.

• “Employment of economic immigrants in the rural sector through acquisition of vocational skills and support structures” by the DP “EMIGRANTS AGRO-JOBS”. Target-group: immigrants, repatriates, refugees. The basic goals of the Project included: (a) acquisition and improvement of qualitative professional skills of the target group; (b) creation of support structures (pilot offices for information and employment) seated in the Development Companies in the Prefecture of Karditsa and Lasithi and the Organization for Rural Development in Central Greece; (c) equal opportunities and equal treatment in the field of employment, without discrimination and exclusions, but with the acquisition of professional skills; (d) promotion of conditions for social and economic integration for women immigrants; and (e) employers’ awareness on equal treatment of employees by eliminating any negative stereotypes.

Women facing multiple discrimination

162. In 2001, RCGE produced a study entitled “Family legal relations of Greek Muslims”, dealing with the critical investigation of the special status that exists in the personal and property relations of spouses of Greek Muslims. This study, like all surveys/studies, is published on the RCGE website. Its conclusions have been taken into consideration by the Specialised Legislative Committee.

163. The GSGE designed the Project: “Holistic interventions for women” within the framework of the OP “Employment and Vocational Training 2000–2006”. The C’ CSF supported unemployed women to find a job, thus facilitated the reconciliation of vocational and family life. Within the framework of this programme, several women benefited, including women of Muslim religion, with cultural “particularities”, heads of single-parent families, and disabled women.

164. Within the framework of the “European Year for Equal Opportunities (2007)”, the GSGE enacted an Action Plan entitled “Women – Equality in Action”. The Action Plan aimed at the awareness-raising of society against racism and gender discrimination. A TV spot was broadcasted, which responded to the needs of women belonging to different social groups and experiencing multiple types of discrimination.

165. The GSGE, based on its interest in vulnerable social population groups and its intention to contribute to social cohesion, took the initiative to publish an information leaflet (July 2007), which includes all legislative regulations for any kind of provisions that the Hellenic State has stipulated in order to support single-parent families.

166. The GSGE, on the occasion of the devastating fires in August 2007, designed programmes in order to support women in stricken areas. More specifically, the GSGE organized two mobile units that visited the Prefecture of Ileia and the Prefecture of Evia (3–9 Sept. 2007), recruited counsellors (psychologists, social workers and employment counsellors). Each mobile unit visited the affected areas, adjusting its visit programme in cooperation with local authorities. Within the framework of the Project “Integrated Intervention in favour of Women”, the GSGE guaranteed a significant increase in resources to the regions affected, and requested further support of the OP by the Ministry of Employment, the Ministry of Development and the Ministry of Rural Development targeted to women of the aforementioned areas, in order for them not to be socially and economically excluded and to remain to their homes with their families. It also sent a letter to the 200 enterprises that took part in a funding programme and requested their immediate activation and assistance to mitigate the hardship experienced by Greece at that time.

167. During 2004–2007, the GSGE, in view of national policy and the Complete Action Plan for Social Integration of Greek Roma, and in cooperation with the competent Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity, carried out the Program “Prevention, Promotion of Health and Psychosocial Support of Greek Roma”. In 2005, the aforementioned Program was enriched, with the assistance of the University of Piraeus, by a specially equipped and recruited Gynaecological Unit. Pap smears and breast examinations were provided to more than 400 women. In addition, the General Secretariat for Adult Education designed educational programmes on disadvantageous groups and Roma.

168. To solve the problems faced by women who suffer multiple discrimination, and are threatened by social exclusion (e.g. Roma women), the Integrated Programme of Action for Social Integration of Greek Roma in Greece was implemented during the period 2002–2008. This was the first organized effort of the Greek state to develop policies simultaneously addressing the interrelated aspects of social exclusion of this group. The Integrated Program addressed the following issues: housing, education, health, social welfare and protection, employment, culture and sport. In parallel, other programmes were financed and implemented are: the promotion of women’s employment and social inclusion via Greek language learning, training, creation of new jobs, new independent entrepreneurs, and support services as well as a range of tools and studies.

169. The Mortgage Lending to Greek Roma Programme of the Ministry of the Interior addresses both sexes equally. During the first phase of implementation (2002–2005), 39 per cent of applications were submitted by Roma women, while 61 per cent was by Roma men. Similarly, among the lending decisions (loans) granted during the same period (all 5,754), 37 per cent of loans were granted to families headed by Roma women. Subsequently, in 2006, the adoption of social assessment criteria taking into account the different needs of the Roma population (e.g. large families, low income, etc.), has promoted housing assistance primarily for those living under substandard conditions and assistance with other social barriers causing social exclusion. For example, the need to raise children has often been a factor preventing Roma women from accessing education and employment – making it imperative to boost the position of Roma women. In this context, re: the second phase of the programme (2006–2009), of all the applications filed in 2006, 59.42 per cent of loans approved for Roma families were headed by woman (1,174 families with at least one child), 40.53 per cent by Roma men. Also, the overall share of Roma women of all beneficiaries of the programme is rising – 47 per cent in 2009 as compared to 37 per cent at the end of 2005. Simultaneously, 65 per cent of Roma woman beneficiaries (2006–2009) have been single parents with children.

170. Within the framework of the Community Program “2007 European Year for Equal Opportunities”, the Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Protection designed the national strategy on combating discrimination and proceeded to provide information and awareness-raising actions. The general directions set in the national strategy, according to the EU guidelines, included (a) gender mainstreaming in national strategy and the targeted actions alike; and (b) integration of multiple discrimination aspect, namely discrimination based on two or more grounds as referred to in article 13 of the Convention for the European Community’s establishment.

171. Within the framework of the CI EQUAL (B Circle), the following Projects were carried out:

• “Action on equal participation in labour” by the DP “DI.KA.DI – ROM”, Target-group: special cultural groups. The basic goals of the Project included (a) carrying out of pilot actions to create structures and mechanisms to inform target groups about equal opportunities and new employment trends via the use of advanced technology and traditional methods; and (b) carrying out of supportive preparatory actions, aiming at the integration of results in the methodology and policies during processes intended for social and professional rehabilitation of the target group.

• “Observatory and structures network for strengthening of economic immigrants and refugees in the labour market”, by the DP “STRENGTHENING OF ECONOMIC IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES IN THE LABOUR MARKET”. Target-group: women and men immigrants, repatriates, refugees. Basic goals of the Project were: (a) Employment Observatory and structures network development of dialogue among social partner organizations, immigrants’ organizations and state agencies on issues of immigration policy at national, regional and local level, with scientific and technical support of products and effects that arise; (b) strengthening/empowerment of the active participation by target group in the creation of a framework for effective exercise of their labour rights, etc.

• “Xenophobia dimensions and promotion of multicultural models” by the PD “Xenios Zeus”. Target-group: women and men immigrants, repatriates, refugees. The main goals of the Project were: (a) establishment of conditions for united representation of immigrants’ agencies; (b) realization of racism and xenophobia effects; and (c) prevention of any type of future xenophobic/racist behaviours in the Greek labour market through information/awareness-raising actions.

Article 10

Education and vocational training

172. The equal access of both sexes to education is an indisputable fact confirmed by statistics. Women admitted to higher education are more than men. The percentage of women who continue on to postgraduate studies (Master or PhD) is not significantly different from men’s. On the contrary, recently, it seems to be increasing (see annex 5, table 14). Furthermore, in Higher Education, for the academic year 2007–2008, and regarding the participation of foreigners and expatriates students, the percentage of women is not significant different than that of men (see annex 5, table 15). In secondary education, the number of boys is higher than the respective number of girls. As far as professors are concerned, the number of women is significantly higher than men (see annex 5, tables 16, 17 and 18).

173. Despite women’s academic success, their educational and professional choices remain defined by gender stereotypes. Gender discrimination is identified in academic schools and training sectors and is also reflected in women’s professional choices and their career opportunities. The Greek State has developed policies to combat gender discrimination and to ensure equal rights for men and women during their school education, lifelong learning and academic studies. More specifically, the Hellenic Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs has restricted several funds by the OPEPPT II (C’ CSF) solely for programmes that improve women’s access to the labour market. They were carried out in the field of secondary and higher education.

Public administration actions

174. The GSGE designed the Project “Positive Actions for Women in Schools of Primary Professional Education and Training (OPEPPT II), whose main goal was the combating of discrimination and professional differentiation between the sexes through gender mainstreaming in the field of technological education. Within the framework of the Project, the following were achieved: (a) improvement of the operation of the Library for Gender Equality Issues (LGEI) by supply of proper equipment and software and provision of new services; and (b) drafting of a research entitled “Study on the national and international literature on equality issues and preparation of a literature review on equality issues for enriching libraries of Technical Vocational Schools (TVS) and VEI (Vocational Educational Institutes) of the Country” by the National Centre for Social Research (NCSR). The aim was to carry out a literature review related to gender equality to enrich libraries of Secondary Education, TVS and Schools of Primary Professional Education and Training. Through this Program, the libraries of 764 public national TVS (VL-VS) and VEI have been enriched with books on gender equality, which were sent upon completion of the aforementioned research. At the same time, the TVS and VEI (VL-VS) were on-line to the LGEI to facilitate students and teachers’ access to information and sensitization on gender issues. In addition, educational visits and information lectures on gender equality issues were carried out by Junior High Schools, High Schools and Technical Vocational Schools (TVS) from Greece to students and teachers of Educational Organizations.

175. Furthermore, the GSGE, within the framework of upgrading the LGEI, which is specialized on gender equality issues and history of the Geek women’s movement, and whose goal is the collection of documentation and provision of historical and contemporary knowledge, undertook the following: (a) expansion of its area and opening of the History Archive on 24/04/2007; (b) expansion of Library operating hours for more efficient service; (c) enriching of database to facilitate readers and remote users in their search procedure by key words; (d) upgrading of foreign magazine subscriptions by access to their electronic form within the Library area; (e) creation of a new library base on History Archive documents, introduction of new entries and on-line search from public list (OPAC) through the LGEI site; (f) development and continual update of the site; (g) introduction and recording of 1,922 new books, bought or donated, 460 documents, as well as 2,847 archival documents.

176. The RSGE carried out the Project “Sensitisation of teachers and interventional programmes for the promotion of gender equality” within the framework of the OPEPPT II and the 13 Regions of the country. The Project aimed at the awareness-raising/education of teachers on gender equality issues, through educational programmes that help them detect gender stereotypes, inequality and discrimination in the educational system and then intervene by developing scientific bases and good practices within the field of educational programmes. Throughout its implementation period (2002–2008):

• 78 Education programmes were designed at regional level (13 per year), with the participation of public schools teachers, from Secondary Schools of General and Technological Education and teachers from public Primary Professional Schools.

• 850 Associations and therefore 850 Intervention Programs were formed by teachers. The Intervention Programs were developed by Associations of Educational Unites, comprised of at least five members. They were designed by teachers with the basic goals: (a) teachers’ awareness; (b) students’ awareness; and (c) parents and local society members’ awareness on gender equality issues. Those Programs were a type of educational intervention (gender mainstreaming in tutoring) or/and intervention activities aiming at the promotion of methods and good practices in the field of education allowing for the expansion of typical men and women roles via the development of brainstorming and materialization of innovative actions. They were developed within the framework of school life, apart from the analytical programme, and were carried out in the form of action plans (projects). Several actions were also designed such as: photography exhibition, creation of written material, production of videotape, visits to working places, information campaign, researches, writing of respective documents, etc.

• 8,497 teachers were educated (2,913 men and 5,584 women).

• 4,576 School Units participated (3,584 school units of Secondary General Education, 779 school units of Secondary Technological Education, 213 school units of Primary Professional Training).

• 122,096 students took part and benefited (57,421 boys and 64,675 girls).

• Educational and information material was prepared (handbooks, tools, educational packages) on respective issues of gender equality. A big part of such material was published or/and reproduced in electronic form and was distributed to teachers, teachers’ educators as well as in school units. In addition, six books and one DVD were published: (a) “Awareness exercises for teachers. For an education of equal opportunities for all”; (b) “New conditions and new skills in the labour market”; (c) “Tool with directions on intervention programmes related to gender equality in education. Issue of good practices”; (d) “Implementation and management guide for training and intervention programmes”; (e) “Adolescent gender identity: examining gender factor within the school framework”; (f) “Gender equality and education: Preparing equal citizens. Meeting minutes”; and (g) “Educational material on gender equality issues” (digital version in DVD).

• The following were conducted: (a) Educational Seminars in Greece to educate teachers on gender equality; (b) 13 Information/Awareness-raising and Assessment Events were organized in other national Regions, aiming at awareness-raising/informing of the educational community on gender equality issues; and (c) a Meeting was held on “Gender equality and education – Preparing equal citizens” to inform the teaching community on the Project under progress, as well to increase the total number of sensitized teachers.

177. The RSGE, in cooperation with the GSGE, within the framework of the OPEPPT II, designed the Project: “Monitoring and assessment observatory for actions by the educational policy on gender equality (Observatory for Gender Equality in Education)”. The Project was carried out throughout the country from 1 December 2006 to 30 June 2006. Within the framework of the project, five reports studies were designed: (a) Study on the existing conditions at global level; (b) Report of cooperation perspectives with respective agencies from other EU countries; (c) Assessment report on the possibility and perspectives of networking; (d) Technical networking reports with suggested structures, designed by the Observatory; (e) Observatory networking list with national and foreign agencies and brief recording of their goals and actions. In 2008, 11 researches/studies were completed, eight of which have been published: (1) “Collection, critical comments and organization of the digitalization of the existing research production in the field of equality in education”; (2) “Monitoring and assessment of effects on genders caused by the educational policies; (3) “Monitoring and assessment of effects on genders caused by the OPEPPT II actions; (4) “Monitoring and assessment of actions and policies for the improvement of women’s access to the labour market through educational preparation”; (5) “Educational level and women’s participation in the labour market: study of literature review”; (6) “Gender social representations in school books: study of literature review”; (7) “Professional dissociation per gender (vertical and cross-cutting): discrimination and inequalities against women in education”; (8) “Guide to introduce equality principles in education”; (9) Reports on specialized topics re: decision-making”; (10) “Production of a statistical series of indexes – information and use of index data base on equality in education and employment”; and (11) “Selection and configuration of stable monitoring indices related to gender, education and employment by sources in Greece and EU countries”. Finally, the RSGE organized a workshop (30 October 2008) to publish and distribution Project results.

178. The RSGE participated from August 2004 to July 2006 in an educational partnership with the participation of agencies from German, Spain, Austria, Malta and Denmark, within the framework of the Project “Making Women’s History Visible in Europe”, Socrates Grundtvig 2 Program. The objective was, through a common and mutual learning procedure, to highlight the insufficiently documented “her stories” and to foster a sufficient historical awareness through a gender lens.

179. During 2007 and 2008, in the Hellenic Air Force Academy, aiming to eliminate gender stereotypes, the Hellenic Ministry of Defence prepared educational material with pilot implementation in the academic course programme: Psychology of Personal Difference, Sociology, Law Elements, Administration-Executive Obligations In addition, the Ministry gave an educational-thematic seminar on Gender Equality to members of equality offices, in cooperation with the GSGE and the RSGE (24–25 and 27 Sept. 2007). In addition, it developed and operated a tele-education system on gender equality subjects.

180. In the Hellenic Ministry of Merchant Marine, Aegean and Island Policy, the Admission Regulation for Students in the Merchant Marine Academies (B’ 905), as currently in force, implements Law 3488/2006 and institutionally safeguards equal treatment for women. The Ministry, through the Project: “EVRIDIKI-Positive Actions for Women”, designed by the Democritus University of Thrace in 2008, participated in the carrying out of the action: “Award of scholarships to women students in the Merchant Marine Academies”. In relation to the education of Marine Officers, from the educational year 2007–2008, the respective quota in the Regulation for the Admission of Students in the Merchant Maritime Academies has been abolished. This quota existed due to the fact that maritime professional activities and education are executed under extremely difficult working conditions. The percentage of women admitted to the School significantly increased from 2005 to 2008 (see annex 5, table 7).

181. The Hellenic Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs, within the framework of OPEPPT II, designed several educational programmes for the expansion of school hours (all-day schools) in primary education. This action, while intended first and foremost to combat school escape, has a double effect: it not only prevents school failure and escape, but also facilitates parents (especially mothers), to enable them to be employed or improve their professional skills. The educational model implemented in the all-day schools is based on a holistic intervention using individualized teaching methods, making use of new technologies and boosting teaching hours, so as to cover at the same time, the needs of parents. From the time that such programmes were implemented, according to 2009 data, there are 4,299 all-day primary schools and 2,300 all-day nursery schools.

182. The “PERIKTIONI” Network, which has approximately 100 members such as educational, research and production agencies (NCSR, RSGE, etc.), was established in 2004 within the framework of the Competitiveness Operational Program (COP) by the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT). The Network had its first Assembly on 30 June 2006, with the presence of representatives by the broader region of southeast Europe and the EU. On 1 December 2006 the 2nd Assembly was held, some Working Groups were created to carry forth work on special issues and to submit recommendations.

183. The “PERIKTIONI” Network is activate, submits proposals to the competent Ministries, and designs researches and surveys to promote its main goals: (a) support of specific measures for more effective use of women research groups; (b) gender mainstreaming in Research and Development policies; and (c) development of communication channels with other networks in the EU and the broader region of southeast Europe to exchange information and good practices. Upon proposal by the Network, a minimum of 1/3 by women in all research councils has been established by virtue of Law 3653/2008.

184. The University of Ioannina designed the Project: “Provision of auxiliary educational material for introducing issues related to gender into the educational procedure” (OPEPPT II) from 1 March 2004 to 31 October 2008. The Project aimed to foster brainstorming on gender social relations and the promotion of gender equality in Primary and Secondary Education (Nursery Schools, Primary Schools, Junior High School, General High School and Vocational Lyceums (VL) and Vocational Schools (VS)), through the promotion of auxiliary educational material, written and digital to be used within or outside the school programme. The auxiliary educational material was published in both written and digital form to contribute to the achievement of the aforementioned goals, as well as to students’ and teachers’ awareness on the issue of unequal gender relations. This material was placed in cases and was sent to different educational institutions: (a) 5,650 cases for Nursery Schools; (b) 5,460 cases for Primary Schools; (c) 1,905 cases for Secondary Schools; (d) 1,154 cases for General High Schools; (e) 510 cases for VL-VS, which were sent by the MOERA school books distributors, i.e. through the School Book Publishing Organization (OEDB). The distribution of the material to the school units was accompanied by the organization of Educational/Informational Events for several Education Officials (School Counsellors, Health Education Heads, Cultural Issues and Art Games Heads, Environmental Education Heads, School Professional Orientation Counsellors (SPO), etc). The Events took place in two phases (April–May 2008 and September–October 2008). 296 Education Officials participated, attending both phases of the Events.

185. The Institute for Continuing Adult Education (ICAE) and the Prefectural Commission of Folk Education (PCFE) of the Hellenic Ministry of Education designed educational programmes appealing to general and special population groups. From 2005–2008, the vast majority of trainees were women. Tables 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 demonstrate the significantly higher number of women trainees in ERC, SCS and Parents Schools and PCFE.

186. The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens carried out an action within the framework of the Project “Positive Actions for Women”. The Project, funded by the OPEPPT II, was related to the giving of educational seminars for women students on entrepreneurship, information, new technologies and other innovative applications, via conventional or tele-education methods. More specifically, it included the development of educational material for teachers’ tele-education and student’s education, which was live (20 hours) and tele-education (30 hours). Priority was given to women students who studied in “male sectors” (i.e. engineering, electric engineering, electronics, information, applied arts, constructions, etc), as well as to those included in special population groups that face labour market and social exclusion (persons with special needs, immigrants and nationals, repatriates, persons of cultural and religious minorities, single-parent family children, remote areas residents, etc). The Project was carried out from 1 March 2006 to 31 March 2008 and almost 2,700 women students and 80 teachers from TVS/VEI — by the MOERA and other Ministries — were educated and received training certificates.

187. In the field of Higher Education, “Programs for the support of women in undergraduate and postgraduate studies and Studies Programs and Research Programs for Women” (OPEPPT II) were designed. 43 University and Technical Institution Projects had been funded, classified into the following four categories:

• Postgraduate Study Programs on gender and equality issues. This category includes 3 Projects, postgraduate programmes on gender issues by the University of Thessalonica (related to gender and education), the University of the Aegean (related to gender in social anthropology,) and the University of Athens (on gender and religion).

• Undergraduate Study Programs on gender and equality issues. This category includes eight Projects by the University of Athens, the University of Thessalonica, Panteion University, the University of the Aegean, the University of Crete, the University of Piraeus, the National Technical University of Athens and the University of Thessaly and four Projects by the Technical Institutions of Athens, Crete, Western Macedonia and Patras. Their goal was to introduce new courses, to enrich existing courses, and to develop upgrading actions for undergraduate studies proceeding to gender mainstreaming in several scientific fields and cognitive objects.

• Research scholarships on gender and equality issues, with priority to basic research. This category includes scholarship programmes by four Universities (Athens, Thessalonica, Panteion, Aegean) that aim to foster dissertations on equality and gender.

• Empowerment of research groups in Universities and Technical Institutions on gender and equality issues. This category includes 16 Projects by Universities and 8 Projects by Technical Institutions, related to the design of research programmes on gender issues. Priority was the employment of post-PhD men and women researchers.

188. The Hellenic Ministry of Tourist Development designed educational training programmes for tourism and hotels employees, as well as teaching educational programmes in the following countries: Azerbaijan, Egypt, Armenia, Georgia, Ethiopia, Syria and Jordan, and in some BSEC member-states. The condition to participate in such programmes was a minimum quota of 30 per cent women in order promote gender equality through women’s access to tourism enterprises and their integration in economic growth. The goal was the preparation of high-level professional personnel to be employed in tourist enterprises and contribute to the upgrading of the tourism services offered by their country.

189. The Hellenic Committee for UNESCO organized an Educational Seminar (Thessalonica, 8–13 Oct. 2007) on “Women’s participation in social reform and the development of South-Eastern Europe”, which was attended by 30 women. The overall goal of the seminar was to educate on selected issues as well as information exchange for women professionals. The secondary goals were: (a) transfer of knowledge on the elimination of any and all kinds of gender discrimination, improvement of women’s access to education and employment, women’s participation in decision-making procedures, etc.; (b) boosting of promotion and public awareness for UNESCO actions re: achievement of women’s empowerment; (c) improvement of teachers’ ability to design and manage Projects via exchange of information on good practices examples; and (d) promotion of cross-border solidarity and regional cooperation among women professionals that participate in programmes for women. The seminar addressed scientists and activists activate in gender programmes, NGO members and journalists from south-eastern Europe countries.

Non-governmental organizations actions

190. The Hellenic Association of University Women (HAUW) designed the Program “Encouragement of women students in the selection of professions in the field of science and technology”, in view of the sixth European Framework Programme on Research and Technology Development. The 24-month (2006–2007) project appealed to female high school students 16 to 18 years of age. The Project encouraged female students to select professions in the field of science and technology, and the configuration of good practices. In addition, the HAUW designed the Program “Support and counselling to women for searching and attendance of postgraduate studies – AMALIA FLEMING” in collaboration with the Marie Curie Fellow Association of Greece. Target-group: women graduates from HEI, over 22 years of age, residents of Athens, who wished to continue their studies at postgraduate, PhD or/and post-PhD level. A “prototype” information centre was established to provide interdisciplinary services. Finally, the HAUW designed the Program “Information of women students and new scientists on the profession of researcher”, in collaboration with the Marie Curie Fellow Association of Greece. Two “prototype” information centres operated in order to provide interdisciplinary services.

Article 11

Employment and social insurance

191. The course of women’s participation in the labour market within the period under examination is as follows: employment rates are significantly higher for men compared to women (see annex 5, table 19). However, the increase of employment and decrease of unemployment rates, from 2004 to 2008, are more improved from women compared to men. Employment for women has increased 3.5 percentage points from 2004 to 2008, while for men only 1.4 per cent. Respectively, women’s unemployment decreased per 4.9 per cent, men’s by 1.7 per cent (see annex 5, table 20).

192. The highest unemployment rates in Greece were in the Regions of Western Macedonia and Epirus, with also the largest differences in unemployment rates between men and women (see annex 5, tables 21 and 22). Figures express the absolute differences in employment rates between men and women per Region for 2008. Significant differences in the employment between the two sexes were found also in the North and South Aegean and Central Greece. A lower, but rather crucial 23.4 per cent difference existed in the Region of Attica.

193. In 2005, despite the fact that statistics on employment indicate that women’s employment increased at a higher rate compared to men’s, domestic/family work continued to be “women’s work” at a significantly high percentage. (see annex 5, table 23). The average time that women spent on family and domestic duties is much higher than the time spent by men, without of course being recognized as working time. Table 24 sets forth some data on non-active population. More specifically, the table provides the percentage of unemployed persons from 25 to 64 years of age, classified according to the reasons why they do not seek employment. The statistics refer to 2004 and 2008. According to that data, 45.1 per cent of women do not work due to family duties (children care, other family and personal responsibilities), extremely outnumbering men (1.2 per cent). In contrast, the percentage of men who do not work because they study or attend an educational programme is almost triple the number of women.

194. The promotion of women’s employment calls for cross-cutting policies and special programmes for unemployed women, to enable them to effectively access the labour market and combat social exclusion and poverty. Special programmes were designed during the period under examination by MEO and a series of public and private agencies within the framework of the OP “Employment and Vocational Training” by CI EQUAL and the 13 Regional Operational Programs (ROP). The C’ CSF funding of the actions that facilitate women’s access in the labour market are grounded in the priority given by the EU to preparation of this work. Both the GSGE and the RSGE actively participated in carrying out these programmes. Their specific goals include: development of affirmative actions in enterprises, improvement of care structures for children and other dependent persons, development of holistic actions to supporting women and enhance their entrepreneurship.

195. In the field of women’s employment, many women’s organizations were also activated in view of the ratification of Law 3488/2006, according to which sexual harassment within working environment is considered gender discrimination in the labour market. Finally, by virtue of such Law, the Gender Equality Circle was established by the Greek Ombudsman, a fact that focused equality policies on the field of employment.

Public administration actions

196. Within the framework of the Project “Funding for the Provision of Holistic Interventions for Women” by the OP “Employment and Vocational Training”, designed by the GSGE, 8,773 unemployed women benefited. Priority was given to women who belong to vulnerable social groups, such as refugees, immigrants, domestic violence or trafficking victims and heads of single-parent families. The Program had been implemented in all Administrative Regions of the country 13 by seventeen 17 Action Plans coordinated by the GSGE (in the form of corporate partnerships with approximately 240 agencies). More specifically, the following participated: (a) women Muslims within the framework of the Action Plan in the region of Eastern Macedonia-Thrace; (b) women refugees, immigrants and Roma within the framework of two Action Plans in the region of Attica. More specifically, the following vulnerable groups of people benefited: (a) 116 immigrants; (b) 113 refugees; (c) 56 violence victims; (d) 1 trafficking victim; (e) 98 Muslims women/women with “cultural particularities”; (f) 684 single heads of family; and (g) 49 disabled women. The MEO also participated in the Program by supporting more than 5,000 women to gain employment. The Project was selected and presented as a good practice example in the European Conference and the Unofficial Meeting of Ministers on Gender Equality in Lisbon on 04/10/2007. Positive reference was made to the regional dimension of the Project, which was carried out by agencies of the local societies active in counselling and employment issues, the ERC, the MEO, other local government agencies, as well as NGOs.

197. The GSGE carried out the Project “Positive Actions for Women in Small-Medium & Big Enterprises” within the framework of the OP “Employment and Vocational Training” (measure 5.1). The Project aims at the decrease of gender inequalities within the workplace, and therefore within the labour market. It intends to raise the awareness of all employees, regardless of their sex, and local society more broadly, on inequality issues that women face within their working environment. Its goal is to support women via actions to enhance their skills and personal and professional life, to enable them to fight for improvement of their post in an enterprise. Within this framework, companies were offered financial incentives re: ongoing education/training for women, provision of counselling and organization of a tele-working system, awareness-raising of all employees on such issues, and expansion of quality certification systems (ISO) re: procedures that promote corporate social responsibility emphasizing equality policies. The programme indirectly benefited 9,224 women employees in 123 enterprises of the country through its awareness/information actions and the prototype quality systems. 3,720 of these women directly benefited from the training, counselling, tele-working and education actions.

198. An example of the implementation of the aforementioned Project is the Program “ISO EPICHIRO – Positive Actions for Working Women in HOSMIH” designed by HOSMIH SA, of the Hellenic Ministry of Development, with actions such as (a) Drafting of Social Responsibility Standard; (b) Consulting support to working women of the Organization; (c) Training of the working women of the Organization; (d) Information and awareness. More specifically, counselling support was provided to women working in the Organization to improve their self-knowledge and the balancing of the obligations of professional and family life. In total, 366 group and personal sessions were provided to 86 working women. Training was vital for the Project and contributed to the knowledge and skills of HOSMIH working women, as it aimed to create conditions for upgrading their work position and their working conditions. 6,440 training hours were provided to 56 women. Upon completion of the Program, the Standard of Social Responsibility was established, which allows integration of Equal Opportunities practices and behaviours, according to European models. Therefore, it is the first time that the Organization is bound by the CSR principles, aiming at and contributing to the safeguarding of a creative and reciprocate working environment free from discrimination or unequal treatment of any kind.

199. Conclusion of Memorandum of Understanding between the GSGE and the main labour organizations (HFE, NCGT, HCPCM, ACCI) and the Greek Network for CSR to facilitate women’s participation in employment and provision of equal opportunities for their development within working environment (Athens, 2 July 2006). In addition, a Memorandum of Understanding was entered into between the GSGE and the Greek Network for CSR, for the further promotion of equal opportunities between men and women in enterprises (March 2006). This initiative was selected as good practice by the European Network for CSR and was presented in the annual organization European Marketplace II on CSR (Brussels, 22 June 2006), organized to share experiences and analysis of methods that promotion CSR policies for Enterprises.

200. The GSGE also participated in Actions of the Development Partnership “ANTHISI” (CI EQUAL B’ Circle) in relation to the publication of the Project and its dissemination to those involved in the promotion of governmental policy on equal opportunities for men and women. The Project intended to promote equal opportunities and was an initiative by HFE and the GSGE. More specifically, the GSGE was mainly involved in information/awareness actions on equality in enterprises, in the analysis of international/European experience for conditions and results of Social Dialogue, in the implementation of the Interstate Cooperation Agreement, and in promotion and propagation activities (i.e. leaflets, website).

201. From 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2005, the RSGE participated as partner in the European Program “Full Inclusion of Women in the Business World: Enhancement of Female Entrepreneurship”, coordinated by the National Mechanism for Women’s Rights of Cyprus and partners from Germany and Poland (co-funding: 80 per cent European Committee , 20 per cent national sources). The goal of the Project was to inform citizens re: the importance and benefits of women’s entrepreneurship, as well as to strengthen women as future business women through educational seminars.

202. The RSGE, within the framework of the CI EQUAL (A’ Circle), coordinated (among 21 partners) the Project “Actions on Combating Discrimination in working environment by the DP ANDROMEDA”. The goal of the Project was to design and implement policies to combat discrimination not only at agency and enterprise level, but also to contribute to the abolition of stereotypes, perceptions and behaviours that preserve the phenomenon of discrimination within working environments, as well as to promote the presence of women in fields in which men outnumber women and in new professions.

203. From 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008, within the framework of actions of the Project “Scientific counsellor for the actions for provision of services of specialized training form women, designed by the GSGE” (OP “Employment and Vocational Training”), the RSGE carried out 58 training sessions for 1,050 counsellors throughout Greece on gender counselling. The training was related to the education of officers who made Holistic Interventions for Women, on counselling support, information, and provision of e-services, organization and supervision of the Project. In addition, during this time, the RSGE created an electronic system to support the Project, providing online counselling and results, so as to record counsellors’ work, safeguard the implementation of RSGE counselling model as well as the quality of services provided.

204. From January 2005 to December 2007, the RSGE, within the framework of the Program “Awareness of special population groups” (Action 1.4.1 Centres of Business and Technology Development), with the co-funding by the Hellenic Ministry of Development, designed entrepreneurship workshops for 200 women of Attica. Those women were trained on the following topics: (a) Types of business; (b) Cost-Benefit Analysis; (c) general information on the Greek economy, analysis of enterprise environment; (d) Organization & Administration of Small-Medium Scale Enterprises; (e) Activity programming; (f) Market Research; (g) Basic Principles of Marketing; (h) General principles – abilities/skills of businesspersons; (i) Businesswoman – the Greek experience; (j) Connection of businessperson and business idea; (k) Review of a business idea; (l) Investment philosophy; (m) Decision-making; (n) Business Plan – Case study.

205. The RSGE, within the framework of the CI EQUAL B’ Circle (2005–2008), participated as partner in the following projects: (a) “Facilitation of Women’s Professional Life without discrimination by Implementing Social Time Program – Social Time Program” by the DP “Reconciliation Intervention”; (b) “Equality in Military Forces” by the DP “ARTEMIS”; (c) “Equal Opportunities and development: Creation of a facilitation and support mechanism for the inclusion of equal opportunities principle in the employment environment” by the DP “ANTHISI, Human Resource-Equal Opportunities”; (d) “Innovative policies on employment and social policy at local level – Local Government as supplementary mechanism of active employment policies and social politics” by the DP “Convergences”; (e) “Social Amfiktionia” by the DP “Social Amfiktionia”; (f) “Implementation of new working methods in culturally differentiated groups: Smart Adaptation by enterprises and improvement of women immigrants’ skills” by the DP “Intercultural Administration and Technological Adaptations”; and (g) “Observatory and Structures Network for Empowerment of Economic Immigrants and Refugees in the Marketplace”.

206. From May 2005 to June 2007, the RSGE participated in the Provision Program of Supplementary Support Services (SSS), within the framework of Local Employment Initiatives (LEI), by the Hellenic Ministry of Employment. Its goal was to provide Supplementary Support Services to unemployed women. The actions were designed in cooperation with the Local Governments of the Prefectures of Attica, Evros, Magnesia and Xanthi.

207. From January 2007 to September 2008, the RSGE designed the SSS Provision Action Plans “Improvement of Conditions of Access to the Labour Market for Vulnerable Groups”. The Program aimed at the empowerment of women, their preparation for the labour market, their support in taking business initiatives and their promotion in employment posts. The services provided by the RSGE included: (a) employment counselling; (b) learning of techniques for finding a job; (c) specialized professional orientation; (d) entrepreneurship support; (e) information; (f) psychosocial support; (g) approach, information, awareness and activation of interested parties for their participation in programmes for pre-training, training and promotion to the labour market; (h) information on employment, institutional and legal issues; and (i) promotion, information and networking actions. The actions were designed in eight Regions of Greece (Attica, Central Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Central Greece, Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, Peloponnesus and Crete). In total, 2,820 women benefited, coming from the following vulnerable population groups: handicapped persons, immigrants, special cultural groups, repatriates, special groups threatened by social exclusion, long-term unemployed women above 45 years of age, other groups of persons threatened by exclusion from the labour market, other categories of unemployed women in areas or sectors of high unemployment rates.

208. As of June 2006, the RSGE has been carrying out the Project “Expansion – Improvement of electronic information interchange” within the framework of the OP “Politeia II”, by the Hellenic Ministry of Interior. Its goal is the preparation and creation of “one-stop-shop”, by providing complete services, counselling, support and training for citizens ( The Project, through its ongoing feedback and information control, aims to utilize extensively information technologies and Communications via the preparation and provision of network, support and information services to the citizens and enterprises of Women Associations and enterprises.

209. The RSGE took part as a partner, from 1 June 2006 to 31 December 2007, in the European Program INTERREG III B ARCHIMED “Women in Business Support Growth and Competitiveness – WBC”, coordinated by the National Chamber Network of Greek Women Entrepreneurs (NCNGWE) and partners from Italy and Cyprus. The goal of the Program was to inform public and local authorities in the participant countries on benefits arising from women’s participation in economy, the provision of consultancy and know-how services to women to enhance their participation in the economy and selection of good practices, as implemented by small-medium enterprises, public and local authorities in the participant countries.

210. Regarding sexual harassment, the RSGE participated in the Research Project coordinated by the European University of Cyprus “Social, psychological and vocational effects of sexual harassment within working environment in Cyprus” (research duration 12/2006–12/2008). In addition, the RSGE, in cooperation with “Village Films” organized the avant-premiere of the movie North Country (13 December 2006), which referred to sexual harassment, rape and all kinds of violence exercised against women. Representatives by Ministries, NGOs and Women Associations attended the avant-premiere.

211. In 2005, the RSGE designed in total six studies/researches in the field of women’s employment under the title “National Policies on Gender Equality in Employment”, “Bibliographic Analysis and Recording of Effects on New Employment Opportunities for Women, Improvement of Working Conditions and Promotion of Gender Equality in the Labour Market”; (c) “Study to support self-employment for women, accompanied by realistic cases”; (d) “Study on Self-employment and Promotion of Gender Equality through Education”; (e) “Study on gender mainstreaming in employment policy”; (f) “Horizontal Professional Demarcation in the Greek Labour Market”.

212. The RSGE published 13 books on employment and the labour market: (a) “Under Control”: Theories for Organization and Gender, 2005; (b) “Good Practices Guide of Reconciliation of Family and Work life”, 2005; (c) “Guide for Equality and Reconciliation of Family and Work life”, 2007; (d) “Guide for Equality and Reconciliation of Work and Family Life”, 2007; (e) “Counselling Guide on Employment”, 2007; (f) “Guide for Effective Job Searching”, 2008; (g) “Networking Handbook”, 2008; (h) “Guide for Counselling Synthetic Model on Gender Mainstreaming”, 2008; (i) “Guide for Entrepreneurship Counsellors. Business Plan for the Establishment and Development of an Enterprise & Organization and Development of Women Organizations”, 2008; (j) “Step by step Guide to Design Actions for Women and Actual Employment”, 2008; (k) “Good Practices Guide on Holistic Interventions for Women”, 2008; (l) “Procedure Guide for Achievement of Measurable Indicators of the Project for Women’s Integration in Employment”, 2008; (m) “Women’s Entrepreneurship. Brief Guide for Enterprises and Unions”, 2008.

213. The General Secretariat for Life-long Learning of the Hellenic Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs aims at the promotion of equal opportunities, women’s participation in social enterprises and information provision to women, the broader public and groups that suffer from exclusion vis-à-vis equality, employment and women’s entrepreneurship issues. In parallel, within the framework of the OP EQUAL, it designed the Project “Women’s Entrepreneurship and Interregional Support System from the Social Economy <DIONI II>” (observance of percentage of women benefiting in all partnership actions) in cooperation with the National and European Network for social economy and with 30 Partners from Greece, Italy, France, etc. In addition, the Partners of the DIONI II Program, as well as the two Trade Houses that emerged from the Program, autonomously or in cooperation, undertook promotion events (i.e. one-day events, information/awareness events by the 15 Agencies that developed DIONI II entrepreneurship Networks, information events by the five Agencies that operated DIONI II entrepreneurship Structures, open events and drafting of a three-day information event re: promotion of the Women and Social Enterprises (Athens, 21–23 Jan. 2005). Its objective was to raise public awareness on issues of social and women’s entrepreneurship, alternative credit systems and the promotion of partner-enterprises.

214. All programmes designed by MEO, aiming at combating unemployment and enhancing employment, include special quotas for women’s participation aiming at: (a) acquisition of professional experience (internship); (b) creation of new working posts for the promotion of unemployed women in the labour market; and (c) creation of their own enterprise. The MEO promotes women’s employment by participating in a series of actions to promote women’s employment, as well as gender equality in the field of employment, as follows:

• From 2005 and onwards, the MEO has introduced a series of innovations and goals for women in all programmes such as: (a) Increased funding (at least 25 per cent) at all employment programs of MEO to hire unemployed women who are mothers of at least one minor child; (b) ability for new businesswomen, funded by MEO, to create their own enterprise in their residency in cases in which they are mothers of an infant or take care of disabled relatives; (c) inclusion of nursery school costs in documents required for someone to be included in new businesswomen funding programmes, i.e. 40 per cent of total funding; and (d) in all employment programmes, 60 per cent of posts to be provided to unemployed women.

• Both overall and sector goals of MEO Programs have as focal point women’s employment. For example, the funding programme for New Freelancers in the field of culture and environment (2005). Especially in relation to the culture field, it mostly addressed women able to develop business activity (i.e. in traditional products/activities-focused professions etc.). In addition, the current funding action for partial employment of 10,000 unemployed persons in small family enterprises that employ up to three persons is targeted primarily to women desiring access the labour market on a part-time basis due to family obligations.

• The removal of indirect discrimination, which previously present in MEO, i.e. that pregnant women or bedridden women were almost treated as patients and generally unable to work. From 2005 and onwards, pregnant and bedridden women are not written off from MEO records, their unemployed time is regularly measured and renewal of their unemployment card is executed automatically without requirement to appear in person.

• The insurance regulation, and more specifically the provision of article 142, Law 3655/2008 and Ministerial Decision 33891/606/7-5-2008, upgraded mothers’ protection: (a) special provision established for the protection of motherhood, i.e. six-month motherhood leave in addition to the two-month pregnancy leave and the two-month pregnancy bedridden leave provided by the Social Insurance Institute (SII); (b) MEO provides women a minimum wage allowance for this period of time; and (c) In parallel and during this time, employers may replace working mothers with an unemployed person, subsidized by MEO. Therefore, mothers receive provisions equal to those offered in European countries, safeguarding mothers’ protection.

215. The General Secretariat for Management of Community and Other Sources of the Hellenic Ministry of Employment undertook a holistic approach to gender equality and raising of women’s employment (OP “Employment and Professional Training” 2002–2006). It developed a series of mutually-reinforcing measures and interventions, which aimed at the equal representation of genders in economic development and the removal of inhibitory factors and obstacles that exclude women from the labour market. OP actions were focused on two basic axes: (a) affirmative actions, i.e. those that appeal only to women and aim to remove discrimination or equalization of disadvantages which arise from actions, behaviour or the institutional framework, as currently in force; (b) the implementation of mainstreaming principle, i.e. the integration of equal opportunities for both sexes in all policies.

216. Within the framework of reconciliation between family and professional life, and aiming at the improvement of women’s employment, the operation of social care structures for babies, infants, children, elderly and other dependent persons was co-funded. According to the data available in relation to such actions, 360 social care institutions were co-funded, and 65,000 persons benefited. In addition, approximately 1,900 persons were employed, most of whom were women. It should be stressed that during the fifty-second session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, the General Secretary made an explicit reference to Greece and gender mainstreaming in the OP “Employment and Professional Training 2000–2006”.

217. Within the framework of the Regional OP several actions were designed and carried out for the “Development of Women’s Employment and Entrepreneurship”. The objective of such actions was the provision of support for the development of women’s enterprises, as well as the preservation and boosting of employment rates for women in enterprises. The actions appealed to businesswomen participating either as freelancers or within the framework of existing individual enterprises, small-medium scale enterprises, micro-enterprises, unions, etc. The actions were designed by HOSMIH SA. Almost 5,500 women benefited from this Program.

218. Within the framework of the CI EQUAL (B’ Circle), the following Projects were designed to promote gender equality in the field of employment, entrepreneurship and adaptability:

• Project: “Empowerment of women’s employment through innovative methods for access to the labour market” by the DP “KALLISTI”. Target-group: women. Its basic goal is to deal with issues limiting women’s labor supply due to family and social limitations, as well as those factors causing unfair labour treatment against them.

• Project: “Holistic intervention in employment for network confrontation of unemployment problem in the broader region of Piraeus and Western Athens”, by the DP “Network for Employment (EMPLONET)”. Target-group: unemployed persons that face labour market access problems. Specifically: unemployed women, long-term unemployed, heads of single-parent families, unemployed elderly. Its basic goal was to undertake actions in order to assess the needs of the target group on the one hand, and on the other hand to promote gender equality and develop an active employment policy to abolish professional discrimination in the broader area of Piraeus and Western Attica.

• Project: “Innovative employment and social policies at local level. Local Government as supplementary mechanism of active employment and social policies”, by DP “CONVERGENCES”. Target-group: vulnerable population groups. Its main objectives were: (a) improvement and modernization of social services offered by local government to citizens; (b) creation of new jobs in the field of social services; and (c) provision of services to vulnerable population groups in harmonization with actual needs of such groups.

• Project “sinPRAXIS — Cooperation for employment” by DP “sinPRAXIS — COOPERATION FOR EMPLOYMENT”. Target-group: unemployed men and women. Its basic goal was to create innovative methods and practices, through use and enrichment of existing knowledge and experience, by implementing pilot action including all factors of the “employment triangle”, i.e. employment services, employment agencies and unemployed men and women.

• Project “The modern access gate to the labour market” by DP “AISCHINIS”. Target-group: unemployed men and women, immigrants, repatriates, refugees. The basic goal was the creation of a functional and useful “access gate to the labour market”, technically supported by an internet-based job search system used by unemployed persons and enterprises, to facilitate labour market access and achieve a better balance between labour supply and demand.

• Project “Next station: labour market” by DP “EPI TROCHON”. Target-group: young men and women. Its primary objective was the empowerment and professional integration of young educated people, through implementation of a series of actions to substantively upgrade the services provided by social agencies and NGOs and supplement existing systems and structures, emphasizing target-groups’ needs.

• Project “Entrepreneurship on the frontiers” by DP “LOCAL FRONTIER COLLABOURATION – TOMES”. Target-group: women in the Municipality of Evros. The main goal was the promotion and support of women in the Municipality of Evros re: the development of entrepreneurship via peripherally-located agencies and people taking advantage of new technologies.

• Project “Development of entrepreneurship activity by vulnerable social groups, using Olympic and sports facilities”, by DP “Post-Olympic Business Partnership”. Target-group: unemployed young men and women and disabled persons. Its primary goal was the promotion of target-groups’ business activity via use of sports and Olympic facilities.

• Project “Creation of new innovative tourism enterprises by unemployed graduates to attract tourists from Europe” by DP “INNO-NEW INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES FROM YOUNG TO YOUNG”. Target-group: women, unemployed men and women, young graduates and non-graduates up to 35 years of age. Its basic goals included: (a) fostering of entrepreneurship spirit in young men and women for the creation of small flexible enterprises providing qualitative and innovative services to support small tourist units in isolated areas of the beautiful South Aegean islands; (b) stabilization of new working posts for young people of the areas; and (c) creation of a cooperation network among enterprises that offer innovative and high-quality services appealing to European youth.

• Project: “Support Network of Social Economy Enterprises in Southern and Eastern Athens” by DP “DIEKO – SUPPORT NETWORK FOR SOCIAL ECONOMY ENTERPRISES”. Target-group: women. Its primary goal was the creation of an innovative incubator for new social economy enterprises, which shall provide complete services on information, training and consulting support of young women/future businesswomen, as well as support for establishing new social enterprises.

• Project “CRESCENT” by DP “Kaleidoscope”. Target-group: unemployed men and women, young people, women, disabled people. With reference to tourism in the Peloponnese, it was noted that, mostly during the last decade, tourism has reached “massive dimensions”. However, it has decreased, with negative consequences for the economic growth and employment in the Region. The basic goal was to reverse this trend, trying to deal with employment especially for target groups and the local social and economic development in general, with proper configuration, organization, management and promotion of the cultural/environmental richness of the Region.

• Project “Social Economy in Greece: framework, political attempts and support structures” by DP “SOCIAL-ECO.GR”. Target-group: women, disabled persons, immigrants, repatriates, refugees. Its basic goal was to boost the philosophy and practice of social economy in Greece.

• Project “45–64 RETURN” by DP “SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP”. Target-group: unemployed men and women, women, low-level pension recipients, persons under primary pension, lonely persons. Their primary goal was to support adults above 45 years of age that face social exclusion or exclusion from the labour market. Support is focused in re-integration into the labour market through development of approach, counselling, training and development of social entrepreneurship (tools, methods, studies and researches).

• Project “Model areas and promotion systems for lifelong learning in labour practices” by DP “KNOW-HOW”. Target-group: unemployed men and women, women, elderly, employees. Its basic goal was the development of model areas and integration systems for lifelong learning in employment practices, so as to expand adaptation skills of employees in small-medium scale enterprises in relation to economic and labour needs, especially for those employees that face discrimination, inequalities and insecurity regarding their job.

• Project “Equality in Military Forces” by DP “ARTEMIS”. Target-group: women in the military forces. Its primary objective was to contribute — through observation mechanisms and special pilot actions — to the removal of prejudice re: women’s fighting and administrative skills leading to professional segregation based on gender and to render equality applicable at all hierarchy levels.

• Project “Equal Opportunities and Development: Creation of a Facilitation & Support Mechanism for Integration of the Equal Opportunities Principle in Employment Environment” by DP “HUMAN RESOURCE – EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES (ANTHISI)”. Target-group: women. Its basic goal was to contribute to the creation of terms and conditions that assist creation of more enterprises regarding equality in employment and to support, though exemplary interventions, the creation of an effective implementation environment for substantive actions on equality in enterprises.

219. As far as awareness and information on combating discrimination is concerned, the Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Protection carried out a series of gender mainstreamed actions. More specifically, within the framework of the Combating Discrimination Community Action Program, in 2007 an information event took place for Social Labour Inspectors in Thessalonica in relation to the new legislative implementation framework for the principle of equal treatment. More specifically, the seminar was related to the implementation of Law 3304/2005 on “Implementation of the equal treatment principle regardless racial or national origin, religion or other beliefs, physical disability, age or sexual orientation” and Law 3488/2006 on “Implementation of the principle of equal treatment between men and women in relation to access in employment, professional education and development, working terms and conditions and other relative provisions”. In addition, an information campaign took place in Athens by distributing leaflets on the legislative framework against discrimination (Law 3304/2006 and Law 3488/2006). Furthermore, several actions were taken in the gender field, such as: (a) Creation of TV spot on multiple discrimination faced by women “Women’s equality in action”; and (b) realization of a research on regional level: “Equal Opportunities on insurance, representation, entrepreneurship for women in rural areas that are affected by the new common rural policy (Designed by the Pan-Hellenic Confederation of Agricultural Cooperatives Union (PCACU)).

220. The Hellenic Ministry of Development with the framework of OP “Competitiveness” undertook several actions for human resource enhancement, which addressed women employees and businesswomen. Aiming at upgrading their skills and at a more effective adaptation of female human resource, ongoing training programmes were designed in the field of processing and services. The programmes were organized by the sectoral institutes of the Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium-scale Industries and Handicrafts (HOSMIH). 6,709 women, either employees or freelancers, benefited from such actions. In addition, 7,558 businesswomen were trained through the Program “Go-online” on new information and communication technologies to become acquainted with business abilities that internet and e-commerce may offer. Finally, 2,291 women benefited from the attempt to upgrade the skills of Greek research and technology manpower, as well as to upgrade women researchers’ networking to promote equal opportunities in Research and Technology, via the Programs PENED, IRON, ENTER and Human Networks.

221. Hellenic Ministry of Economy and Hellenic Ministry of Interior: the OP “Information Society” co-funded training programmes in new information and communication technologies. Those programmes were related to training of women on basic or advanced information skills 30,810 and 1,703 women benefited from such programmes, respectively.

222. The OP “Human Resource Development” by the Hellenic Ministry of Employment for 2007–2013 has stipulated women’s empowerment, as well as the promotion of their equal access therein (i.e. provision of motivations to enterprises and motivation of social partners to develop initiatives for gender equality in the workplace, development of inter-enterprise structures for reconciliation of family and professional life, review and upgrade of active employment policies, etc). It is should be stressed that the OP guarantees that the percentage of registered unemployed women who shall benefit from this active employment policy will be 25 per cent of the total number of unemployed women. In addition, several actions have been stipulated regarding women’s employment promotion, such as: (a) in enterprises funded within the framework, assignment of targeted training for acquisition of working experience; (b) Empowerment actions for women’s participation (either as businesswomen or as employees) in small-medium scale enterprises; (c) Actions for assignment of women researchers in enterprises; (d) Empowerment of NGOs with women participating so as to develop information centres on employment and entrepreneurship; (e) Reconciliation actions between family and professional life, as well as removal of professional discrimination, etc.

223. The OP “Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship” by the Hellenic Ministry of Development from 2007–2003 has stipulated actions for developing women’s entrepreneurship. More specifically: (a) Entrepreneurship programmes for women – funding for new enterprises; (b) Empowerment of women’s entrepreneurship through support structures and tools; and (c) Empowerment of women’s enterprises in the field of social economy, including activities and initiatives characterized with clear social purposes, such as care services for citizens and life quality, environmental protection and cultural development.

224. The ERC by the Northern Aegean Region in cooperation with the GSGE organized on 30 July 2008 an event on “Strengthening of Women’s Entrepreneurship within the framework of NSRF 2007–2013”.

225. The Region of Ionian Islands, from 2005 to 2008 designed some actions for the promotion of women in employment, either through Counselling Programs or through subsidizing development of women’s entrepreneurship. One thousand one hundred and forty (1,140) women benefited from such actions. Briefly, it should be mentioned that the Region of Ionian Islands undertook the following to strengthen women’s entrepreneurship: (a) provision of financing and initiatives to design counselling actions for employment and entrepreneurship (some of those actions were related to the provision of counselling services to special population groups, such unemployed men and women, Roma, and others; (b) Development of actions promoting women’s employment, either through Programs for Acquisition of Working Experience (STAGE) or through financing of enterprises to create new working posts and financing of new freelance occupations; and (c) designing of actions to develop women’s employment and entrepreneurship.

226. The Hellenic Committee for UNESCO from 2006 to 2008 participated in the DP “KALLISTI” (CI EQUAL) aiming at the improvement of women’s presence in labour market, as well as at contributing to regional development. The Association of Interbalkan Women’s Cooperation Societies participated in the Program, which in cooperation with the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and with a number of other agencies formed the Planet network. Within this framework, a research was carried out on the issue of women’s unemployment (interviews in a sample of 300 persons) and the factors that affect the national unemployment percentage for women. The results of the first phase of the Program were published. Next, through contacts with agencies, businessmen and regional administrative representatives in Northern Greece, some employment possibilities were identified. In addition, the Hellenic Committee for UNESCO organized a workshop in Didimoteicho (Northern Greece, 17 March 2007) on “Support of women in employment through innovative opportunities for their enhancement in labour market”. The workshop has been also organized by “Ergani”, a Support Centre for Women’s Employment and Entrepreneurship. In addition, in Athens (20–22 July 2007) a meeting of the Coordination Committee of “Femmes Chefs d’Entreprises Mondiales” Organization was held in Athens, with the participation of 15 persons from Tunisia, France, Italy, USA, Cameroon, United Kingdom, Argentina and Greece. Within the framework of this meeting, the plan to take on some actions in view of the 51st Global Conference of “Femmes Chefs d’Enterprises Mondiales”, in Buenos Aries (9–12 October 2007) was approved.

Social partners’ actions

227. The Athens Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI) has, from October 2004 to December 2006, coordinated the Project entitled: “An Integrated Mentoring Plan for the Local Effective Management of Employment – IMPLEMENT”. IMPLEMENT Project has been a pilot project aiming at confronting the impacts of reconstruction in the fields of Tourism and IT-Communications on women’s employment and professional development within the Region of Attica. More specifically, this Project aimed at improving knowledge, skills and capacities within the jobs in these fields. It also attempted to prevent women’s unemployment therein, and to improve their professional status, by implementing a set of activities: (a) Establishment of new systems and tools for professional adaptation, development and progress, through the design and implementation of an integrated programme of mentoring; (b) Establishment of experiences and good practices in innovative systems and methods involving women’s professional development and empowerment; (c) Awareness and utilization by enterprises of the special characteristics of working women, as their competitive advantage; and (d) Expansion and dissemination of policies to strengthen the skills of personnel and to promote equal opportunities in employment and career. Upon the Project’s completion, participating enterprises had been converted into organizations of learning, empowering and developing of their personnel, in particular their women employees.

228. From December 2003 to June 2008, ACCI participated also in “Alkistis” Project, which was implemented by DP “Network for the Elimination of Women’s Social Exclusion” within the framework of EQUAL CI. Project actions aimed at an integrated and multi-level intervention for the elimination of women’s social exclusion, focusing on the creation of equal opportunities for women who find it difficult to integrate or re-integrate into the labour market, on the removal and elimination of gender stereotypes in the family and on the promotion of new standards in organizing employment in the direction of the reconciliation of family and professional life. Thus, the following actions have been carried out: (a) Establishment and operation of four centres for equality, in Athens, the Region of Epirus, the Region of Western Greece and the Region of Northern Aegean. Their main objective was the creation of one-stop shops and one-stop solutions for a number of women’s issues to be dealt with within a friendly and accessible environment; (b) Removal of stereotypes on women’s social and professional status; (c) Information/awareness-raising in gender equality issues. Special emphasis has been placed on the information and experiential training of young people on issues involving role allocation within families and on the elimination of domestic violence and trafficking; (d) coordinated and multi-level support intervention to groups characterized by special conditions of social exclusion, such as victims of domestic violence, women immigrants, women refugees, single-parent family leaders, victims of trafficking etc.; (e) Establishment and operation of a “Network of Counsellors” against the social exclusion of women. These counsellors have staffed the established structures, whilst a part of their network has become a “Mobile Counselling Unit” which has paid a number of visits to a number of Greek cities to inform and raise awareness on equality issues; (f) Strengthening, promotion and development of new flexible employment forms; (g) Establishment and operation of a “Network of Social Work Volunteers”, the members of which have been trained to offer their services to organizations that work with women and families and to individuals who are in need of support on family issues; and (h) the creation of a training package on equality issues.

229. The Hellenic Federation of Enterprises (HFE) has participated in the implementation of a Memorandum of Understanding signed between the Network and the GSGE, aiming at informing, raising awareness of and mobilizing enterprises to develop and disseminate policies for equal opportunities between men and women. In particular, the following actions have been implemented:

(a) Surveys/studies: (1) A comparative study to record good practices and public policies at EU level; (2) A survey of an appropriate representative sample of human recourse managers, to study their beliefs and attitudes relating to the effectiveness of applicable gender equality policies and practices; (3) Gathering of legislation with the applicable legal framework on gender equality within employment environments in general; (4) A study of the international and European experience on the conditions, the implementation terms and the results of Social Dialogue on issues of Equal Opportunities, within working environments; (5) An assessment study for specific support structures of the principle of equality; (6) Creation of a Roadmap for Gender Equality within Working Environments;

(b) Information/Awareness Raising: In the framework of its ongoing efforts to promote and implement the concept of equality within Greek enterprises, HFE features and promotes the concept of equality making references to its annual activity reports and to its monthly Newsletters for Employment, addressed to its members, mentioning all developments, at national and European levels, relating to gender equality in employment;

(c) A special event was held on “Equality in Employment”, aiming at highlighting the barriers and the problems in Gender Equality implementation within enterprises, the armed forces and the mass media, as well as the CSR contribution to the removal of these barriers;

(d) In parallel, HFE has created a special module entitled: “Equality in Employment” which has been uploaded on the HFE website (;

(e) In cooperation with GSGE, HFE has featured the institution of Business Excellence “The Best 5 companies in Equal Opportunities”. This is an integrated prize awarding system which was held in Greece for the first time, on a pilot basis, aiming at identifying and awarding prizes to enterprises that apply best practices for the promotion of equal opportunities within working environments and, at a second level, at giving “good examples” to all enterprises in order to improve their operations in this field.

230. HFE has been the leader of two EQUAL CI Projects, i.e. DP “ATHINA” and DP “ANTHISI”. The first Project studied the removal of discrimination and stereotyping within the labour market, especially for technical professions and the creation of the role of an Equality Counsellor for enterprises. The second Project aimed at creating an innovative mechanism to facilitate and support gender mainstreaming within working environments and for the implementation of notable exemplary actions for mainstreaming of the principle of “equal opportunities” in enterprises through their human resource management systems.

231. The Greek Network for CSR has, from 2005 to 2008, done the following: (a) actively participated in related initiatives that have been developed at European level by CSR Europe; (b) cooperated with EC experts for the information of the Network itself and its members, on the recent developments regarding gender equality at EC and European enterprises level; and (c) was mandated by the Ministry of Employment to implement a Project which provided for the creation of an innovative tool for the assessment of gender equality policies applied by Greek enterprises. The said Project included the identification of a corresponding tool at European level, its translation into Greek, and its localization. For such purpose, two workshops were organized attended by 20 people, during which the issue of equal opportunities was thoroughly discussed.

232. In the framework of developing new forms of employment organization, social partners have annexed to the 2008–2009 NGCLC a framework-agreement on teleworking, the promotion of which is anticipated to contribute to the harmonization of family and professional life and the strengthening of women’s employability. In this context, HFE has participated in the elaboration of a special study on teleworking.

233. In 2008, the National Confederation of Greek Trade implemented the Project: “Ermeion – Life Long Education Programs”, involving the education of traders, employees of trade enterprises, as well as of other workers or unemployed, on issues related to trade and entrepreneurship. Women’s participation in this Project was important, as they accounted for 60 per cent of all trainees. Furthermore, within the context of the Account for Employment and Vocational Training, which is financed by (mostly) employers and employees, programmes on employment and vocational training have been included, where women participate at a rate of 60 per cent, for the purpose of balancing women’s reduced participation rates in employment.

Non-governmental organizations actions

234. The Women’s Rights Union (WRU), via its representative in the National Committee for Human Rights (HCHR), has proposed additions to and amendments of Law 3488/2006, for the purpose of better applying the EU Directive and the Greek Constitution. HCHR Plenary adopted such proposal and submitted the same to the Ministry of Justice, political parties and all the parliament members. Furthermore, upon an invitation made by the Ministry of Employment and Social Protection to NGOs for the implementation of ESF and the Ministry’s Programs, aiming at “fighting discrimination in employment and the labour market”, WRU undertook the implementation of an Action Plan entitled “Fighting gender discrimination in the labour market with emphasis on sexual harassment”, from July 2007 to June 2008. This Program closed with a one-day event entitled “Gender equality and fighting of sexual harassment: EU policies” (9/6/2008).

235. In 2005, the Hellenic Young Women’s Christian Association (YMCA) participated in Action III of EQUAL CI, Project: “DESMOS – Equality”. It carried out some experiential seminars for the demonstration and dissemination of know-how acquired during the operation of its Employment Centre for Women in Athens, a structure that provided integrated supportive services to employment-seeking women. Five cycles of experiential seminars were realized, attended by 32 representatives (professionals and volunteer men/women). YMCA has also issued a Practical Guide for Good Applications in the Counselling of Women’s Employment (an aid for other professional NGOs and other Legal Entities of Public Law). Furthermore, YMCA participated in the Program entitled “+PRAXIS – Cooperation for Employment”, its Leader Partner being NOSTOS Organization for Social Integration (2005–2007). YMCA Greece has also undertaken the following: (a) they have established a service for the reception of unemployed and supported these persons with information material on employment issues; (b) they have organized a special course which included an (18-hour) thematic workshop and (7-hour) on the job training, aiming at covering the training needs of reception employees working with all participating Centres of Accompanying Support Services on issues relating to the reception of unemployed; (c) throughout the project, they approached a total of 20 enterprises and informed employers on practices promoting corporate social responsibility, using pilot tools of counselling and information; (d) they received 220 women, from June 2006 to December 2007, 130 of whom were admitted in the programme which applied the tools of mobilization measurement and “hidden talents”. The six less motivated thereof were placed for four months in enterprises selected by Employment Counsellors. 49 among them found a job which was relevant to their qualifications. In the context of “Actions to Strengthen Employment with the Active Participation of NGOs”, YMCA Greece implemented during 2007–2008 five Action Plans. All plan activities involved the enhancement of employment of young women. Direct beneficiaries of plan activities were unemployed young women who were registered with the Manpower Employment Organization.

236. For the promotion and empowerment of women in employment, the Union of Greek Women (UGW) participated in the following Programs: (a) OP “Integrated Actions of Urban Development at small local zones” (2005); (b) OP “Vocational Training and Employment” (Measure 5.3 – Integrated Interventions in favour of women) (2005–2006). In parallel, in 2007 UGW cooperated with the Institute for People’s Training and organized a one-day event entitled: “Jobs for all”.

The Greek Ombudsman’s actions

237. The Greek Ombudsman is an Independent Authority registered in the Constitution of Greece (article 101A). Its main assignment is to intermediate between public administration and citizens for the protection of the latters’ rights, observation of legalization and combating of maladministration (Law 3094/2003). The Greek Ombudsman has been assigned as competent agency for observing the implementation of the equal treatment principle in private and public sector, with the participation of LIC in the private sector. Every public authority that receives charges for infringement of such law addresses them to the Ombudsman. In case of infringement, the Greek Ombudsman shall intervene to resolve the dispute, which — in case of failure — is addressed to the competent bodies for execution of disciplinary control, since there is an actual infringement. The Greek Ombudsman shall submit to the Greek Parliament, apart from its Annual Report in March, a special report on gender discrimination. This report shall be communicated to the GSGE as well which will use this data as a foundation for its recommendations and interventions on monitoring of implementation of the legislation on gender equality and the promotion of legislative measures on its substantive implementation.

238. Education of Greek Ombudsman’s employees: Within the framework of ongoing education of its employees, in order for the Greek Ombudsman to be consistently updated on community and other proceedings, some Ombudsman’s employees participated in legal education on equal treatment of genders (organization of the ERA Conference Centre in Trier, Germany), in conferences on gender equality which were held abroad, and also participated as lecturers in training circles of Public Administration Senior Officers (organizations of NCPALG Training Institute).

239. Research on reports: The Gender Equality Centre, from its establishment (May 2008) up to the end of 2008, received 155 reports on unequal treatment in the field of Directive 2002/73/EC. The respective reports for 2007 were 24 and for 2006 (from October when the law was set into force up to the end of the year) 11. It should be stressed that during the first quarter of 2009, such reports rose to 250. From June 2008 to December 2008, one third of those reports were submitted by men who claimed unequal gender treatment against them, mostly due to denial to be provided with parental leave from their service or due to denial to be provided with beneficial regulations that apply to women or mothers (i.e. subsidy programme for new freelancers by MEO). In addition, the reports on unequal treatment due to gender or family status were: (a) 66.13 per cent on working terms and conditions; (b) 12.90 per cent on access to employment; (c) 8.06 per cent on vocational education/training; (d) 6.45 per cent on termination of employment status; (e) 4.84 per cent on employment; and (f) 1.62 per cent on vocational/service progress. As far as the types of discrimination abolished by Law 3488/2006: (a) 34.29 per cent of reports were related to indirect discrimination; (b) 15.71 per cent were related to maltreatment due to motherhood leave; (c) 14.29 per cent were related to indirect discrimination; (d) 12.85 per cent were related to maltreatment due to parental/child rearing leave; (e) 4.29 per cent were related to sexual harassment; (f) 2.86 per cent were related to maltreatment due to gender; and (g) 1.43 per cent were related to multiple discrimination.

240. Information actions: (a) release of Special Annual Reports by the Greek Ombudsman, as a promotion agency for equal treatment (in Greek and English); (b) release of information leaflet “We defend men and women’s equal treatment in labour”, in December 2008, which appeals to employees, vocational trainees and those who search for a job; (c) operation of a special webpage “The Ombudsman for Equal Treatment” in the Ombudsman’s website; (d) special entry “The Ombudsman for Unequal Treatment”, in its Electronic Information Sheet, issued every three months, is uploaded on the Ombudsman’ webpage and sent by e-mail to more than 600 receivers; (e) meeting among Gender Equality Circle officers, representatives of trade unions and NGOs activate re: gender equality issues and the protection of women’s rights.

241. Cooperation between the Greek Ombudsman and LIC within the framework of Law 3488/2006. For the first time, an institutionally active cooperation structure has been established between LIC and the Greek Ombudsman. More specifically, according to paragraph 8 of article 13, Law 3488/2006, labour inspectors are obliged to inform the Greek Ombudsman on charges related to gender discrimination in labour and submit the results of their inspection. Furthermore, the Greek Ombudsman is assigned to draft its own research and form the final resolution of the charge. The ultimate goal of such cooperation is to establish an effective extrajudicial route in order to restore equal treatment between men and women in the workplace as in Greece, discrimination victims are reluctant to undertake legal proceedings.

Reconciliation of family and professional life

242. The assignment of the competency for the operation of state nurseries to LGOs was carried out by virtue of three Laws (Law 2218/94, Law 2288/01 and Law 3106/03) between 1994 and 2003. The transferred nurseries now operate as municipality and community PLLE, according to article 239, Law 3463/2006 (G.G. A’ 114), Municipality and Community Code. During the discussed period, this applies to 1736 structures of Municipality/Community Children and Infants Nurseries operation, with capacity of 78,272 infants and children (from eight months to the age of compulsory registration to primary education). A great number of such institutions were created within the field of the OP “Employment and Professional Training” of the C’ CSF, based on the rationale that such social institutions facilitated women’s employment. The actions and programmes presented herein also contributed to the reconciliation of professional and family life, and to the change of stereotypical child rearing roles.

243. The Network for the Elimination of Women’s Social Exclusion — in which several agencies, including the GSGE, participated — designed the Project “ALKISTIS”, conducted in four regions of the country. The basic goal was the reconciliation between family and professional life for men and women through: the provision of counselling and support services to employees who are responsible for dependent members, the removal of stereotypes on gender roles within the family and the promotion of new standards for labour organization aiming at the reconciliation of target groups’ family and professional lives. Four Family Support Centres, a Network of Social Work Volunteers, a Network of Gender Equality Counsellors and Mobile Counselling Units for families with special exclusion problems were created, as well as an e-Record for Social Work Volunteers. Within the framework of the separate actions of the Program in which GSGE participated, the following events were organized: (a) a two-day conference on counselling are: family and employment followed by the presentation of new approaches, methodologies and counselling tools; and (b) conference on the reconciliation of family and professional life. In addition, an equality plan on “Gender Mainstreaming in flexible types of employment in a small-medium scale enterprise: implementation methodology and anticipated benefits to enterprises and their employees” was designed.

244. During 2005 to 2006, the RSGE, an agency supervised by the GSGE, designed, as coordinator agency, the European Program “Equal Partners: Review of Men’s Role in Labour and Private Life”, which aimed at information provision and awareness-raising, mostly of men and fathers, on the necessity to reconcile and harmonize their professional obligations with their family life. Greece, Portugal, Poland and Cyprus were the geographical areas covered. Within the framework of the Program, the following actions were conducted: (a) a leaflet and a poster were published in Greek, English, Polish and Portuguese; (b) a TV and radio spot was issued as well as educational games for infant and adolescent students; (c) seminars were executed on “Father’s Role on Reconciliation of Professional and Family Life”, in Herakleion and Patras, with the participation of local interested parties, employees’ and employers’ representatives, teachers and NGO representatives, etc.; (d) a European Conference was conducted on “Gender Equality and Men’s Role in Labour and Family: Trends and Speculations” on 10-12-2006 in Athens; (e) a research was carried out on “The role of fathers in counterbalancing professional and family-private life”; and (f) a handbook in Greek and English was provided on the reconciliation of professional and family life.

245. In addition, the RSGE participated as a partner in the European Program “Gender Equality: a Responsibility of Both Sexes”, which was coordinated by the National Mechanism for Women’s Rights from Cyprus, during 2005–2006. It was related to information provision and awareness-raising of public opinion on the necessity and benefits of men’s participation in the promotion of gender equality.

246. Within the framework of the Regional OP of the C’ CSF (2000–2006) several social care services were funded in 13 Regions of the country. During this period, 1,250 social care structures were created and operated for 72,277 babies, infants, and children, elderly and disabled persons. Apart from the direct benefit that arises for employed women, because of the diminution of family obligations, it is stressed that such structures offer employment to almost 5,052 employees, mostly women.

247. Within the framework of the CI EQUAL (B Circle) the following five Projects were conducted by EQUAL Development Partnerships:

• The Project “Facilitation of women’s professional life without discrimination by the implementation of social shifts” by the DP “Intervention of Reconciliation”. Target-group: women and persons that face difficulties combining family and professional life. The basic goals of the Project were the following: (a) implementation of social shifts in existing groups of Social Care; (b) operation of support structures for women’s employment; and (c) awareness-raising of enterprises, self-employed women, employed and unemployed women, to eliminate patterns concerning gender roles.

• The Project “Network of social solidarity for the reconciliation of family and professional life” by DP “Zefksi”. Target-group: women, persons with disabilities, persons that face difficulty combining family and professional life, self-employed persons in small-medium scale family enterprises, unemployed persons in underdeveloped areas, etc. The Program’s main goals were the following: (a) to promote — within a framework of supportive actions — equal management of family obligations between men and women, emphasizing the double role of the employed woman and housewife; and (b) to support active free time of employees through the organization of a social solidarity network, while in parallel supporting vulnerable social groups by introducing the principle of interactive social provision.

• The Project “Family on Top” by the DP “Right to Family”. Target-group: women, persons that face difficulty in combining family and professional life, parents of single-parent families. The main goal was to prepare and implement an overall approach to redress the parameters that inhibit the reconciliation of family and professional life.

• The Project “Alkistis” by the DP “Network for the Elimination of Social Exclusion of Women”. Target-group: victims of domestic violence and international trafficking in human beings, heads of single-parent families, persons that face difficulty combining family and professional life, immigrants and repatriated immigrants. The main object of the Project was the establishment and operation of four Family Support Centres in 4 Regions of the country (Attica, Epirus, Western Greece & North Aegean), whose main object was the provision of counselling support and information (one-stop shops) and service (one-stop solutions) re: a series of issues related to men and women employees. In addition, it aimed at the removal of stereotypes related to women’s social and professional roles, at the information provision and awareness-raising on equality issues within the family, as well as the enhancement of new flexible types of employment.

• The Project “Family Assistance” by the DP “Family Assistance”. Target-group: persons that face difficulty combining family and professional life. Its main goal was to contribute to the support of employees with family problems, through the provision of services of social character.

248. During 2005 to 2008, the women’s organization Association of Women’s Rights (AWR): (a) organized a public dialogue (16 May 2005) on “The harmonization of professional and family life for men and women: legislation and practice”; (b) within the framework of the interstate programme by the Association of North Europe Women, special consideration was given on the harmonization of family and professional obligations, from social and legal point of view, in four countries (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal); and (c) it participated with recommendations and elaborations to the Conference held by the EWL Hellenic Delegation on “Who does really take care of? Equal Opportunities in the combination of professional, personal and family life”.

249. In 2007 the UGW organized an open Pan-Hellenic conference in Athens on: “Harmonization of family and professional life”. In 2008, it organized two student competitions with primary education children on “Different-Equal-Beloved” and “My father and I“, as well as a one-day event on “The mother and father’s special role today”.

250. The EWL Hellenic Delegation organized: (a) an International Conference with the participation of the Organization for Mediation and Arbitration on issues related to participation in collective negotiations, as well as to facilitation of persons with family obligations; and (b) a European Conference, in collaboration with the NGO “Initiative Woman & Health” on: “Who does really care? Equal Opportunities in the combination of professional, personal and family life”.

251. The Hellenic Social Assistance, by participating in a CI EQUAL project aiming at reconciliation of family and professional life, designed a respective Document with opinions and proposals.

Article 12

Health and family programming

252. The promotion of reproductive and sexual health of women is a crucial factor for their empowerment and equal participation. The new Community and international directives and commitments on health, provision of medical services and family programming indicate the need for respective analysis, research and action per gender and set the equal development of men and women as a primary goal. The connection of health issues with social conditions calls for taking of initiatives and the drafting of actions for the promotion of women’s health and rights in this field.

Public administration actions

253. The GSGE in cooperation with the Hellenic Association for Supporting Osteoporosis Patients published an information leaflet vis-à-vis recognizing, preventing and combating osteoporosis. Such release constitutes the GSGE policy on gender mainstreaming in public health.

254. From June 2006 to October 2008, the RSGE participated as partner in the Project “Promoting Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood – WHEALTH”, within the framework of the Program INTERREG III B ARCHIMED. The goal of the Project was to inform women, especially in island and remote areas, on health and motherhood protection issues (uterine and breast cancer, breastfeeding, etc) and their access to information on health issues. The actions of the RSGE Program: (a) recording of data on women’s health condition in Greece; (b) Drafting of an information and awareness campaign entitled “You can take care of your health: Talk to your doctor”. This information and awareness campaign included the printing of 110,000 leaflets on the following thematic units: “Cancer Prevention”, “Pregnancy – Motherhood”, “Sexual Behaviour” and “Menopause”, as well as the printing of 6,000 posters which were distributed to hospitals throughout Greece; (c) drafting of events and mobile information & awareness units for women’s health and protection of motherhood, in cooperation with medical personnel and local hospitals, also supported by other local agencies in cities and villages of the following prefectures: Lesvos, Rodopi, Chania, Ileia, Chios, Ioannina, Lefkada, Dodecanese (Leros and Patmos), Cyclades (Syros), Samos, Evros, Kastoria, Kephalonia. In total, 2,200 women benefited.

255. In 2007, at level of strategic policy, the Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity (HMOHSS) designed the following National Action Plans for 2008–2012 on: (a) sexual and reproduction health; and (b) HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. These plans were prepared with contributions from involved NGOs in a gender-sensitive manner. In parallel, recording/distribution of information on gender regarding the collection of epidemics data for HIV/AIDS was also stipulated, including data per gender/age and family status. Respective data on knowledge, beliefs and behaviours per gender are also set forth in the National report of 2008 on HIV/AIDS for UNAIDS.

256. The National Action Plan for HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Action “Prevention for Women” includes: (a) special adapted programmes for women per region by support of health visitors; (b) Organizations of information events per region; (c) prevention mainstreaming in relation to Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the programmes re: preventing violence against women; (d) special prevention programmes related to roles and types of men’s sexuality; (e) promotion of the use of female condoms; (f) drafting of a protocol on treatment of sexual abuse/trafficking victims. The National Action Plan for Sexual and Reproductive Health (2008–2012) has set the following objectives: (a) updating of the legislation on abortions; (b) establishment of strict penalties for cases of domestic violence, trafficking in women and children or other cases of sexual exploitation; (c) adaptation and harmonization in European and International scientific standards and directions. Involved institutions in the context of corporate social responsibility include: Ministries (Ministry of Health/Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Interior/GSGE), NGOs involved re: women’s issues and the private sector, European Networks for women’s health as well as the European Observatory against violence to women and trafficking.

257. Psychological support to women during post-natal periods is provided by psychiatric hospital services, which offer referral services to obstetrics departments and primary services of mental health. In parallel, specialized services are offered to women that suffer from postnatal depression (prevalence of postnatal depression is about 12–15 per cent of women who has just delivered) in Athens, Aiginiteio Hospital and the Day Centre of “Fainareti”, an NGO.

258. During the period under examination and regarding caesarean sections in our country, the Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity has ordered the Inspection Corps for Health and Welfare Services (ICHWS) to conduct inspections of the proportion of normal deliveries out of total births at all obstetrics clinics of public and private hospitals in Greece. In parallel, the Health Central Council (HCC), within the framework of medical protocols and in cooperation with local medical boards of Greece, has been requested to determine the terms and conditions under which caesarean sections are established as the most appropriate medical practice. Finally, as soon as a delivery takes place, the obstetrician in charge shall describe in the Child’s Health Booklet the delivery procedure and the reasons why a caesarean section was carried out, so that competent agencies may make a control. These booklets are published and distributed in all obstetrical hospitals and clinics within 24 hours upon completion of the delivery.

259. The Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity, within the framework of a Comprehensive Action Plan for Roma, has established Medical-Social Centres in their organized settlements and visits the camps of emigrating Roma via its Movable Units. Therefore, health actions were promoted through vaccinations to children, preventive medicine and prescriptions. In addition, women were advised to undergo PAP tests and were informed on contraception methods.

260. As far as support and assistance to attendants of mentally ill persons are concerned, 48 Day Centres have been established in 18 prefectures of the country, as the vast majority of mentally ill persons are mothers. Patients’ attendants — almost exclusively women — have to spend a great deal of time assisting ill members of the family, which prohibits them from searching for a job or any kind of employment. The Day Centres are units that cater to persons in need to participate in special programmes in order to improve their daily living and sociality skills, so as to socially integrate. Such structures, which provide psycho-social support to mentally ill persons on daily basis, provide their attendants the option to develop their vocational status. The majority of Day Centres cater to persons that face serious mental disorders, but also to persons that suffer from autism, Alzheimer’s. They cater also to persons that belong to several “marginal” population subgroups (immigrants, refugees, Roma, etc). In addition, the 12 Social Cooperatives of Limited Liability offer the same services, by employing 220 persons with mental disorders.

261. In connection with prevention and improvement of student’s health, MOERA, implements Health Educational Programs in Primary and Secondary Education school units. Therefore, it collaborates with governmental and non governmental agencies. Indicatively, such Health Educational Programs, as implemented in Primary and Secondary Education schools of the country, include several thematic units, such as: (a) Gender relations – Sexual education; (b) Sexually transmitted diseases; (c) AIDS –Hepatitis B; (d) Interpersonal relations – Mental health; (e) Gender equality (f) Social exclusion – Equal opportunities. The objective of those Programs, as well as of the educational material produced, is to integrate to gender mainstreaming in all courses and to enforce responsibility, self-esteem and students’ personal capability.

262. In 2007–2008, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens offered educational sessions to the B’ Obstetrics Clinic of Athens, Aretaio Hospital, to public health officers in relation to the provision of welfare to social vulnerable population groups, including women.

Non-governmental organizations actions

263. The NGO “Initiative Women and Health” designed the following actions and studies: (a) Operation of an open phone line in relation to women and men’s reproductive and sexual rights (consulting recommendations, information, maintaining a database); (b) direct electronic communication for new contraception methodologies; (c) meetings with TEI students (per semester) on family programming; (d) research within the framework of “2007: Year of Equal Opportunities” on “Sexual Orientation and the attitude of Greek Society”; (e) release of the book “Volunteerism — Civil Society — NGOs”, which was distributed to NGOs and students; (f) Drafting of a study on “Quantitative and qualitative data on health services for Women”; (g) presentation of results of the following researches: “Use of emergent contraception” and “Informal health care to women” at three Health Management Conferences; and (h) Information of competent services re: the consequences for young women’s health, after the prohibition imposed by the Hellenic Ministry of Health and the Hellenic Ministry of Employment to insurance funds to prescribe systematic hormonal contraception. The protest was communicated to the WHO. Another organized protest refers to the rejection of the cessation of data gathering on maltreated women admitted to the Greek National Health System (GNHS). A statement was submitted to the European Women’s Lobby.

264. Numerous branches of the Union of Greek Women (UGW) organize once a year, in cooperation with local hospital or other welfare agencies, free breast examinations, measurement of bone mass, memory measurement and PAP tests. In parallel, the UGW held an event on health “Nutrition and life quality”, as well as an event entitled “The Greek Society and the persons in need”, merging the principle of non-discrimination with equal treatment for disabled persons”.

Article 13

Equal participation in sports and culture

265. Women’s participation and contribution to cultural development and activities is highly significant, because the field of culture is a multiple-faceted weaving of both cultural creativity and what we call daily culture. The recognition of women’s cultural rights, as an indispensable part of their individual and social rights, calls for the realization of actions that will encourage women’s participation in all forms of cultural activity. Such an approach can promote the freedom of expression and the strengthening of women’s status also in the cultural field.

Public administration actions

266. In December 2005, RSGE organized an event to present the Album: “Women of Epirus – Startling Nature” that concerns the historical role played by the women of Epirus. Also the Delphi European Cultural Centre and RSGE organized a two-day event entitled: “Tragic Female Heroes as a Symbol in Modern Society: the status and the role of Women in Western and non-Western Society” during the XIII International Meeting on Ancient Drama, entitled: “The Woman in Ancient Drama” (Delphi, 6–15 July 2007).

267. MOERA implements programmes and actions with the aim, inter alia, of combating discrimination, and emphasizing the promotion of the principle of equality between men and women. More specifically, it sponsored several NGOs’ implementation of actions and programmes with themes including re: women and the combating of discrimination, such as: (a) in 2006, NGO “Open Horizons” for the organizing of the 5th Art Festival on Human Rights, where the central theme was: Horizon — Genders: New Roles — New Rights”; (b) in 2008 the European Women Network organized the Program: “Reintegration for socially excluded new victims through the vehicle of Art, the construction of traditional dolls – and Myth”; (c) in 2007 and 2008, the Greek Film Archive received funding for the pioneering documentary for cultural heritage, entitled: “Woman, gender studies”; and (d) in 2008 the Minor Asia Women’s Association “Neokaisareias” programme aiming to preserve their heritage was supported.

268. Aiming to promote and strengthen women in every aspect of culture via the Greek Cinema Centre, the Ministry of Culture is sponsoring either movies made by women or movies with themes relevant to women’s role and status (see annex 5, table 25). Also the majority of Museum educational programmes have a direct positive correlation with abolishing of gender stereotypes, which leads to the combating of discrimination against women. The Museum educational programmes are addressed both to adults and children, and mention women’s role and status throughout time. A strong contribution to the abolishment of negative stereotypes against women is made by several educational programmes with an intercultural objective, because many of them mention the situation of vulnerable population groups such as the Roma and migrant men and women. The Commission declared 2008 as the European Year for Intercultural Dialogue. The Directorate for the Modern Cultural Heritage planned and implemented the Program: “Musical Dialogues” that, inter alia, produced the musical equipment for the “Daily life, History and Cultural Expressions of the Greek Roma”. This educational material includes references to Roma women’s status and attempts to address the stereotypes against them.

269. During the period 2005–2008, the Association of Interbalkan Women’s Cooperation Societies, in cooperation with the UNESCO Centre for Women and Peace in Balkan Countries, carried out the following activities: (a) Activities within the framework of Programs; (b) National and local activities (international events and cultural activities); and (c) Representation in international events and forum.

270. During the third UNESCO Festival for “Women Creators of the two seas, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea”, 27 September–4 November 2006 the Thessalonica Centre for Modern Art organized an artistic exhibition with the theme: “Women and Tradition”. 206 women artists from various countries participated in this exhibition. Its main theme was to bring to light the relationship between women’s creativity and tradition, and the important role women play in preserving tradition. Specifically, the festival’s programme included, inter alia, the following activities: (a) Two Workgroups with the theme: “Female characters in contemporary culture” to investigate gender stereotypes in literary works, movies, radio and television shows, with the participation of lecturers, both men and women, from Egypt, Greece, France, Croatia and Serbia; (b) a Round Table with the theme: “Woman and Tradition”. Also many women writers (from Albania, Greece, Rumania, Turkey and Cyprus), known for their professional success both in Greece and abroad, presented their work. Further the Literary Café was another new form of exchange that allowed an informal meeting between the writers and the public. This also gave a chance to younger women to present and get to know recent works (Croatia, Malta, Serbia). At the closing of the festival, an N.G.O. forum was invited to research the role of the civil society for the preservation of multicultural diversity. The role of women artists, their works and political activism taken up by women’s organizations was researched in depth through best practices.

271. Since 2007, the UNESCO Centre for Women and Peace in Balkan Countries participated as a partner in the Program “Le verbe au feminine” that was sponsored by the Anna Lindh Foundation with the aim of increasing the promotion of women in the literary world. Based on this aim, the Program: (a) Organized three cultural events focusing on creative writing; (b) Enriched the theoretical aspects with examples from works by contemporary Greek writers. These activities were mainly addressed to women, irrespective of age or professional profile, and the only condition was their literary activity and their wish to improve their literary skills. Also during the period 2007–2008, in Thessalonica the above Centre carried out the following actions: (a) a Writing Workshop with the theme: “Portraits of the others: the family and the human environment in the works of female writers” (18/3/2008); (b) A Writing Workshop with the theme: “Visual Impressions [descriptions] in the works of female writers” (17/6/2008); (c) a Seminar with the theme: “The status of Mediterranean Women as it is described in the works of female writers” (19 June 2008).

Non-governmental organizations actions

272. During the above period, UGW initiated the organization of an exhibition with the theme “Woman and Creation” that included female works on Folklore, Church Painting and Jewellery. Also the Cretan Women’s Union organized cultural events for the promotion of Female perspective in Art and Culture.

273. During the above period the Greek Social Assistance translated into Greek (with the sponsorship of a Pharmaceutical Company) the United Nations Manual regarding issues and problems facing the Elderly, with emphasis on the Role of the Elderly Woman as a carrier of Culture, and contribution and assistance to the younger generations.

Article 14

Women from rural areas

274. In Greece, rural women account for about half of the rural population and constitute an important contributor to production and the development of agricultural areas. Our country applies a constantly wider network of policies regarding gender equality, and the legislation is equipped with regulations aiming to combat discrimination against women. Also, relevant institutions are established at national and regional level to assist the State. Some of the significant regulations in the legislation favourable for women living in rural areas concern social insurance (compulsory insurance for both spouses) and social welfare (extension also to the rural women of the benefits received by women working in other sectors).

275. The RSGE, with the aim of promoting female entrepreneurship, has been supporting the efforts of women to establish Women’s Cooperatives across the entire country. Specifically, during the above period: (a) Workgroups were organized with the aim of informing groups of women about the establishment of women’s touristic and agricultural cooperatives; (b) Groups of women were informed about issues such as: market research, product selection, possibilities for funding, making a business plan, selection of members/their rights and obligations, legal issues (statute for the cooperative), group dynamics, networking with other cooperatives and local institutions; (c) More than 40 Cooperatives were established with the RSGE assistance; and (d) More than 60 Women’s Cooperatives received information about funding and support to solve their problems.

276. The Ministry of Rural Development and Food promoted the development of female entrepreneurship in rural areas through several Vocational Programs; with ongoing information supplied by the Directorate of Agricultural Household Economy and the Employees of the Agricultural Household Economy in the Regional Authorities leading to the establishment of about one hundred 146 agrotourism and cottage cooperatives currently active across the country. These cooperate with national and local institutions in the integrated development of the Regions.

277. During the above period, the Ministry of Rural Development and Food planned and promoted programmes with the following aspects: (a) economic activities programmes such as the organization of touristic and artefact investments that aim to promote additional activities parallel to agriculture for members of rural families, increase family income, develop mountainous and disadvantaged areas; (b) vocational programmes for non-agricultural activities that include education for technical knowledge and professional assets, so that people can work either in their location or in nearby areas with sectors such as business administration or other services; (c) equal opportunities programmes that aim to promote equal opportunities in the sector of employment and professional skills and the encouragement of women living in rural areas to take up initiatives and to establish small businesses, production cooperatives, and also to develop international cooperation; (d) educational short-term programmes, on subjects such as Household Economy and Ecology, as well as economic and social subjects; (e) research programmes in rural areas on issues of agricultural household economy, such as nutrition, product consumption, women’s employment, etc.; (f) programmes in cooperation with international organizations (UNESCO, and others) and with institutions of the EU member states on issues of vocational training, exchange of experience and know-how.

278. Also the Ministry of Rural Development and Food: (a) Organized Conferences informing rural women on issues of non-agricultural occupation: programmes for female entrepreneurship and promotion of traditional products (“Women’s Entrepreneurship — Problems — Prospects”, Alexandroupolis 12/5/06, Herakleion 23/3/06, Mytilini 31 June 2006, Veria 14 August 2007); (b) Organized exhibitions and taste festivals at local level, in cooperation with Agricultural, Women’s Cooperatives active in the regions to promote their products; (c) Organized the 1st Greek Exhibition for the Promotion of Women’s Cooperatives (Athens, September 2008). This exhibition is organized every two years in a different region every time; (d) Organized Conferences on the occasion of the International Day of Rural Women with the participation of rural women and members of women’s cooperatives (“Women, claim your rights in decision making”) (Kilkis, 2004), “Rural women, a hope for a better future” (Arachova, 2006), “Claim your fundamental rights for decent living conditions” (Xanthi, 2006), “Claim your rights for food” (Mytilini, 2008); (e) Took the initiative to submit a proposal to award the prize for “Women’s Entrepreneurship in Rural Life”, offered by the Women’s World Summit Foundation (WWSF), an organization supervised by the United Nations, to the Women’s Cooperative in Mesotopos, Lesvos island, in October 2008.

279. The Ministry of Rural Development and Food participated in the following trade fairs: (a) Thessaloniki International Trade Fair; (b) Agrotica; and (c) International Food, Beverage, Machinery & Equipment Trade Fair, and the Rural August in Chania; (d) Organized seasonal childcare centres in rural areas, where they are most needed during peak agricultural periods. Also in August 2008 it published an Information Guide for the Promotion of Traditional Products from Women’s Cooperatives from the whole country.

280. Within the framework of OP “Agricultural Development – Rural Reconstruction 200–2006” a series of measures were undertaken addressed to eligible women investors and women’s cooperatives, who received extra points. Some of the results were: (a) In Measure 1.1 “Investments on farming” the percentage of approved plans for women is 25 per cent; (b) In Measure 2.2. “Improvement of harvesting, processing and marketing forest products – Investments and investment plans by natural persons up to an amount of 5.900€”, the percentage of approved plans for women is 12 per cent; (c) In Measure 3.1 “A lump sum financing for the initial installation of young farmers”, the percentage of approved beneficiaries is 31 per cent; (d) In Measures of Axis 7 (Integrated Programs for the Development of Rural Areas – IPDRA) the approved projects led by women, either as a legal entity or as a natural person, are in total 450 and a percentage of 30 per cent. This percentage is very significant taking into account that the implementation of these integrated programmes concerns mountainous and disadvantaged areas. Specifically, the interest expressed by women-investors for the Measures 7.6.1 (for farmer women) and 7.9.1 that concern Actions of the tertiary sector (touristic facilities, restaurants, sports and entertainment facilities) amounts to a percentage of about 81 per cent. Also in the actions concerning the secondary sector (small industries, cottage industry and processing of agricultural products) this percentage amounts to 19 per cent. During the implementation of the OP, the Ministry of Rural Development and Food organized many information conferences with the aim of supporting women’s entrepreneurship. Some of them are the following: (a) “The support and strengthening of the status of women in the new model for Rural Development” (Xanthi, 19/3/2005 and Herakleion, 1/4/2005); (b) “The development of women’s entrepreneurship in Rural Areas – Trends and Prospects” (Pilio, 12/6/2006); and (c) “Employment and gender equality in farming” at the Agricultural University of Athens (Athens, 4 December 2006).

281. The OP LEADER (2000–2006) in our country was implemented through forty (40) local programmes, administered by Local Action Groups, namely development SA companies consisting of collective institutions of the Public and the Private sector. This initiative focused on innovation, a “bottom up” approach for the planning and implementation that allows the locals’ active participation during the phase of recording actual needs, the planning and the objectives of the actions. Within the framework of OP LEADER, one of the priorities was the integration of a gender dimension and the recognition of the role women play for the development of rural areas. Measure 2.1 of the Program was the key for the support and development of women’s entrepreneurship. Its main actions related to: (a) the construction and improvement of bed and breakfast and restaurant facilities and of farms to visit; (b) development of alternative forms of tourism; (c) support to small industry units; (d) production of food stuff (after the initial processing); (e) installation of systems for quality control; and (f) networking and development of electronic information systems. The total number of women participating in the above actions was 450. From them, about 60 per cent concerned rural tourism, 35 per cent concerned small businesses with a rural or other character, and 5 per cent concerned investments for the support and actions of modern technology and know-how. It should be noted, however, that the actions under the Program LEADER addressed women living in rural areas irrespective of whether they were farmers or not.

282. During the period 2005–2008, the Organization for Farming Vocational Training and Employment, “DIMITRA” — the national institution for the promotion of professional abilities and skills of farmers, both men and women — under the supervision of the Ministry of Rural Development and Food, implemented 817 Programs for Farming Vocational Training. These were attended by 17,736 persons (7,934 women farmers, a percentage of 44.7 per cent and 9,802 men farmers, a percentage of 65.3 per cent). The special Programs for Farming Vocational Training, exclusively for women self-employed in the primary sector, in areas relating with processing of farm products and agrotourism, were 101 and were attended by about 2,500 women.

283. Within the framework of the Program for Rural Development 2007–2013 “Alexandros Baltatzis” organized by the Ministry of Rural Development and Food, the implementation of actions is planned for the support of women’s entrepreneurship through the sponsoring of individual investment plans or women’s cooperatives. This Program supports through all its Axes — but mainly through Axis 3 “Quality of living in rural areas and differentiation of rural economy” and Axis 4 “Application of the LEADER approach” — the multiple functions of the rural areas for the improvement of the quality of life and creation of new employment opportunities. Women who are exclusively into farming can also seek support for their investment plans from the other Axes of the same Program that concern the improvement of competition in farming (Axis 1) and the protection of the environment and natural resources (Axis 2) in relation to the following issues: (a) as new farmers; (b) improvement and modernization of their businesses; (c) improvement of the quality of their products by applying quality standards; (d) sustainable development of the usage of their land. Extra points under the Measures in Axis 3 are given to applications submitted by women, eligible as investors in individual, company or cooperative businesses, for the promotion of women’s entrepreneurship. During the planning phase, the GSGE participated as one of the socio-economic partners in the Program, with the aim of integrating the dimension of gender equality (and also the protection of vulnerable social groups).

Ministry of Employment

284. Within the framework of CI EQUAL the following Projects were implemented:

• “Rural Entrepreneurship in Pindos area” carried out by DP “MOUNTAIN PARTNERSHIP”. The target group was people living in the remote mountainous areas on Pindos and primarily young people and women. The main objective was to encourage and support entrepreneurship in the primary sector of these mountainous and remote areas on Pindos.

• “Network of structures for the encouragement of entrepreneurship of new farmers men and women in rural areas” carried out by DP “GENESIS”. The target group was new farmers — men and women — and young people living in rural areas. The main objective was to develop services and systems for information, counselling and follow-up of the entrepreneurship activities taken up by young people and especially young farmers wishing to start their own business.

• Incubator for the development of social economy” carried out by DP “Cretan Social and Economic Partnership – KRIKOS”. The target group was: (a) existing social businesses (mainly women’s cooperatives); and (b) unemployed women, unemployed men over 45, persons with disabilities. The main objectives were: (a) the engagement of all local forces with the aim of supporting Social Economy; (b) the establishment of and support to new social businesses with innovative business activities done by the target group; (c) the strengthening and further development of existing and new social businesses through their networking and the formation of clusters; and (d) continuous follow-up and support given to the sector of social economy on the island of Crete through the operation of a “Centre for the Support of Social Economy in Crete”.

• “Network for Life-Long Training and Upgrading of Persons Employed in Rural Sectors — AGRO-TRAINING NET” carried out by DP “AGRO-TRAINING NET — NETWORK FOR THE TRAINING OF FARMERS”. The target group was: (a) farmers threatened by unemployment and especially owners of small farms; (b) farmers with a low level of skills; (c) women living in rural and semi-rural areas; (d) farmers working with crops under threat. The main objective was to upgrade the knowledge and skills of the farmers in the target group based on the planning and development of specialized services and vocational programmes for the development and further specialization of their potential.

• “Development of an e-learning site for labourers’ skills in fostering agrotouristic professions” carried out by DP “e-EXADA (Development and Growth of Dynamic Employment”). The target group was unemployed persons, long-term unemployed persons, persons threatened by unemployment, farmers with low income, potential farmers, women, self-employed persons with insufficient skills. The main objective was to deal with obstacles to the development and competitiveness of both the rural areas and the cities in Greece, which concerns the lack of a substantive educational methodology and access to information for specific disadvantaged areas and population groups.

Article 15

Women’s legal equality

285. As detailed in our previous reports, equality between men and women is a constitutionally established principle since the 1975 Constitution, as well as all its revisions thereafter. Specifically, article 4 states: (1) “All Greeks are equal before the law”. (2) “Greek men and women have equal rights and obligations”. Regarding the contractual capacity of women, equal rights on issues of legal agreements and hearing procedures in courts, the free choice of residence – these issues have been described in detail in previous reports. They are established both in our Constitution and the Common Law and the Civil Code. According to article 20 of our Constitution: “Every person shall be entitled to receive legal protection by the courts and may plead before them his/her views concerning his/her rights or interests, as specified by law”.

Article 16

Equality in family and marriage

286. This article was explained in detail in the First Report, because it concerns the modification and modernization of the Civil Code and the Family Law (Law No. 1329/1983) with the aim of applying the constitutional principle of equality between the genders and specifically in the chapters regarding relationships of spouses during marriage, divorce, affinity in and out of marriage (illegitimate children), alimony by law and relationships between parents and children, and also the limit of legal adulthood at the eighteenth year of age.


Annex 1

Responses to the concluding observations of the Committee on the sixth periodic report[a]

The Committee recommends that the State party take measures to bring about changes in traditional patriarchal attitudes and in gender-role stereotyping. Such measures should include awareness-raising and public educational campaigns addressed at women and girls, as well as, in particular, men and boys, with a view to eliminating stereotypes associated with traditional gender roles in the family and in society, in accordance with articles 2 (f) and 5 (a) of the Convention. It also recommends that the State party further clarify the causes of persistent inequality between women and men, including through studies on the institutional rules that reinforce gender-role stereotyping, the specific manifestations of stereotypical ideology in the State party, the costs of placing the burden of homemaking solely on women and the monetary value of women’s unpaid labour, and use the insights gained as basis for taking enhanced measures to address these stereotypes.

1. We note that during the period addressed by this report, significant actions have been undertaken to combat gender stereotypes and roles, involving both the media and reconciliation of family and professional life (see articles 5 and 11 of the present report). Because of the great importance of education for the removal of gender stereotypes, during 2005–2008 the Ministry of Education (OP II) Axis 4: “Promoting gender equality and improving women’s access to paid employment, with emphasis on support of Initial Vocational Education and Training of Women and of Women in Undergraduate and Graduate Studies” programme was implemented. Some of the activities carried out and results obtained via this programme, with a total budget of €58.779.175, are detailed in article 10 of the present report.

2. Moreover, GSGE, under the National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013 (see annex 2) has begun cooperation with the Greek Radio and Television (ERT), to support political equality, the promotion of public debate, and the introduction of shows on gender equality issues. Also, GSGE has developed cooperation with the oversight bodies of programmes and advertisements (National Council for Radio and Communication Control Board), with the aim of enhancing criteria that limit sexist attitudes, ensure following of respective codes of conduct, and stimulate the production of programmes and advertisements that promote equality. The Presidential Decree 109/2010 ensures coherence of Greek broadcasting law with European Directive 2007/65/EC relating to television broadcasting. Furthermore, awards granted from GSGE annually in this connection include: (a) Botsis Foundation for the Promotion of Journalism; and (b) an award at the Thessaloniki Film Festival for the film, which best promotes gender equality. Finally, we plan to establish a new award in collaboration with the Hellenic Advertisers’ Association, which will be awarded to television commercials that present alternative patterns of life and work.

The Committee requests that the State party remove impediments women may face in gaining access to justice. The Committee urges the State party to provide legal aid services and sensitization about how to utilize available legal recourses against discrimination, as well as to monitor the results of such efforts.

3. The current legislative framework on access to justice and appeal does not differentiate between men and women (see article 1, paragraph 22). Moreover, by creating Advisory Centres, as of 2011 GSGE will operate in all regions of the country to provide specialized legal information and counselling to address and combat gender violence issues. Also, in collaboration with bar associations across the country, it will also provide free legal representation of women victims of violence.

The Committee calls on the State party to implement effective measures to eliminate discrimination against ethnic minority women, in particular Roma and Muslim women, and to enhance their enjoyment of human rights. The Committee requests the State party to provide, in its next report, information on the situation of women from ethnic minority groups, including with regard to access to education, employment and health care, and on the impact of measures taken to enhance such access and results achieved, as well as trends over time.

4. For actions carried out to eliminate discrimination against women of minorities (Roma, Muslims, etc.), see details provided in article 9 — in particular, paragraphs 162–171 — as well as article 11, (e.g. paragraphs 207, 212, 214, 218, 225, and 228) and article 12 paragraph 259. In addition, the GSGE-designed National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013 has four strategic objectives, the first of which is to protect the rights of all women by promoting gender equality and orientation of assistance to groups of women facing multiple discrimination. In this context, the creation of the 14 Advisory Centres in all regions of the country, and the running of 24/7 SOS phone lines, will enhance support to women who suffer multiple discrimination (e.g. migrants, Roma, etc.).

The Committee recommends that the State party carry out studies and monitor closely the Law on Combating Domestic Violence, particularly its mediation procedure, in order to ensure that the legislation is implemented in a way that respects and promotes women’s human rights and does not lead to perpetrators escaping punishment. The Committee calls on the State party to put in place training measures for judges who conduct mediation in criminal proceedings for domestic violence cases so as to enhance their capacity to deal with violence against women in a gender-sensitive manner.

5. Article 6 — more particularly paragraph 113 — of the present report provides details on the actions developed to prevent and combat domestic violence against women. It is noteworthy that, for the first time in Greece, the National Action Plan to Prevent and Combat Violence against Women (2009–2013), prepared by the General Secretariat for Gender Equality, addresses eight key areas: improving legislation, creating support structures, providing support services, developing prevention, strengthening training, research development and documentation, strengthening civil society and promoting institutional partnerships. More specifically, the following provisions should be noted: (a) establishment of SOS hotlines, which will become operational in 2011; (b) creation of 14 GSGE Advisory Centres in the regional capitals which will open in 2011; (c) creation of shelters, in cooperation with the municipalities, to be completed by the end of 2012; (d) planned conducting of a nationwide campaign to raise awareness of all citizens on the issue of violence against women in 2011; and (e) training of public officials (e.g. judges, police, medical and nursing staff) on gendered violence. (As of 29/11/2010, training for police officers and commanders of police stations in Athens and Thessaloniki — in collaboration with the National Centre of Public Administration (EKDDA) — has begun).

6. Furthermore, a Specialised Legislative Committee has been established (July 2010) to assist in re-drafting of legislation related to combating violence against women. Particular emphasis will be given by the Committee to addressing domestic violence – with emphasis on the reform of criminal mediation institutions. Regarding the training of judges and prosecutors to enforce domestic violence law, specialized related training and study is already provided at the National School for Magistrates.

The Committee requests the State party to effectively implement the integrated National Plan of Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. It also calls upon the State party to ensure that legislation on trafficking is fully enforced, in particular by effectively prosecuting and punishing offenders. It also recommends that the State party increase its efforts to prevent human trafficking and provide assistance and support to women victims.

7. For details on the actions that have been developed to prevent and tackle trafficking, see articles 6 and 6.1 of the present report. The National Coordinating Mechanism to Combat Trafficking — under the supervision of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in cooperation with the Ministries, the International Organization for Migration and NGOs concerned have signed a Memorandum of Cooperation (2005) — prepared a National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in the period 2010–2012. This is a continuation/completion of the Integrated National Plan of Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (2004). This plan gives priority to: (a) the functioning central structure for coordination and monitoring of actions to combat trafficking; (b) conducting awareness-raising campaigns; (c) financing of NGOs for implementation of actions against trafficking in human beings for economic and sexual exploitation; (d) the prosecution of the officers/officials involved in crimes of trafficking; (e) the training of officers/officials to support victims of trafficking; (f) ensuring of adequate assistance and framework for the repatriation of victims and exemption for their involvement in any crimes arising from trafficking-related processes, etc.

8. Recently, the Greek Parliament ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. It was incorporated into national law (Law 3875/2010 FEK158/A/2010). The ratification of this Protocol, with related change in national legislation, criminal code and criminal procedure, meet a long-standing demand of women’s organizations and other institutions and NGOs. They constitute an important step towards improving the institutional framework by: (a) preventing and combating trafficking in persons, paying particular attention to women and children; (b) protection of and assistance to victims of trafficking; and (c) promotion of cooperation among States Parties to meet these goals. The main changes are:

• Extending the existing law to all foreign victims of trafficking, not only to nationals of third countries, as is the case today

• Ensuring provision of protection regardless of cooperation of non-victims with the competent authorities

• Amendment of the Criminal Code to cover not only crimes related to labour exploitation, but also with people forced to beg

• Extending the protective provisions of Greek legislation to victims of trafficking and persons identified as victims of trafficking in migrants

• Creating measures to protect witnesses in criminal acts of trafficking and smuggling of migrants

9. Furthermore, the Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights has established a specialised legislative committee (FEK367/14/2010), which inter alia is finalising the text integration of the European Convention for the Prevention of Terrorism (Warsaw, 05.15.2005).

The Committee calls upon the State party to effectively enforce the existing quota law in order to increase women’s participation in local elected bodies and in the collective bodies of all Government agencies. It recommends that the State party implement temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and its general recommendation 25 as a means to accelerate compliance with the provisions of articles 7 and 8 of the Convention and to increase women’s political participation in all areas, including in Parliament and the foreign service. It also recommends the implementation of awareness-raising activities about the importance of women’s participation in decision-making for society as a whole. The Committee further suggests that, in compliance with articles 2 (e) and 7 (c) of the Convention, the State party take appropriate measures to ensure women’s equal participation in trade unions and employers’ associations. It encourages the State party to monitor the impact of measures taken and of trends over time.

10. For actions and legislative arrangements made during 2005 to 2008 to promote women in decision-making, see details provided in article 7 and article 2 of the present report, respectively. Given that women are still underrepresented in politics, in designing the National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013, GSGE has included implementation of the relevant actions demonstrating the need for representation of women, such as: (a) organization of the conference: “The Town of Equality” in 2011, in cooperation with the Commission for Equality; (b) organization of European Conference on “Women in Power” (20 years after the Athens Declaration); (c) promotion of measures for their placement in lists (quotas); (d) implementation of supporting actions of candidates and elected women politicians (seminars, conferences, etc.); (e) conduction of campaigns for votes for women, etc.

11. In 2010, emphasis has been on promotion of women in regional and municipal elections and the integration of gender in the policies of local governments in the new context of the “Kallikrates” Programme. In the context of regional and municipal elections held in November 2010, the GSGE awareness-raising campaign “Defy Stereotypes in these elections: Vote also for Women.” The aim of the campaign was to carry out the first public awareness-raising campaign to overturn stereotypical perceptions of gender in politics, and to support and assist women candidates through the distribution of relevant printed material. The awareness-raising campaign included: (a) production materials (posters and leaflets in Greek and Albanian languages, badges); (b) creation and viewing of television spots; (c) production of a radio spot; (d) organizing of a workshop to strengthen the participation of women in decision-making; and (e) an information stand in central Athens. In addition, during the elections GSGE sent a letter to all General Secretaries and responsible persons in parliamentary political parties asking them to include gender in the criteria they were using to select their heads of organisation, in order to actively promote women in decision-making.

12. The issue of promoting women in decision-making in the legislature is under consideration in the Specialised Legislative Committee on Drafting of a New Law on substantial equality of the sexes. It should be noted that according to the annual report of the World Economic Forum “The Global Gender Gap Report 2010” Greece’s ranking improved by 27 positions on the International Index “Gender Gap Index”, mainly due to the performance of the country Pillar “Empowering Women in Political Positions” and especially the sub-index “Women in ministerial positions” in which Greece ranks 21st.

13. Furthermore, the GSGE, as is presented in the National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013, has already begun to support the creation of offices or committees for women or gender equality, and strengthening of the networking of women in secondary and higher education organizations and of social partners (GSEE, ADEDY, etc) to strengthen the position of women in negotiating mechanisms of social dialogue in order to highlight and promote their demands.

The Committee recommends that the State party implement programmes and policies aimed at providing effective access for women, including minority women and adolescent girls, to health-care information and contraceptives, and to family planning services, thus avoiding the need for women to resort to abortion as a method of birth control. The Committee urges the State party to implement programmes of sexual and reproductive health education for men, women and adolescents in order to foster responsible sexual behaviour. The Committee further calls on the State party to implement initiatives, in close consultation with the medical profession, aimed at reducing the number of caesarean sections performed.

14. For details on actions undertaken by governmental and non-government organizations for the period under review to promote the protection of women’s health and rights in this area, see article 12. Under the National Action Plan for Health promoted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, priority is given to knowledge and prevention via information and awareness-raising campaigns on health and medical issues, with particular priority to those primarily affecting women, as well as on sexual and reproductive health. Specifically, the Social Solidarity Campaign for primary prevention includes collaboration with GSGE, whereby officers of the Ministry (nurses, social/s operation) will provide free information and advice on health and prevention in the 14 GSGE Counselling Centres. Furthermore, in cooperation with GSGE, the Secretariat for Youth will develop an information campaign for young people (women and men) on issues of sexual health, particularly contraception.

The Committee urges the State party to implement measures to raise awareness of the importance of education as a human right and as a basis for empowerment of women. It recommends that the State party adopt temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and general recommendation 25, on temporary special measures, in order to increase the representation of women, including minority women, in tertiary education. It requests the State party to report on the measures taken and their impact in its next periodic report.

15. The actions taken to promote equal access to education during 2005 to 2008 are presented in detail in article 10 of present report. It should be noted that, as shown in table 14, during the reporting period, the proportion of women in undergraduate studies was higher than men, while the proportion of women undertaking post-graduate studies (master or Ph.D.) differ significantly from that of men with an increase in recent years. During academic year 2008–2009, 24,544 women entered higher education, a total of 39,372 Greek university students. It is important to note that the percentage of women entering tertiary education that year increased by 6.2 per cent per cent compared with that of the previous academic year.

16. Recognizing the importance of promoting gender equality in education, in its National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013, GSGE is developing cooperation with the Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religion. In particular, GSGE support actions planned by the Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs, which promote gender equality, including: (a) the operation of the New School which has extended opening hours; (b) integration of gender perspective in Further Education and Lifelong Learning programmes; (c) advising to women in Second Chance Schools on matters of family and professional and social advancement; (d) promoting gender equality and the elimination of stereotypes and discrimination under the auspices of Parents’ Schools; (e) encouraging continued operation of gender studies programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate level, and reforming of curricula of higher education institutions to mainstream gender as a cross-cutting policy and fundamental value; and (f) integration of a specialized approach to student career counselling as part of services offered by Universities to reduce occupational segregation and encourage students to pursue professions in areas in which they are underrepresented.

The Committee urges the State party to ensure equal opportunities for women and men in the labour market through, inter alia, temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and general recommendation 25, on temporary special measures. The Committee recommends that efforts be strengthened to lower female unemployment, eliminate occupational segregation, both horizontal and vertical, and to narrow and close the wage gap between women and men. The Committee recommends that the State party conduct regular reviews of its legislation in accordance with article 11, paragraph 3, of the Convention, with a view to reducing the number of barriers women face in the labour market. The Committee also urges the State party to monitor the use of the parental leave provisions by women and men as an indicator of shared family responsibilities and to develop incentives to encourage more men to avail themselves of parental leave. It calls upon the State party to monitor the impact of measures taken and results achieved and to report thereon in its next periodic report.

17. On actions and initiatives developed to enhance the employment of women during the period 2005–2008, see article 11, indicating cross-cutting measures and special programmes for unemployed women, whose main goal was more effective entering of the labour market and combating of social exclusion.

18. Moreover, a law has been passed “Implementing the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in employment and occupation” (Law 3896/FEK 207/8.12.2010). It improves, simplifies and encodes into a single coherent legislative text current legislation to date, according to the spirit and provisions of Directive 2006/54/EC. Among other things, in it are included: (a) legal persons and legal persons may, with the consent of the victim of discrimination, engage on her/his behalf to undertake an action or intervene to defend him/her before the competent judicial or administrative authorities; (b) the definition of indirect discrimination, sexual harassment in the workplace, and the reversal of the burden of proof now applies in cases of unequal treatment based on sex; and (c) as the independent authority charged with monitoring and promoting the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in employment and paid work, the Ombudsman mission has been extended to deal also with cases pending before courts or judicial authorities in their first hearing.

19. Also, in 2010, a programme of the Employment Agency (OAED) began to be implemented, including: (a) a four-year programme to promote employment via subsidy of social security contributions in the recruitment of 40,000 unemployed persons, which supports self-employed persons during pregnancy, childbirth or care of their children via granting of social security contributions for a person to be hired to replace the self-employed persons, so that the latter may better meet her increased care requirements; (b) Entrepreneurship of unemployed women aged 22–64, to support 4,000 unemployed women who wish to undertake business activities.

20. Under the GSGE National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013, the Advisory Centres services will support unemployed and self-employed women and female owners of small businesses to upgrade their knowledge and skills in order to improve their labour market position. The women will complete a specialized counselling process with a gender perspective in GSGE advisory centres. The programmes will provide integrated actions to support unemployed women, and to continue training with guaranteed employment.

21. In cooperation with GSGE, the Employment Agency has set up a permanent working group concerning gender equality. The initial goal is to develop an action plan to integrate gender equality into all public employment (Education Advisers Employment of CFR Apprenticeship Schools, new jobs, Youth Programs Self-Employed, Internal evaluation systems, etc.). Meanwhile, the Employment Agency continues to call for special programmes for unemployed women in order to address the overrepresentation of women among the population of unemployed people, and to attract more women into the labour market.

22. The reconstituted Labour Inspectorate clearly has as its responsibility the equal treatment between men and women in employment and occupation, and improvement of the system for recording and processing of statistical data on gender equality at work, in order to allow for proper assessment of the situation with regard to equality in the workplace. It will be integrating the principle of gender equality in all its activities. More specifically, it will update and provide information on labour issues in counselling, labour disputes, and auditing processes. These activities will be designed for workers and businesses re: equal treatment between men and women. Finally, the Office for Gender Equality vis-à-vis Work in the Department of Social Labour Inspectorate of the Employment Inspectorate of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, will be strengthened and add new powers added in this area.

23. In the Program: “Youth Entrepreneurship”, the General Secretariat for Youth will focus on young women with problems of unemployment. It will support their business operations (e.g. green growth), as well as services re: cultural and social issues.

The Committee calls upon the State party to take measures in order to ensure that children of immigrant women are provided with birth certificates.

24. Regarding the issue of birth certificates for children of immigrants, law 1818/2010 “Current provisions for Greek citizenship and political participation of expatriates and lawfully resident immigrants and other arrangements” was passed. It contains provisions for the granting of Greek citizenship to legal residents/immigrants. Specifically, this law significantly modernizes legislation on immigrant parents, and ensures the granting of Greek citizenship and proof of registration of children of immigrant parents who have resided legally in Greece for five consecutive years and to children who have successfully completed at least six years of Greek school in Greece. It should be noted that, in particular the Children’s Ombudsman, has been particularly active on the issue of national registration. Specifically, before the enactment of Law 1818/2010 in July 2007, findings suggested that birth certificates be accepted as the required documentation for access to all education and social protection services, and in general for the exercise and enjoyment of children’s rights as governed by the international convention of the same name (Law 2101/92). In May, 2010, the National Registration Department of the Interior, Public Administration and Decentralization was required by the Ombudsman to remove the country of origin certificate from national registration, as part of the protection of personal data.

The Committee urges the State party to increase efforts to raise the awareness of Muslim women of their rights and of remedies against violations, and to ensure that they benefit from the provisions of Greek law on marriage and inheritance. The Committee call upon the State party to enforce its laws prohibiting early marriages and polygamy and to take comprehensive measures aimed at eliminating these practices, in line with the Greek constitutional order, article 16 of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation 21 on equality in marriage and family relations.

25. The confrontation of the issues that come up from “Sharia law” is one of the objects that are examined by the Specialised Legislative Committee, established (July 2010) aimed to modernize and improve Family Law provisions.

Annex 2

National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013

Brief presentation

1. The current government has set a main goal the improvement of women and men’s daily lives, as well the achievement of substantive gender equality through actions in the fields of legislation, politics, economy, labour market, society and culture. The General Secretariat for Gender Equality designed a National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013, which includes a complete series of measures that promote gender equality across the spectrum of political interventions, and also includes strengthening actions for policy implementation mechanisms. Main recipients of these measures are the women of groups mostly affected, while in parallel all citizens — men and women — directly or indirectly benefit.

2. The National Action Plan for Substantive Gender Equality 2010–2013 was designed based on four (4) basic strategic goals: (a) safeguarding of all women’s human rights through promotion of gender equality and orientation of the interventions towards groups of women that face multiple discrimination; (b) prevention and combating of any kind of violence against women; (c) support of women’s employment and financial autonomy; and (d) best use of cultural creation to boost women’s artistic creation and emergence of gender equality goal.

3. Ongoing counselling and accountability, rather important processes for the improvement of policies’ quality and effectiveness, call for strengthening of production, implementation and monitoring institutions for gender equality policies. In order to ensure transparency and credibility in materialization of the Program, goals’ achievement and actions’ effectiveness shall be assessed in-depth, and recorded in systematic Annual Reports. Constant and systematic consultation with civil society on the implementation of the Program shall be supported by Bodies and Committees, as well as with regular cooperation with competent agencies.

4. The Program is integrated with the academic and gender studies communities, as well as with the civil society, women’s and feminist organizations, so as to make use of the scientific knowledge results on gender issues, as well as of active citizens’ experience. Methods and good practices by international and European equality organizations have been used in drawing up and implementing equality policies. Such methods and good practices include the improvement, enhancement and implementation of legislation, development of positive actions for women, gender mainstreaming in all policies including gender budgeting, empowerment of civil society and women organizations’ role, as well as the organization of public opinion awareness campaigns aiming at the prevention and change of women and men’s pattern roles. The National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) is the central funding framework for policies 2007–2013.

5. The Program is structured along three pillars: (a) improvement, strengthening and implementation of the Greek legislation; (b) specialized policies on gender equality; and (c) gender mainstreaming in public policies.

6. The first pillar includes new legislative regulations based on the provisions of International and European Law, opinions expressed by women’s organizations and other official documents (United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union), as well as on legislation by other European countries. The legislative interventions are related to:

(a) Amendment of Family Law, so as to be completely harmonized with the Institutional Principle of Gender Equality and safeguarding of women’s human rights under the unequal economic and social conditions that most of them experience today (i.e. re-establishment of stability for women’s last name, simplification of adoption provisions, abridgment of legal procedures in Family Law cases, safeguarding of alimony payment, and others);

(b) United law for combating violence against women (in family, working environment and society), emphasizing awareness-raising and victims’ protection measures (i.e. through improvement of Law 3500/2006 on domestic violence by abolishing mediation institution, Law 3488/2006 on the implementation of equal treatment between men and women in relation to their access to the labour market, with special reference on violence in the workplace, Law 1419/1984 on rape, Law 2734/1999 on prostitution, Law 3064/2002 and Presidential Decree (PD) 233/2003 on international trafficking);

(c) Law on promotion of substantive gender equality (strengthening of protection against prostitution and safeguarding of equal treatment in labour market, improvement of legislation on mass media in relation to women’s dignity, effective implementation of gender equality principle in public policies and active involvement of Ministries in the implementation and monitoring of gender policies’ effects, safeguarding of equal participation between men and women in decision-making , reinforcement of the legislative framework by re-establishing the National Committee for Gender Equality and the creation of an Inter-Ministerial Gender Committee assigned with coordination duties, etc.).

7. The following are also stipulated: several Projects on codification of legislation on gender equality, systematic gender impact assessment for new bills and cooperation with the Greek Ombudsman and the Consumer Ombudsman.

8. The second pillar includes the drafting of GSGE Projects, in order to develop measures for combating inequality problems in specific thematic fields of public policy. They emphasize special women groups and establishing or strengthening policy designing institutions and implementing cross-cutting actions to promote gender equality.

9. The thematic fields of public policy are related to actions re: (a) violence against women (i.e. establishment of Counselling Centres and Shelters in each Regional Capital, upgrading of existing structures, operation of a Pan-Hellenic SOS Emergency Line, cooperation with national legal bars, training of counsellors and public workers, provision of free consultation services to women-violence victims, etc.); (b) multiple discrimination (i.e. improvement of life of women that face inabilities, immigrants and asylum seekers, detainees/released women, etc.); (c) reproductive and sexual health (i.e. provision of information on women’s health issues, prevention and contraception, artificial insemination, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, youth awareness campaign on sexual health, and especially on contraception aiming at the reduction of abortions, cooperation with NGOs activated in combating women-specific cancers, etc.); (d) employment (i.e. support of employed/self-employed women to upgrade their skills, awareness-raising campaign on equal distribution of duties and employment posts between men and women in domestic/private life and the labour market, etc.); (e) promotion of women in decision-making and civil society (support of candidates and elected women politicians, campaign on support of women in elections, creation of offices or committees women or gender equality, enhancement of women’s networking in secondary and tertiary social partners’ organizations, boosting of women, feminist and NGOs’ — activate on gender equality — actions, etc.); (f) mass media (cooperation with ERT, the Greek National Council for Radio and Television and the Communication Control Council, and award of equality prizes); and (g) culture and cultural creation on gender equality (boosting of production and promotion of artistic creation by men and women on “gender equality, women’s fundamental rights”, cooperation with educational departments of embassies to strengthen inter-culture collaboration in artistic creation on gender equality issues, cooperation with the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the National Museum of Modern Art, etc., and organization of a 15-day art event).

10. The National Action Plan includes the establishment and/or strengthening of institutions, bodies and structures for the creation of gender equality policies. Indicatively: (a) activation and upgrading of the role of the Inter-ministerial Committee for Gender Equality, aiming at the promotion of cross-cutting policies on gender equality and at monitoring of NSRF actions regarding genders; (b) reformation of the National Committee on Equality between Men and Women (Law 3491/2-10-2006) emphasizing on development of consultation and cooperation with women and feminist organizations; (c) establishment of the National Observatory for Combating Violence against Women, with the participation of a network of women organizations; and (d) use of RSGE experience and know-how.

11. The cross-cutting actions on gender equality are related to: (a) upgrading of services provided by the Library for Gender Equality Issues (LGEI) (i.e. development and pilot operation of a digital thematic depository, expansion and digitalization of historic archive, etc.); (b) development of a specialized monitoring structure for gender mainstreaming in public administration (monitoring mechanism for public policies) [assessment of public policies effects on gender equality, collection, management, analysis and distribution of quantitative and qualitative data, indexes per policy sector, drafting of researches/ studies on selected field of policy exercise, cooperation with gender experts in all levels of public administration and independent authorities, etc.]; (c) creation of an internet portal for GSGE e-services which shall support thematic information of women and citizens in general and it shall include a claims management system, etc.; (d) training and awareness of public workers on gender equality (preparation of programmes in cooperation with the National School of Judges (NSJ) for training of judges, the National Centre for Public Administration and Local Government (NCPALG) for training of correctional employees in women detention facilities, employees in immigrants acceptance services, police officers and medical/nurse personnel, the Labour Inspection Corps and the Greek Ombudsman on training of social labour inspectors, etc.); and (e) continuation of GSGE participation in EU Committees and Working Groups and International Organizations.

12. The third pillar includes a series of interventions by other Ministries and public agencies, which, within the framework of gender mainstreaming in public polices, shall cooperate with the GSGE, preparing and promoting the following:

(a) Hellenic Ministry of Interior, Decentralisation and e-Government: the ERC institution shall remain within the framework of reforming local and regional government (Kallikratis Program) and the new Municipalities shall be strengthened with competencies on gender equality issues, etc.;

(b) Hellenic Ministry of Finance: women’s economic autonomy was promoted through the provision of the latest taxation Law (Law 3842/2010) and the insurance system has been amended (Law 3865/2010) by including equalization of retirement age, which shall be gradually carried out up to 31/12/2013, etc.;

(c) Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs: several actions shall be promoted for equal representation of men and women employees of the Ministry, holding responsibility posts in Central and Foreign Service and Service Councils, for preventing and combating interstate trafficking in women, etc.;

(d) Hellenic Ministry of Defence: a National Action Plan shall be designed for the implementation of resolution no. 1325/31.10.2000 by the United Nations Security Council and for ensuring women’s participation in all decision-making, etc.;

(e) Hellenic Ministry of Economy, Competitiveness and Shipping: the establishment of new enterprises by women (from 19 to 65 years of age) — in all sectors of economic activities — shall be facilitated through financial enhancements, while action will be promoted to upgrade human resources’ skills and knowledge, etc.;

(f) Hellenic Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change: several actions shall be developed for gender mainstreaming in the fields of energy, public health (pollution) and urban quality of life;

(g) Hellenic Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning and Religious Affairs: several actions shall be promoted to expand the school programme (all-day schools that serve mostly women who are charged with taking care of children), the institution of Second Chance School and Parents School shall remain as well as with gender study programmes, etc.;

(h) Hellenic Ministry of Labour and Social Security: an Action Plan shall be designed on gender mainstreaming throughout the tasks of the Manpower Employment Organization (MEO), gender mainstreaming shall be carried out throughout LIC tasks and actions, with emphasis on equal treatment between men and women in fields of employment and labour, etc.;

(i) Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity: a memorandum of understanding shall be entered into between the GSGE and the NCSS to coordinate the organization and operation of shelters for women-violence victims, women shall be informed of health issues, especially sexual and reproductive health, etc.;

(j) Hellenic Ministry of Rural Development and Food: the development of operational initiatives by women (through increased credit allocation) shall be encouraged, financial assistance shall be provided for the creation of child-care institutions, etc.;

(k) Hellenic Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights: women who have already or are about to be released shall receive support in cooperation with “EPANODOS”, Private Law Legal Entity (PrLLE), the collection/publication system of judicial data shall be improved, as the system of statistical classification of offences in double and triple digit analysis, so as to indicate the results of gender offences on offenders and victims’ gender regarding all offences, etc.;

(l) Hellenic Ministry of Citizen Protection: anti-trafficking departments shall be reinforced and expanded, while a department shall be created for combating rape, domestic violence, recruiting specialized personnel, etc.;

(m) Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism: special actions shall be stipulated within the framework of Modern Culture initiatives, for the promotion of women’s creativity, the institution of women’s cooperatives shall be supported, especially in island and mountainous areas of the country, etc.

Annex 3

List of agencies that provided data and information for the seventh periodic report

Ministries and Supervised Agencies

Hellenic Ministry of Interior

General Secretariat for Gender Equality

General Secretariat for Gender Equality/Special Application Service for the “CSF Operational Programs 2000–2006 by NSRF and other co-funded Operational Programs”

Research Centre for Gender Equality

Hellenic Police Headquarters

General Secretariat for Information

General Secretariat for Communication

General Secretariat for Public Administration and e-Government

General Secretariat for Development Programs

National Centre for Public Administration and Local Government

State Radio and TV

Migration Policy Institute

Hellenic Ministry of Economy and Finance

NSRF National Coordination Authority

Hellenic Ministry of Development

Hellenic Organization of Small and Medium-sized Industries and Handicrafts

Hellenic Ministry of Mercantile Marine, the Aegean and Island Policy

Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Human Rights Directorate

Authority of International Development Cooperation

Hellenic Ministry of National Defence

General Directorate for Financial Planning, Human Resource Support and Environment

General Directorate for Planning and Support

Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works

General Directorate for Planning and Works

Hellenic Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs

General Directorate for Lifelong Learning

General Directorate for European and International Educational Issues

Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Protection

General Directorate for Management of Community and Other Sources

Special Service for Coordination and Monitoring of ESF Actions

Manpower Employment Organization

General Directorate for Labour

Hellenic Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity

General Directorate for Welfare

Hellenic Ministry of Rural Development and Food

General Directorate of Agricultural Applications and Research

Hellenic Ministry of Justice

General Directorate for Legislative Coordination and Special International Legal Relations

Hellenic Ministry of Culture

General Directorate of Antiquities and Cultural Inheritance

Greek Film Centre

Hellenic Ministry of Tourism Development

Directorate of International Relations

Independent Authorities

The Greek Ombudsman


Region of Northern Aegean

General Regional Directorate/Regional Equality Committee

Region of Northern Aegean

General Directorate of Programming and Projects

Region of Ionian Islands

Intermediate Management Authority

Region of Crete

General Directorate of the Region

Region of Peloponnesus

General Directorate of the Region/Regional Equality Committee

Other Agencies

National Confederation of Trade

Hellenic National Committee for UNESCO

Greek Network on Corporate Social Responsibility

Trade and Industrial Chamber of Athens

Hellenic Federation of Enterprises

Non-Governmental Organizations

National Council of Greek Women/Federation of Women’s Organization

Hellenic Delegation of the European Women’s Lobby

Union of Greek Women

Union of Women in Crete

Social Support of Greece

Women Scientists Mothers of Large Families

Initiative Woman and Health

Association for Women’s Rights

Hellenic Association of University Women

Greek Guiding Association

Young Women’s Christian Association

Annex 4

List of GSGE employees that contributed to the preparation of the report (June 2009)

(in alphabetical order)

Directorate of Planning, Development & Employment

L. Argyropoulou

A. Sarri

Directorate of Labour Relations & Social Policy

Th. Katsivardakou

Directorate of Documentation & Information

M. Zervou

G. Kartzi

L. Mavromitrou, Library on Gender and Equality

A. Megalou

Chr. Papadimitriou

Directorate of European Policy & International Cooperation

Dr. A. Sotiriadou

D. Tremos

Law Department

A. Christodoulou

Special Application Service of GSGE

N. Sereti

G. Siakantaris

A. Skliri

E. Vasilakou

Annex 5


Table 1

Women’s participation in the National Parliament 1996, 2000, 2004, 2007

% Women

Source: GSGE, 6th National Report of Greece to the UN Committee on the Removal of Discrimination against Women, Session 2001–2004, Parliament of Greece, General Directorate of Administrative Support, Department of Parliament Members and Political Parties, 2007.

Data processed by GSGE Documentation Department.

Table 2

Rates of women candidates for regional, municipal and local councils/Municipal Elections 2006

Percentage of women candidates for Region
Percentage of women candidates for Municipal Councils
Percentage of women candidates for Local Councils
Percentage of women candidates

Source: GSGE.

Table 3

European Elections Results, 2004 and 2009 per gender

% Women


Data processed by GSGE Documentation Department.

Table 4

Women’s participation in responsible posts within the Public Sector

Rates of women’s participation in head posts in Ministries, PLLE and LGO
General Directors
No class or post stipulated
Ministries: 40%
PLLE: 69.6%
LGO: 36.7%
Average: 48.9%
Ministries: 35.5%
PLLE: 62.2%
LGO: 39.4%
Average: 45.7%
Department Heads
Ministries: 46.4%
PLLE: 76.3%
LGO: 44%
Average: 55.6%

Source: Ministry of Interior, Statistical Sheets.

Table 5

Central Authority Personnel (2008)

Sector of Ambassadors
Sector of Ambassadors

Diplomatic Sector

Plenipotentiary Minister A’
Plenipotentiary Minister B’
Embassy Counsellor A’
Embassy Counsellor B’
Embassy Secretary A’
Embassy Secretary B’
Embassy Secretary C’
Embassy Attaché
Scientific Personnel Sector of Special Legal Department (SLD)

Legal Counsellor A’
Legal Counsellor B’
Deputy Legal Counsellor
Experts Sector

Expert Ambassador Counsellor A’
Expert Ambassador Counsellor B’
Expert Counsellor A’
Expert Counsellor B’
Sector of Economic and Commerce Cases (FCC)

FCC General Counsellor A’
FCC General Counsellor B’
FCC Counsellor A’
FCC Counsellor B’
FCC Secretary A’
FCC Secretary B’
FCC Secretary C’

Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Personnel Directorate.

Table 6

Personnel of Services Abroad (2008)

Sector of Ambassadors

Diplomatic Sector

Plenipotentiary Minister A’
Plenipotentiary Minister B’
Embassy Counsellor A’
Embassy Counsellor B’
Embassy Secretary A’
Embassy Secretary B’
Embassy Secretary C’
Scientific Personnel Sector of Special Legal Department (SLD)

Experts Sector

Expert Ambassador Counsellor A’
Expert Ambassador Counsellor B’
Expert Counsellor A’
Sector of Economic and Commerce Cases (FCC)

FCC General Counsellor A’
FCC General Counsellor B’
FCC Counsellor A’
FCC Counsellor B’

FCC Secretary A’
FCC Secretary B’
FCC Secretary C’

Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Personnel Directorate.

Table 7

Percentage of persons admitted per sex in the Merchant Navy Academies 2005-2008

Admission of Captains per year

Admission of Engineers per year

Admission of Students per year totally

1 246
1 036
1 290
1 104
1 321
Percentage of Women per cent

Source: Ministry of Mercantile Marine, Aegean and Island Policy.

Directorate of Mariners Education.

Table 8

Students in Adult Training Centres (ATC) 2005-2008

Total of students

203 782
56 594
147 188
2 127
1 049
1 078
2 971
2 663
6 200
2 350
3 850

Source: Ministry of National Education & Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning.

Table 9

Students in Second Chance Schools (SCC) 2005-2008

Total of Students
10 220
4 766
5 454

Source: Ministry of National Education & Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning.

Table 10

Trainees in Parents Schools 2005-2008

Total of Trainees
42 540
3 525
39 015
Special Groups (Roma, Muslims, Immigrants)

1 201
1 076

Source: Ministry of National Education & Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning.

Table 11

Trainees in the Program “Learning of the Greek Language as second language by employed Immigrants” 2005-2008

Total of Trainees
15 873
6 842
9 031

Source: Ministry of National Education & Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning.

Table 12

Trainees in the “Lifelong Learning Programs in ATC and Adult Distance Training Centre”, 2005-2008

Total of Trainees
8 027
2 755
5 272

Source: Ministry of National Education & Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning.

Table 13

Trainees in Prefectural Committees for Adult Education (PCAE) 2005-2008

Total of Trainees
96 949
24 186
72 763

Source: Ministry of National Education & Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning.

Table 14

Percentage of Women in Higher Education

HEI Students
Postgraduate Students
% Women
% Women
171 967
102 353
42 930
21 283
171 857
102 569
47 784
24 464
170 422
102 792
49 347
24 754

Source: General Secretariat of the Hellenic Statistical Authority.

Table 15

Higher Education Institutions, Foreign and Expatriates Students by Sex and Country of Citizenship*

Closing Information Academic Year 2007/08

Country of Origin
European Union
9 770
4 142
5 628
2 324
1 373
Rest of Europe
1 310
15 292
7 046
8 246

Source: General Census Survey conducted by ELSTAT in all institutions of tertiary education, closing of academic year 2007/08, edited by GSGE.

* Further analysis by country of citizenship is available.

Table 16

Secondary Public and Private Education in Greece, School Year 2005/06

Junior High Schools
175 959
160 299
13 768
27 661
High Schools
113 477
129 811
13 248
13 368
Technical Vocational Schools
65 734
36 643
9 601
7 578
355 170
328 753
36 617
48 607

Source: MOERA, Directorate of Operational Research Programming, Department of Operational Researches and Statistics.

Table 17

Secondary Public and Private Education in Greece, School Year 2006/07

Junior High Schools
180 490
164 213
12 945
30 694
High Schools
111 290
125 594
13 689
13 702
Technical Vocational Schools
50 500
24 238
8 118
6 536
Vocational Lyceums
15 939
8 057
1 258
1 207
358 219
322 162
36 101
52 139

Source: MOERA, Directorate of Operational Research Programming, Department of Operational Researches and Statistics.

Table 18

Secondary Public and Private Education in Greece, School Year 2007/08

Junior High Schools
178 420
163 151
12 983
31 323
High Schools
112 510
129 139
13 339
14 200
Technical Vocational Schools
21 843
13 234
4 235
3 153
Vocational Lyceums
33 369
16 003
4 659
4 147
Vocational Schools
3 771
2 733
349 913
324 260
36 082
53 311

Source: MOERA, Directorate of Operational Research Programming, Department of Operational Researches and Statistics.

Table 19

Employment and Unemployment Percentages per Sex, 2004 and 2008 2nd Quarter

Employment Percentage
Unemployment Percentage



Source: HSA General Secretariat, Human Resource Research, 2004 and 2008, 2nd Semester.

Table 20

Change of Employment and Unemployment Percentages per Sender during 2004–2008

Employment Percentage
Unemployment Percentage

Source: HSA General Secretariat, Human Resource Research, 2004 and 2008, 2nd Semester.

Data processed by GSGE Documentation Department.

Table 21

Regional Unemployment Indexes per gender, 2008

Northern Aegean
Southern Aegean
Central Macedonia
Central Greece
Ionian Islands
Eastern Macedonia – Thrace
Western Greece
Western Macedonia

Source: HSA General Secretariat, Human Resource Research, 2008 2nd Semester.

Data processed by GSGE Documentation Department.

Table 22

Absolute Differences in Employment Rates between Men and Women per Region, 2008

Absolute Difference
Northern Aegean
Southern Aegean
Central Greece
Western Greece
Central Macedonia
Eastern Macedonia – Thrace
Western Macedonia
Ionian Islands

Source: HSA General Secretariat, Human Resource Research, 2008 2nd Semester.

Data processed by GSGE Documentation Department.

Table 23

Average time dedicated to domestic and family duties and to employed work per week (data for 2005)a

Gender Difference
Domestic and family duties
Paid employment
Domestic and family duties
Paid employment
Domestic and family duties
Paid employment

Source: Fourth European Research for Working Conditions (EWCS), 2005 European Committee, General Directorate for Employment, Social Cases and Equal Opportunities.

a For the column “Gender Difference”, a positive value means that more time is spent by women on average as compared to men (for similar activities), while a negative value indicates the opposite. It should be stressed that the sample used includes persons that were under paid employment status during the research week. Due to such limitation, special emphasis should be given in the interpretation to the differences between the average time spent by men and women for their paid employment and non-paid domestic and family duties. For example, regarding paid employment, gender differences mainly reflect different standards in the allocation of part-time employment between genders in the EE member-states and not generally in employment participation between genders. In the event that all persons of working age were included (and not only those in paid employment), one would expect that both differences in time use between men and women would be greater. We stress that, in Greece, part-time employment for women remains at low levels in comparison to European levels: in 2008 its percentage was 9.9 per cent and 2.8 per cent for men.

Table 24

Non-active Population aged 25–64 per sex: Reasons for not searching for employment

Reasons of non searching of employment
Waiting to take over a working post
Suffering from a disease or incapability
Other family/personal duties
Taking care of children or dependent adults
They are students
They are pensioners

Believing that there are no jobs available
Other reasons

Source: Eurostat.

Table created/processed by GSGE Documentation Department.

Table 25

Funding rates for women in all programmes by the Greek Film Centre

Short films
Topics related to women

[*] In accordance with the information transmitted to States parties regarding the processing of their reports, the present document was not edited before being sent to the United Nations translation services.


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