United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination - States Parties Reports
International Convention on
of all Forms of
20 December 2005
COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION
OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
[13 December 2005]
* This document contains the second and third periodic reports of Liechtenstein, due on 22 March 2003 and 2005, submitted in one document. For the initial periodic report submitted and the summary records of the meetings at which the Committee considered those reports, see documents CERD/C/394/Add.1 and CERD/C/SR.1515 and 1516.
** Annexes to the report may be consulted in the secretariat’s files.
*** This report has not been edited before being submitted for translation.
GE.05-45597 (E) 230206
I. INFORMATION ON THE COUNTRY OF LIECHTENSTEIN 3
1.1 Country and people 3
1.2 General political structure 4
1.3 Economic and political integration 6
1.4 Economy 6
1.5 General legal framework for the protection of human rights 7
II. MEASURES TO IMPLEMENT THE CERD RECOMMENDATIONS
TO LIECHTENSTEIN OF 21 MAY 2002 (CERD/C/60/CO/7) 10
2.1 Training of law enforcement officers on preventing and
combating racism (para. 9) 10
2.2 Continuation and expansion of State support of non-governmental
organizations in their efforts to integrate foreigners in
society (para. 10) 10
2.3 Funding of teachers and educational materials for courses
on the language and culture of the countries of origin of
foreigners (para. 11) 11
2.4 Absence of statistical data (paras. 12, 13 and 14) 11
2.5 Information on the National Action Plan against Racism and
other activities to implement the Durban Declaration and
Programme of Action (para. 15) 12
2.6 General dissemination of the text of the Convention and of the
concluding observations by CERD among the Liechtenstein
population, the National Administration, the judiciary, and
the Office of the Public Prosecutor (paras. 16 and 17) 14
2.7 Inclusion of civil society and the authorities in this
report (para. 18) 15
1. The territory of the Principality of Liechtenstein lies between Switzerland and Austria and covers an area of 160 square kilometers. Liechtenstein consists of 11 rural municipalities, the largest two of which have slightly over 5,000 inhabitants each. One quarter of the territory of the country is located in the Rhine Valley, while the remaining three quarters are covered by the slopes above the Rhine Valley and the inner-Alpine region. The capital and seat of the national authorities is Vaduz.
2. At the end of 2004, Liechtenstein had a resident population of 34,600 people, the size of a small city. However, the population of the country is spread out over 11 municipalities. 34.3% of the resident population are foreigners. Of all the foreign citizens living in Liechtenstein, 49.8% are from the countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), especially from Austria and Germany, and 30.5% from Switzerland. The proportion of the foreign population from third countries is therefore 19.7% - including 7.5% from Turkey and 4.4% from Serbia and Montenegro.
3. At the end of 2004, 17.6% of the population were younger than 15 years old and 11.1% were older than 65. Life expectancy has increased over the last 30 years. In 2002, the average for women was 82.1 and the average for men was 78.7%.
4. At the end of 2002, 76% of the overall population were Roman-Catholic, 7% were Protestant, and 4.1% Muslim. 10.8% of the population provided no data on their religious affiliation.
5. The Liechtenstein Constitution guarantees freedom of religion and conscience. It also guarantees civil and political rights independent of religious affiliation. Until 2003, dispensation from religious instruction at the secondary level (Oberschule, Realschule, and Gymnasium) was granted with reference to freedom of religion. Starting with the 2003/2004 school year, the option is now offered to choose between a “Religion and Culture” course and denominational religious instruction (Catholic or Protestant) in the first grades of secondary school. All students not attending denominational instruction attend the “Religion and Culture” class. The goal of the “Religion and Culture” class is to encourage students to think about the topic of religion and its significance for personal and social life - in a manner that is respectful of the different religious and philosophical beliefs.
6. According to the Constitution, the Roman-Catholic Church is the “National Church of Liechtenstein”, which is not equivalent to an established or State church. In addition to the Roman-Catholic Church, the Evangelical (Protestant) Church is also supported financially by the State. In the wake of the establishment of the Archdiocese of Liechtenstein, a disentangling of Church and State is currently under consideration.
7. According to the Liechtenstein Constitution, the German language is the State and official language of Liechtenstein. In general, an Alemannic dialect of German is used as the conversational language.
8. The Principality of Liechtenstein is a constitutional hereditary monarchy on a democratic and parliamentary basis. The power of the State is embodied in the Reigning Prince and the People. The relatively strong position of the Reigning Prince is balanced by far-reaching direct-democratic rights of the People.
9. In the dualistic system of State of the Principality of Liechtenstein, the power of the State is embodied both in the Reigning Prince and the People. Separation of powers is further safeguarded by vesting separate rights in the executive branch (Government), the legislative branch (Parliament), and the judicial branch (Courts).
10. The Reigning Prince is the Head of State and represents the State in all its relations with foreign States, notwithstanding the requisite participation of the competent Government. On the proposal of Parliament, the Reigning Prince appoints the Members of the Government. He is also responsible for appointing judges, the election of which is undertaken by Parliament on the proposal of a special selection body. On important grounds, the Reigning Prince may dissolve Parliament and dismiss the Government. The Reigning Prince may also exercise emergency powers. He also may exercise the powers of pardon, mitigation, and quashing with respect to criminal investigations. Every law requires the sanction of the Reigning Prince to enter into force. In exercising his powers, the Reigning Prince is bound by the provisions of the Constitution.
11. The Liechtenstein Parliament is elected every four years. Parliament consists of 25 Members. They are elected in universal, equal, direct, and secret elections in accordance with proportional representation. In the current legislative term (2005-2009), three parties are represented in Parliament. The Progressive Citizens’ Party has a plurality with 12 seats. The Patriotic Union has 10 seats, and the Free List is represented with three seats.
12. The most important responsibilities of Parliament are participation in the legislative process, assent to international treaties, approval of State funds, election of judges on the proposal of the selection body, and supervision of the National Administration. Parliament elects the Government and proposes its appointment to the Reigning Prince. It can also trigger dismissal of the Government when the Government loses its confidence. Parliament has a quorum if at least two thirds of its Members are present.
13. The Government consists of five Ministers: the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister, and three other Ministers. The Ministers are appointed by the Reigning Prince on the recommendation of Parliament. The Government is the supreme executive authority, to which over 30 offices and several diplomatic missions abroad are subordinate. About 50 commissions and advisory councils support the work of the Administration.
14. The Government has the power to issue ordinances and is therefore also a rule-making authority. Ordinances may, however, only be issued on the basis of legislation and international treaties.
15. Jurisdiction is divided into jurisdiction under public law (special jurisdiction) and ordinary jurisdiction. Jurisdiction under public law is exercised by the Administrative Court and the Constitutional Court. The Administrative Court is the instance for complaints against decisions and orders of the Government or commissions acting on the Government’s behalf. The responsibilities of the Constitutional Court include in particular the protection of the rights guaranteed by the Constitution, the European Convention on Human Rights, and the human rights instruments of the United Nations. It also reviews the constitutionality of laws and international treaties and the legality of Government ordinances.
16. Ordinary jurisdiction encompasses the administration of justice in civil and criminal matters. The first instance is the Liechtenstein Court of Justice in Vaduz. Before a complaint can be lodged with the Liechtenstein Court of Justice in contentious civil matters, a mediation procedure must be undertaken in the municipality of residence of the defendant. Only if the mediation procedure fails can the Liechtenstein Court of Justice be invoked as the first instance. Ordinary jurisdiction in the first instance is exercised by individual judges. The second instance is exercised by the Court of Appeal, and the third instance by the Supreme Court. Both courts are collegial bodies.
17. Municipal autonomy plays an important role in Liechtenstein. The autonomous scope of authority of the 11 municipalities is laid down in article 110 of the Constitution. The eligible voters of each municipality elect a Municipal Council headed by a Mayor who, depending on the size of the municipality, exercises his office full-time or part-time. The municipal authorities conduct their affairs autonomously and manage the municipal assets. Citizens may call a referendum against their decisions.
18. Liechtenstein engages in an active foreign policy characterized by the goal of strengthening State sovereignty and the goal of better political and economic integration at the international and European levels. Through the industrialization and economic development that began in the 1960s and has continued until day, this integration has been realized step by step.
19. Already in 1960, Liechtenstein was integrated into the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) through its Customs Treaty with Switzerland. In 1991, it joined EFTA as an autonomous member. Liechtenstein joined the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in 1975 and the Council of Europe in 1978. It became a member of the United Nations in 1990 and a member of the European Economic Area (EEA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995.
20. Today, Liechtenstein maintains diplomatic missions to the United Nations in New York, the European Union in Brussels, to EFTA, the UN, and the WTO in Geneva, a Permanent Mission to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg and a Permanent Mission to the OSCE and the United Nations in Vienna. Bilateral embassies have been established in Berne, Berlin, Brussels, Washington, Vienna, and to the Holy See.
21. Since entry into force of the Customs Treaty in 1924, Liechtenstein has formed a common economic area with Switzerland. The border between the two States is open; the border to Austria is controlled by Swiss border guards. Pursuant to the Currency Treaty with Switzerland, the Swiss franc is legal tender in Liechtenstein. As mentioned above, Liechtenstein has participated in the European Economic Area since 1995, in which it forms a uniform single market with the EU Member States, Norway, and Iceland. After enlargement by the ten new EU States on 1 May 2004, the EEA now includes a total of 28 Member States.
22. Liechtenstein is a modern industrial and service economy with worldwide connections. The foundations of its economic success in recent decades have been favorable framework conditions ensured by liberal business law. Liechtenstein is also home to a highly productive, globally oriented industrial sector, which contributes approximately 40% of the overall added value of the country (gross domestic product). In addition, Liechtenstein has well-developed service enterprises, especially in the financial sector, with legal counseling, professional trustees, and banks. The country enjoys a worldwide reputation as a modern financial center with firstclass know-how. In 1999, financial services and general services generated 54% of the added value of the country (gross domestic product). Liechtenstein is one of the most heavily industrialized countries in the world. This broad diversification was and is the key for the continuous and crisis-resistant growth of the Liechtenstein economy.
23. The small size of Liechtenstein and the continuing economic growth entail that a large part of the workers must be recruited abroad and commute across the national borders (crossborder commuters). At the end of 2004, 16,768 residents of Liechtenstein were employed, or just about 50% of the resident population. Of these, 15,622 were employed in Liechtenstein and 1,146 were employed abroad. The 15,622 persons living and working in Liechtenstein were joined by 13,911 workers commuting to Liechtenstein from neighboring countries, so that a total of 29,533 persons were employed in Liechtenstein at the end of 2004. Compared with the total population of 34,600, this is a very high number.
24. Agriculture is no longer of great significance to the national economy. However, it still plays an important role with respect to self-sufficiency in times of crisis and with respect to cultivation and preservation of the natural and cultural landscape. 1.3% of all persons employed in Liechtenstein at the end of 2004 still worked in the primary (agricultural) sector. Although the service sector (commerce, financial services, hotels and restaurants, education, etc.) is continually growing and encompassed 54.5% of the fully employed population at the end of 2004, Liechtenstein continues to have an active and diversified secondary sector (industry, trades, construction, etc.), in which 44.2% of all fully employed persons work.
25. In an international comparison, unemployment is low. In August 2005, unemployment was 2.6%, which corresponds to 762 persons.
26. Because of the economic and currency union with Switzerland, the inflation rate is expressed in terms of the annual average of the Swiss national index of consumer prices. In 2004, the inflation rate was 0.8%.
27. A number of basic rights are enshrined in the Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein. In particular, these include the right to freedom of movement and acquisition of property, personal freedom, the sanctity of the home, the protection of the privacy of correspondence and documents, the right to proceedings before a regular judge, the inviolability of private property, the freedom of commerce and trade, the freedom of religion and conscience, the right to freedom of expression and press freedom, the right to free association and assembly, the right to petition, and the right to lodge complaints. The Constitution also specifies that all citizens are equal before the law and that the rights of foreign citizens are governed by treaties and, if no such treaties apply, by the principle of reciprocity.
28. If a person believes that his or her fundamental rights or freedoms have been violated, the person may avail himself or herself of a court or a complaints procedure. The person may demand annulment of the administrative or governmental decision, compensation, or satisfaction for material or immaterial damage. The Constitutional Court is empowered to review the constitutionality of applicable law and may declare legislation, ordinances, or parts thereof to be invalid. In certain cases, complaints may also be lodged with the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, as Liechtenstein has been a State Party to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950 since 1982. The prerequisite is that the proceedings in Liechtenstein have exhausted all competent judicial instances.
29. Compliance with the previsions of the European Convention on Human Rights is also monitored by the Liechtenstein Constitutional Court.
30. As a member of the United Nations and the Council of Europe, Liechtenstein has ratified a number of European and international agreements for the protection of human rights. These are:
− Charter of the United Nations of 16 June 1945
− Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951, with Protocol of 31 January 1967
− Convention of 21 December 1965 on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
− International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 16 December 1966
− International Convention on Civil and Political Rights of 16 December 1966
− Optional Protocol to the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights of 16 December 1966
− Second Optional Protocol to the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, of 15 December 1989
− Convention of 18 December 1979 on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
− Convention on the Rights of the Child of 20 November 1989
− Optional Protocol of 25 May 2000 to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict
− Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women of 6 October 1999
− Convention of 10 December 1984 against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
− Statute of the Council of Europe of 5 May 1949
− European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950, including various protocols
− European Convention of 26 November 1987 against Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, including Protocols 1 and 2
− European Framework Convention of 1 February 1995 for the Protection of National Minorities
− European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages of 5 November 1995
− European Agreement of 5 March 1996 relating to Persons participating in Proceedings of the European Court of Human Rights
− Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 17 July 1998
31. With respect to the implementation of international human rights conventions, Liechtenstein abides by the principle that treaty obligations are only entered into if they can actually be complied with. A ratified agreement becomes part of national law from the date of entry into force, without the adoption of a special law being necessary, as long as the provisions of the agreement are specific enough to serve as a basis for decision.
32. All laws and therefore practically all international agreements are considered by Parliament and must be published in the Liechtenstein Law Gazette (Liechtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt, LGBl.). Their entry into force is also published in the national newspapers. All legal acts are available to the public. The complete text can either be obtained from the Government Chancellery or viewed on the Internet.
33. The new Internet presentation of the State of Liechtenstein and its authorities went online in December 2003. On the new portal (www.liechtenstein.li), all international human rights agreements applicable to Liechtenstein may be accessed. Also available are all country reports submitted by Liechtenstein and the recommendations of the human rights committees and monitoring bodies.
II. MEASURES TO IMPLEMENT THE CERD RECOMMENDATIONS TO
LIECHTENSTEIN OF 21 MAY 2002 (CERD/C/60/CO/7)
34. In June 2002, the Government established an inter-Office working group for a National Action Plan against Racism, with the goal of implementing the recommendations of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) concerning the initial country report of Liechtenstein, the recommendations of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) in its second report on Liechtenstein, and the provisions of the Durban Programme of Action of September 2001. On 24 May 2005, this working group was given the additional mandate of anti-semitism and was renamed the Working Group against Racism, Anti-Semitism, and Xenophobia (hereinafter Working Group) on 17 August 2005 (see also point 2.5, Information on the National Action Plan against Racism and other activities to implement the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action). The activities of the Working Group are presented in detail on the Internet in the chapter Foreign Policy under the heading Human Rights.
35. In collaboration with the National Police, the Working Group appointed by the Government organized a training program in October 2002 on the topic of human rights and the fight against racism. This topic was integrated into general police training starting in 2003. Over the course of 2003, the Working Group initiated lectures and discussions on the respect for human rights and the prevention of racial discrimination in the Office of Social Affairs and the Criminal Police. The Conference of Office Directors and the Conference of School Directors were briefed on the activities of the Working Group and asked for their cooperation. In 2004 and 2005, an awareness-raising event on racism was initiated and co-funded for the apprentices of the National Administration with an expert in intercultural conflict-resolution. At the same time, a seminar was organized and co-funded within the National Administration on the topic of “Intercultural Communication”, which was offered twice due to high demand. All staff members of the Immigration and Passport Office were required to participate in this seminar. In 2005, the activities of the Working Group were also presented in the newsletter for the staff of the Liechtenstein National Administration, and all Offices were called upon to contact the Working Group with questions relating to the topic of racism.
36. In 2003, a podium discussion on integration policy was organized with the participation of Liechtenstein authorities and integration officers from Switzerland (Basle and St. Gallen) and Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia). An integration concept was developed in the neighboring Austrian city of Dornbirn that formed the basis of a recommendation for a similar integration concept in Liechtenstein. The Office of Social Affairs drafted a needs assessment and a recommendation for this integration concept.
37. In 2004, the Prime Minister conducted two round-table discussions with representatives of foreigners’ associations, during which he listened to their needs and wishes.
38. In 2004, the Working Group supported a private film project with Government funds that made a contribution to integration and cultural communication in the multicultural Liechtenstein population.
39. In addition, the Working Group allocated Government funds to support translations into Italian, Spanish, Turkish, Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, Portuguese, and Albanian of questionnaires by the Liechtenstein Office of Education used to gain insight on the need for additional care and support structures for families outside the home. This enabled foreign-language families in Liechtenstein to be included in the survey. This not only made an additional contribution to the integration of foreigners, but also supported improvement of the data situation relating to education.
40. In 2005, an Office of Equal Opportunity was created on the recommendation of CERD and the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance of the Council of Europe, expanding on the already existing Office of Gender Equality. At the same time, an Equal Opportunity Commission was created for overall coordination. The Commission has the significant responsibility of determining the strategy, developing comprehensive common solutions, and ensuring that the measures adopted are implemented and that the necessary funds are made available. The Office of Equal Opportunity primarily works in the areas of gender quality, disability, sexual discrimination and sexual orientation, but also on immigration and the integration of foreigners. It is currently working on the following integration projects:
− Integration concept
− Promotion of language skills by assessing the situation and updating the language course offerings for immigrants
− Founding of a networking platform
41. The Adult Education Foundation, supported by public resources, funds language courses for foreign-language individuals, especially women, that are conducted by the private Association for Intercultural Education (Verein für Interkulturelle Bildung, ViB). The ViB aims to establish itself as a platform for foreigners’ associations to organize intercultural events, and in the autumn of 2005, it offered development psychology courses to Turkish women in Turkish. The Working Group is currently considering the use of Government resources to fund the training of Turkish playgroup leaders for bilingual playgroups and other ViB projects.
42. In its recommendations, CERD criticized the absence of information on the number of refugee children and children of asylum-seekers attending public school and in particular intensive German language courses at schools (paragraph 12), the absence of information on cases of discrimination in the allocation of housing (paragraph 13), and the absence of information on the access of the foreign population to social security and health care (paragraph 14). For this reason, the Working Group decided in 2004 to compile existing, albeit not representative data in the particularly sensitive areas of education, housing, employment, health, and social security. In addition, a two-year research mandate was granted to the Liechtenstein Institute in 2004 to identify deficits in the data situation. The research mandate includes the drafting of recommendations for future systematic surveys and evaluations so that targeted countermeasures can be developed. The existing data pools will also be analyzed with respect to potential discrimination of persons or groups on the basis of color, origin, nationality, religion, language, or other cultural characteristics. Appropriate measures will be taken on the basis of the research results in the coming years.
43. The National Action Plan against Racism adopted by the Government on 4 February 2003 focuses on the following content areas:
44. Awareness-raising of the population: As part of the National Action Plan against Racism, all official documents relevant to the fight against racism in Liechtenstein and all relevant international treaties have been published on the Liechtenstein Internet portal since 2003 (see point 2.6). In 2004, a seminar with representatives of the media was organized on the topic of “The Role of the Media in Preventing and Fighting Racism and Discrimination”. The participants included journalists of the national newspapers, freelance journalists, media officers, staff members of the Press and Information Office, and staff members of the Government Spokesperson’s Office. At the beginning of 2005, a round table on health was organized as part of the National Action Plan against Racism. The goal of this round table was to assess the needs and problems of foreigners and minorities in the Liechtenstein health care system, to determine the need for action, and to develop solutions. On the basis of the results of this round table, concrete measures are being developed or have already been introduced.
45. Documentation: A further part of the Action Plan is a continually updated and comprehensive documentation on the fight against racism, integration, policy regarding foreigners, and other related topics, including national action plans of other States.
46. Enforcement of anti-racism legislation: The enforcement of anti-racism legislation is also being compiled, on the basis of criminal cases under §283 of the Penal Code. The following cases have been documented: In 2002, one sentence was imposed under §283. A dark-skinned woman in a grocery store in Schaan was the target of racist insults. The perpetrator was sentenced to a fine and three years probation. No sentences are on record from 2003 and 2004. A second sentence under §283 is expected by the end of 2005: A young person has been accused of listening to music with right-wing lyrics so loudly that they could be understood throughout the neighborhood and of displaying paraphernalia in the apartment so that they were clearly visible by the inhabitants of the neighborhood.
47. Right-wing extremism: In July 2003, the Government appointed a Commission on Protection from Violence (Gewaltschutzkommission, GSK) chaired by the National Police. The mandate of the GSK is, inter alia, to observe and document the situation with respect to rightwing violence in Liechtenstein and to provide early warning on dangerous developments in this area.
48. Acting on various suggestions and questions raised in public, the Government appointed an Independent Commission of Historians in 22 May 2001 to assess the history of Liechtenstein in the Second World War. The Commission was mandated to investigate questions on the role of Liechtenstein in the Second World War in depth. At the same time, the Government appointed an Advisory and Coordination Committee to advise the Government on all questions in this regard, especially relating to domestic and foreign policy, public outreach, and the consequences arising from the work of the Commission of Historians. After four years of work, the Independent Commission of Historians Liechtenstein - Second World War presented its final report on its research concerning the role of Liechtenstein in the Second World War. The final report is supplemented by individual studies on specific topics. An approximately 40-page summary of the final report and the conclusions of the Government can be accessed on the Internet at www.liechtenstein.li/Staat/Regierung/ UnabhängigeHistorikerkommission. In addition, the complete final report and the individual studies, totally several hundred pages, have been published in several volumes. The volumes were presented on 18 October 2005.
49. Pursuant to the final report of the Independent Commission of Historians, the Government adopted a comprehensive catalogue of measures in May 2005, which include both activities within Liechtenstein and activities directed abroad.
50. Activities in Liechtenstein:
− The Working Group against Racism, Anti-Semitism, and Xenophobia has been mandated to coordinate the following decisions (see also point 2, Measures to implement the CERD recommendations).
− The Office of Education has been mandated to draft recommendations for the Government in connection with the future form of the Holocaust Memorial Day on 27 January in schools.
− The Government has decided to introduce an annual public Holocaust Memorial Day in Liechtenstein on 27 January, to enhance public awareness of the Memorial Day.
− The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been mandated to continue implementation activities at the international level that are targeted to combat anti-Semitism.
− Special attention will be paid to education in schools, especially to raising awareness of the Holocaust in class instruction.
− The continuation of the book “Bridges to the Past” has been initiated, taking into account the events of the 20th century. In particular, the newest research results on recent Liechtenstein history will be included.
− The Ministry of Education has been mandated to initiate the necessary steps for publication of a source volume on the history of the 1930s and 1940s.
− Likewise, the Ministry of Education has been mandated to review concrete research subjects defined by historians and researchers that could be investigated in more depth.
51. Activities abroad:
− In its report and comments on the results of the Independent Commission of Historians Liechtenstein - Second World War, the Government stated that it had accepted the results of the investigation with great respect and in the spirit of common responsibility. This approach should also in particular serve as a guide for projects that are directed abroad and should be understood as a call upon the social groups in the country to contribute in their own way. Subject to approval by Parliament, the Government is therefore planning to give financial support to two projects in Israel that will be dedicated to commemoration of the Holocaust and peaceful cooperation.
52. On the official Internet portal of Liechtenstein, the chapter “Racism” has been included under the heading of Foreign Policy/Human Rights. The following texts have been published in connection with Liechtenstein policy against racism:
− UN Convention against Racism of 1965
− First racism report by Liechtenstein to the UN of 2001
− Recommendations of the CERD treaty body to Liechtenstein of 22 March 2002
− UN World Conference against Racism of 2001
− Liechtenstein participation at the World Conference against Racism (speech by Foreign Minister Dr. Ernst Walch)
− Liechtenstein National Action Plan against Racism for 2003 - 2007 and the Working Group of the Government responsible for implementation of the Action Plan
− European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI)
− Second ECRI country report on Liechtenstein of 22 June 2002
53. This has enabled access to key documents and materials on international and Liechtenstein strategies in the fight against racism for interested civil society. The texts went online on the occasion of the International Day Against Racism on 21 March 2003, accompanied by public outreach in the national newspapers.
54. Since the launch of the National Action Plan against Racism, the International Day Against Racism has been used as an occasion to draw attention in all national newspapers to the global international legal context and the national measures for the prevention of and fight against racism.
55. The present report was drafted by the inter-Office Working Group against Racism, AntiSemitism, and Xenophobia. On the recommendation of CERD, the report was submitted to the NGO group “Integration” and the Association for Intercultural Education (ViB) for comments. The comments have been attached to this report.
− Comments of the Association for Intercultural Education (ViB) of 30 October 2005
− Comments of the NGO group “Integration” of 27 October 2005 with a preliminary report by
the NGO group
 The European Economic Area was created out of the 15 Member States of the European Union and the EFTA States Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway. The 10 new EU Member States have been part of the EEA since 1 May 2004.
 Because of the small size of the country, life expectancy is not measured in Liechtenstein. The figures indicated have been taken from the Council of Europe publication “2004 Recent Demographic Developments in Europe”.
 No new survey has been taken in Liechtenstein since the end of 2003 concerning the distribution of religions.
 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.