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Tajikstan - Second and third periodic report under the ICESCR [2013] UNCESCRSPR 15; E/C.12/TJK/2-3 (3 April 2013)

United Nations
Economic and Social Council
Distr.: General
4 April 2013
Original: Russian

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Implementation of the International Covenant

on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Second and third periodic reports submitted by States parties

under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant


[15 July 2011]


Paragraphs Page

Acronyms 3

I. Introduction 1–3 4

II. Legal and regulatory instruments adopted in the area of social, economic and

cultural rights in the period 2007–2011 5–9 4

III. Information on individual articles of the Covenant and on the implementation

of recommendations contained in the Concluding Observations of the

Committee 10–164 7

Article 1 10 7

Article 2 11–13 7

Article 3 14–22 8

Articles 4 and 5 23 9

Article 6 24–30 9

Article 7 31–39 10

Article 8 40–54 11

Article 9 55–60 13

Articles 10 61–67 14

Article 11 68–91 14

Article 12 92–117 17

Article 13 and 14 118–138 22

Articles 15 139–164 24

IV. Replies regarding the recommendations contained in the Concluding

Observations of the Committee 165–207 27

Recommendation contained in paragraph 43 165–166 27

Recommendation contained in paragraph 44 167–168 27

Recommendation contained in paragraph 46 169–178 27

Recommendation contained in paragraph 48 179–183 29

Recommendation contained in paragraphs 49 and 62 184 30

Recommendation contained in paragraph 56 185–186 30

Recommendation contained in paragraph 60 187 30

Recommendation contained in paragraph 61 188 30

Recommendation contained in paragraph 63 189–197 30

Recommendation contained in paragraph 71 198 33

Recommendation contained in paragraph 74 199 33

Recommendation contained in paragraph 76 200–207 33


FATF Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering

FNPT Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Tajikistan

GBAO Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province

GDP Gross domestic product

GOST State standard

HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

ILO International Labour Organization

IOM International Organization for Migration

NGO Non-governmental organization

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PLWH Persons living with HIV

UNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund

I. Introduction

1. This report, submitted under articles 16 and 17 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (hereafter referred to as the Covenant), has been drafted in accordance with the relevant Guidelines on Treaty-Specific Documents (E/C.12/2008/2).

2. The report covers the period 2007–2010, contains information on developments since Tajikistan’s initial report (E/C.12/TJK/1), submitted in 2006, and comprises two parts. The first part provides an overview of national legislation enacted in the period 2007–2010 on economic, social and cultural rights (the report also contains information on the first six months of 2011). The second part describes the measures taken in view of the Concluding Observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (E/C.12/TJK/CO/1) and the recommendations contained therein, and provides information related to the various articles of the Covenant. The report also provides basic statistics in tabular form and includes a list of acronyms.

3. The report was prepared by the working group of the Government Commission on International Human Rights Obligations. The working group consisted of representatives of the Department for Constitutional Civil-Rights Guarantees in the Executive Office of the President of Tajikistan (which chaired the working group), the Ministry for Economic Development, the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Statistics Agency reporting to the President, the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Tajikistan (FNPT) and the “Independent Centre for the Protection of Human Rights” voluntary organization; and was assisted by the Nota Bene Foundation (as a consultant).

4. During the preparation of the report, the working group held frequent consultations with civil society. The draft report was discussed at public meetings and was transmitted to State bodies for review. Recommendations were received from the State bodies and civil society organizations concerned. The report preparation process was given broad coverage in the country’s media.

II. Legal and regulatory instruments adopted in the area of social, economic and cultural rights in the period 2007–2011

5. The following legal and regulatory instruments adopted in the area of social, economic and cultural rights in the period 2007–2011:

• Protection against Tuberculosis Act (No. 223 of 22 December 2006);

• Code of Administrative Procedure, Act No. 232 of 5 March 2007;

• Civil Service Act (new version) (No. 233 of 5 March 2007);

• Joint-Stock Companies Act (No. 237 of 5 March 2007);

• Physical Culture and Sport Act (No. 243 of 5 May 2007);

• Voluntary Associations Act (new version) (No. 258 of 2 May 2007);

• Investment Act (No. 260 of 12 May 2007);

• Human Organ and/or Tissue Transplantation Act (No. 331 of 30 July 2007);

• Arbitration Tribunals Act (No. 344 of 5 January 2008);

• Community Action Groups Act (No. 347 of 5 January 2008);

• Accounts Indicator Act (No. 350 of 5 January 2008);

• Social Services Act (No. 359 of 5 January 2008);

• Commissioner for Human Rights Act (No. 372 of 20 March 2008);

• Enforcement Proceedings Act (No. 373 of 20 March 2008);

• State Financial Audit and Anti-Corruption Agency Act (No. 374 of 20 March 2008);

• Commercial Confidentiality Act (No. 403 of 18 June 2008);

• Right of Access to Information Act (No. 411 of 18 June 2008);

• Act on the Adoption and Entry into Force of the Code of Administrative Offences (No. 455 of 31 December 2008);

• Government Social-Sector Procurement Act (No. 482 of 31 December 2008);

• Act on donation of blood and blood components (No. 503 of 26 March 2009);

• Occupational Safety Act (new version) (No. 517 of 19 May 2009);

• Village and Rural Communities Self-government Act (new version) (No. 549 of 5 August 2009);

• State Language of the Republic of Tajikistan Act (new version) (No. 553 of 5 October 2009);

• Code of Civil Procedure (new version), Act No. 582 of 5 January 2010;

• Drinking Water and Potable Water Supply Act (No. 670 of 29 December 2010);

• Food Security Act (No. 671 of 29 December 2010);

• Environmental Education Act (No. 673 of 29 December 2010);

• Social Protection for Persons with Disabilities Act (No. 675 of 29 December 2010);

• Environmental Information Act (No. 705 of 25 March 2011);

• Contributory and State Pensions Act (No. 708 of 25 March 2011).

6. During the reporting period, the following strategies and programmes were adopted:

• National Development Strategy for the period up to 2015, adopted by the Majlis-i Namoyandagon (lower chamber) of the Majlis-i Oli (parliament) by enactment No. 704 of 28 June 2007;

• Anti-Corruption Strategy, 2008–2012, adopted by Government Decision No. 34 of 26 January 2008;

• Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2010–2012, adopted by the Majlis-i Namoyandagon of the Majlis-i Oli by enactment No. 1557 of 24 February 2010;

• National Strategy to Promote the Role of Women, 2011–2020, adopted by Government Decision No. 269 of 29 May 2010;

• National Health Strategy, 2010–2020, adopted by Government Decision No. 368 of 2 August 2010;

• National Labour-Market Development Strategy for the period up to 2020, adopted by Government Decision No. 277 of 2 June 2011;

• Comprehensive Programme to Combat Trafficking in Persons, 2006–2010, adopted by Government Decision No. 213 of 6 May 2006;

• National Action Plan to Reform the Initial Vocational Training and Education System, 2006–2015, adopted by Government Decision No. 227 of 3 June 2006;

• Young People of Tajikistan Programme, 2007–2009, adopted by Government Decision No. 485 of 1 November 2006;

• State programme for the education, selection and placement of capable women and girls in leadership positions, 2007–2016, adopted by Government Decision No. 496 of 1 November 2006;

• Programme for improving the supply of clean drinking water, 2007–2020, adopted by Government Decision No. 514 of 2 December 2006;

• State Crime-Control Programme, 2008–2015, adopted by Government Decision No. 543 of 2 January 2007;

• HIV/AIDS Prevention Programme, 2007–2010, adopted by Government Decision No. 86 of 3 March 2007;

• Judicial Reform Programme, adopted by Presidential Decree No. 271 of 23 June 2007;

• State Programme for building, renovating and reconstructing schools currently located in private houses, trailers, office buildings and public places, 2008–2015, adopted by Government Decision No. 436 of 27 August 2008;

• National Food Security Programme for the period up to 2015, adopted by Government Decision No. 72 of 2 February 2009;

• State Environmental Programme, 2009–2019, adopted by Government Decision No. 123 of 27 February 2009;

• Legal Training and Citizenship Education Programme, 2009–2019, adopted by Government Decision No. 253 of 29 April 2009;

• State Programme for the Development of Education, 2010–2015, adopted by Government Decision No. 254 of 29 April 2009;

• Young People of Tajikistan Programme, 2010–2012, adopted by Government Decision No. 372 of 2 July 2009;

• Employment Promotion Programme, 2010–2011, adopted by Government Decision No. 692 of 31 December 2009;

• Programme of State Guarantees Relating to Medical and Health Care in Pilot Regions, 2010–2011, adopted by Government Decision No. 52 of 12 February 2010;

• Policy Framework for Transition to a New General-Education System, adopted by Government Decision No. 207 of 3 May 2010;

• State Programme for computerization of public libraries, 2011–2013, adopted by Government Decision No. 384 of 2 August 2010;

• State Programme for computerization of secondary schools, 2011–2015, adopted by Government Decision No. 416 of 2 September 2010;

• Young people’s health development programme, 2011–2013, adopted by Government Decision No. 561 of 30 October 2010;

• Judicial Reform Programme, 2011–2013, adopted by Presidential Decree No. 976 of 3 January 2011.

7. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO), Tajikistan ratified, in the period 1993 – 1 January 2011, 50 ILO conventions and adopted 20 ILO recommendations for implementation through national legislation.

8. As part of multilateral relations during the reporting period, Tajikistan ratified on 2 October 2006 the following ILO conventions:

• Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143);

• Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97).

9. Moreover, on 14 January 2009, the parliament ratified the following ILO conventions:

• Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155);

• Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81);

• Information on individual articles of the Covenant and on the implementation.

III. Information on individual articles of the Covenant and on the implementation of recommendations contained in the Concluding Observations of the Committee

Article 1[1]

10. According to the population and housing census conducted by the Statistics Agency reporting to the President on 21-30 September 2010, the population of Tajikistan as of 21 September 2010 was 7.565 million.[2] Further information on the various nationalities and peoples living in the national territory will be available in the final outcome of the census, expected in 2012.

Article 2

11. The Interdepartmental Commission on Foreign Debt has been established to ensure that recourse to foreign loans, which contribute to the external national debt, is more effectively monitored; that the terms of credit agreements concluded or guaranteed by the Government are met; and that foreign loans are used as appropriate and repaid in a timely manner.[3]

12. Under article 11 of the Legal Status of Foreign Nationals Act, foreign nationals residing permanently in Tajikistan are entitled to living accommodation in State and public housing and in buildings of house-construction cooperatives.[4] In view of the shortage of housing in the country, foreign nationals may not acquire dwellings, houses or other buildings that are part of the housing stock (unless they inherit such premises).

13. Regarding discrimination, see paragraphs 23-45 of the initial report and the information provided in Tajikistan’s second periodic report on the implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, in relation to article 2 thereof.

Article 3[5]

14. Tajikistan is a party to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others; and the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime as well as the related Protocols to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, and against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, which condemn human trafficking and exploitation in any form and consolidate efforts undertaken against such phenomena. Moreover, Tajikistan has signed the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women.

15. The implementation of the Policy Framework for Transition to a New General-Education System, adopted by Government decision on 3 May 2010, promotes learning and the school enrolment of girls.

16. The National Strategy to Promote the Role of Women, 2011–2020, adopted by Government Decision No. 269 of 29 May 2010, seeks to support training for gender equality experts so that they may develop the national equal opportunities policy in all areas of society.

17. As a result of national elections held in February 2010 for both chambers of parliament:

(a) 5 women are members of the upper and 12 of the lower chamber of parliament (including 1 deputy president of the lower chamber and 2 committee chairs);

(b) 517 women are members of local assemblies of people’s deputies at the provincial, municipal and district levels. In such assemblies, women account for 5.9 per cent of chairpersons and 43 per cent of deputy chairpersons.

18. Of the 4,438 women employed (and accounting for 24.8% of staff) in central and local authorities, 1,046 hold senior posts. Four districts are headed by women; 67 women are deputy heads of local executive authorities; and one deputy prime-minister is a woman.

19. Regarding the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, see the information provided on article 7 thereof in paragraphs 84-94 of Tajikistan’s related fourth and fifth periodic report (CEDAW/C/TJK /4-5).

20. As a result of women’s life expectancy, longer than men’s, the number of female pensioners increased from 276,900 (49.5% of all pensioners) in 2000 to 320,900 (57.9% of all pensioners) in 2009.

21. Of the unemployed persons registered with the employment service in 2008, 55.9 per cent of those who had resigned from their jobs were women (7.7% fewer than in 2004) and 44.1 per cent were men, while 58.3 per cent of those who had not had a job since leaving secondary school were women (0.6% fewer than in 2004) and 41.7 per cent were men.

22. Annex 2 shows the development of the situation regarding cases brought for crimes linked to violence against women over the period 2007-first half of 2010.

Articles 4 and 5

23. With regard to measures taken to meet obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, see the information provided with respect to the relevant articles in Tajikistan’s initial and second periodic reports.

Article 6[6]

24. See paragraphs 186–193 of the initial report.

25. Moreover, the Employment Promotion Programme, 2010/11,[7] which is currently implemented, provides for such measures as vocational training, retraining and skills upgrading; placement in existing vacancies and on jobs subject to quota; creation of additional jobs through small loans; granting and payment of unemployment benefits; provision of vocational guidance services; and assignment to community service. In 2010, the employment agencies found jobs for 32,016 unemployed, including 2,230 persons placed on jobs subject to quota and earmarked for job seekers belonging to vulnerable groups. In the same year, of the 2,958 small loan recipients, 1,305 were women and 1,012 young persons. In total, they were granted respectively 3,412,529 and 2,578,819 somoni. Unemployment benefits in the amount of 370,499 somoni were distributed to 481 women.[8]

26. Between March 2008 and 1 January 2011, more than 20 vocational training centres were created under the Ministry of Labour. They include the State Centre for Adult Education, its branches, and the State unitary enterprises “Modular Training Centre” (and its branches), “Dushanbe City Training Centre”, “Dushanbe City Vocational and Business Training Centre” and “Khudzhand City Training Centre”. Every year, more than 8,000 persons receive vocational training in short-term courses offered in those centres under approximately 30 programmes (in 2010, for instance, 9,141 persons attended such courses). In the period 2006–2010, the Ministry of Labour provided such training to a total of 28,836 women and 35,219 persons aged 16-29.[9]

27. A special vocational residential lyceum for children with disabilities, operating under the Ministry of Labour, is attended every year by 270 disabled children from low-income families who, along with general education subjects, learn such specific trades as radio repair, bookkeeping, sewing, computer typesetting and shoemaking.

28. With ILO cooperation, a separate child-labour monitoring section was launched in the State Centre for Adult Education, mainly to identify children engaged in arduous work, ensure their release, and help them to resume their studies and receive vocational training. The following table shows the number of persons prosecuted during the reporting period for impeding a person’s basic compulsory general (nine-year) education, and for failing to meet, as parents or other legal representatives of minors, responsibilities related to supporting and bringing up the children concerned:

Article 164 of the Criminal Code (acts impeding a person’s basic compulsory general (nine-year) education)
Article 174 Criminal Code (failure to fulfil responsibilities related to bringing up a minor)

29. In 2010, 1,547 minors, including 136 girls, were on the prevention register in connection with school absenteeism. The leadership of the Ministry of Internal Affairs pays particular attention to such issues.

30. For information on human resources, employment and training, see the relevant tables in annex 3 to this report.

Article 7[10]

31. Labour inspectorates ensure compliance with the law in the area of labour relations and protection of workers’ rights, and assist parties to such relations, including employers, in implementing labour law.

32. Any cases of insufficient attention to such important matters as the specific character of women’s work and the protection of working women from occupational risks are possibly traceable to the traditional view that protection and safety at work are male concerns. Women’s representation in occupational safety bodies, enterprise committees, trade unions, inspectorates and Government structures is insignificant. Accordingly, women must be encouraged to participate in occupational safety training programmes and courses.

33. Health standards are binding on all ministries, departments and organizations that plan, build and operate technical, engineering, sanitation and related facilities, organizations responsible for noise reduction, and health and epidemiological service establishments that monitor working conditions. The relevant requirements must be reflected in such technical norms and regulations as State standards (GOST); construction standards and rules; sectoral standards; technical specifications; building instructions, procedures and methods; technological and operating parameters for processing units; and technical, engineering and sanitation facilities.

34. National legislation characterizes sexual harassment as a crime, punishable under Criminal Code articles 140 (Coercion into sexual acts) and 141 (Using one’s official position to have intercourse and participate in other sexual acts with a person under 16), paragraph 2. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, of the 27 criminal cases opened under article 140 of the Criminal Code in the period 2006–2010, 26 were brought before the courts. Criminal proceedings were also initiated for coercion into intercourse and other sexual acts through blackmail or threat of destruction, damage and removal of the property of a victim not dependent on the accused. None of these cases concerned sexual harassment at the workplace or involved employment relations.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 53 of the Concluding Observations of the Committee

35. Under article 103 of the Labour Code, the minimum wage is the smallest amount of money, set by the State that an employer may pay a worker for one month of work under normal conditions. The minimum wage, established by presidential decree, does not include any extra, bonus, incentive or overtime payments.

36. The minimum wage and official salaries (base rates) for workers in budget-funded agencies and organizations increase every year. Since 1 July 2010, the country’s minimum wage has increased by 33 per cent and amounts to 80 somoni per month.[11]

37. The amount of social benefits and pensions and the procedure for their payment are governed by the State Social Insurance Act, the Pensions Act and other legal and regulatory instruments. The minimum pension increased from 20 somoni in 2006 to 80 somoni in 2010.

38. The amounts of other social benefits are set as multiples of a uniform base rate equal, since 1 January 2011, to 40 somoni. Depending on the specific benefit, that rate is multiplied by a coefficient ranging from 1 (yielding a 40 somoni benefit) to 20 (yielding an 800 somoni benefit).

Recommendation contained in paragraph 54 of the Concluding Observations

39. See paragraph 33 above.

Article 8[12]

40. Currently, the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Tajikistan (FNPT) encompasses 20 national sectoral trade unions, three provincial trade-union councils, 29 provincial, 28 municipal and 158 district sectoral trade-union committees, and 13,127 primary trade unions, with a membership of 1,228,268 workers.

41. During the last five years, FNPT participated in the preparation of approximately 200 legal or regulatory instruments, including inter alia the Social Partnership, Contracts and Collective Agreements Act, the Employment Promotion Act, the Education Act, the Voluntary Associations Act and the Occupational Safety Act.

42. Pursuant to article 12 of the Social Partnership, Contracts and Collective Agreements Act, the Government adopted decision No. 71 of 2 February 2009, approving the General Agreement between the Government, the Employers’ Association and FNPT, 2009–2011.

43. Trade unions ascribe considerable importance to collective agreements, which cover issues related to, inter alia, wages, bonuses, working conditions, occupational safety, social protection, social insurance, medical benefits, the work of young persons, employment issues, employment conditions, working hours, rest periods and leave. Of the 34,957 enterprises that were active as of 1 November 2010 (out of a total of 40,515 enterprises and organizations, regardless of form of ownership, which existed in that year), 17,404 (61.4%, or 21.2% more than a year earlier) had concluded collective agreements.

44. Various sectoral trade-union committees established and funded benefits additional to State pensions for Second World War participants and disabled ex-servicemen and labour veterans. Food is procured, monetary aid is provided and visits are organized for those particularly in need.

45. Trade unions run an extensive network of health centres, sanatoriums, health resorts and children’s health camps, and tourist and sport facilities are available. In the last five years, more than 14 million somoni were spent under the State social insurance budget for the protection of the health of workers and members of their families. In that period, approximately 39,000 persons, including Second World War participants and disabled ex-servicemen and disabled workers, rested and improved their health at trade union health resorts, sanatoriums and vacation facilities.

46. In the summer of 2011, more than 365,000 children and adolescents improved their health. During the reporting period, more than 2.3 million students and other minors were provided with leisure and health improvement services in school, country and health-and-work work camps. Depending on their social and economic situation, parents pay 10-15 per cent of the overall cost of vacation, which is completely free for low-income family children, orphans and children of working migrants. Those categories account for up to 40 per cent of children provided with summer health-improvement vacation.

47. In five years, 210 pupils of residential schools (for children with special needs) improved their health with the direct support of the Sughd Province Federation of Trade Unions. A special health-improvement and treatment camp was organized for 350 children suffering from eye diseases or diabetes mellitus.

48. The Khamrayi (“Solidarity”), Khonai Umed (“House of Hope”) and Khomii omўzgor (“Teachers’ Defender”) trade-union newspapers and other national and provincial periodic publications appearing in Tajik and Russian publish advice on issues related to labour-, housing- and pension-related law and trade-union organization. Pamphlets on legal issues are published to assist trade-union workers and employers.

49. In the period 2006–2010, at the request of trade-union workers and labour inspectors and with the assistance of procuratorial staff, more than 2 million somoni of wages in arrears were paid to manual and office workers.

50. Pursuant to ILO Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155), the Occupational Safety Act was ratified by the parliament in January 2009 and put into effect on 19 May of the same year.

51. In the period 2005–2009, 36 labour inspectors working in trade-union bodies and servicing 20 sectoral trade-union committees carried out 3,750 inspections in enterprises, organizations and facilities. Of the 16,805 violations of labour and occupational-safety law thereby detected, 13,185 were rectified within the deadlines set by the inspectors. The checks led to suspension of the operation of 1,100 equipment units and 50 production sites and workshops which did not meet safety requirements and whose further functioning would threaten the lives and health of workers.

52. In March 2007, the Labour Inspectorate of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection replaced the former State Inspectorate of Labour and provided with additional supervisory powers in the area of employment and social protection. The Conciliation and Advisory Board on Occupational Safety, created in December 2009 and consisting of representatives of supervisory bodies, the Employers’ Association and FNPT, focuses on improving the system for monitoring compliance with occupational safety law through close and effective cooperation between all State services and public organizations dealing with the prevention of occupational injuries and diseases.

53. The Coordinating Board of Trade Unions of Central Asia Countries, Azerbaijan and Turkey, created in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, aims to develop joint activities related to the protection of the workers’ social and economic interests and promote the exchange of information on problems of the trade-union movement.

54. For information on wages and a breakdown of the number of workers and injuries at the workplace, see the relevant tables in annex 4 to this report.

Article 9

55. Tajikistan’s social security system provides occupational (old-age), disability, breadwinner-loss, seniority and social pensions; social insurance; temporary disability, maternity, family (childbirth and child-care up to the age of 18 months), unemployment, and burial or funeral benefits; and medical insurance (as from 2012). The amounts and payment procedures for pensions and benefits are regulated by the State Social Insurance Act, the Pensions Act and other legal and regulatory instruments.

56. The statutory pensionable age is 63 years for men and 58 years for women, subject to a length of service of, respectively, 25 and 20 years.

57. Under article 165 of the Labour Code, child-care leave may also be taken, all at once or in instalments, by a child’s father, grandmother, grandfather, or other relatives or guardians who actually take care of the child. At the end of maternity leave, if she so wishes, a woman may take child-care leave until the child is 18 months old and receive a State social insurance allowance during that period. She is also entitled to additional leave without pay to care for the child up to the age of 3. Paid maternity leave is 140 days, or 180 days in the event of twins, with a 16 days supplement for labour complications. A lump-sum childbirth benefit covers 140 days. Thereafter, a monthly child allowance is received until the infant is 18 months old.

58. Under the Social Services Act of 5 January 2008 and Ministry of Labour Regulation No. 5 of 26 February 2009, 14 regional centres for the elderly, persons living alone, the disabled, and children with special needs operate in the country. In the cities of Dushanbe, Khudzhand, Istaravshan and Kurgan-Tyube and the districts of Gonch, Jabbar-Rasul, Vakhsh, Bokhtar, Khuroson, Jami and Yavan, social, legal, counselling and medical services are provided to 1,667 vulnerable persons with disabilities or living alone or older persons, including women. In the cities of Khorog and Kulyab and the districts of Gissar and Vose, services are offered to 197 children in day-care centres for children with special needs. Moreover, 1,462 older or disabled persons and persons who live alone or are in need live in State residential centres for the elderly and the disabled in the cities of Vakhdat and Tursunzade and the district of Jabbar-Rasul, and in State homes for the mentally retarded in the districts of Gissar and Vosey.

59. In the Chorbog National Rehabilitation Centre for Children and Adolescents, a State institution in the Varzob district, social, rehabilitation and counselling services are offered to 198 children with special needs. The Special Residential Lyceum for the Disabled of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection is attended by 229 persons with disabilities. The Dushanbe State Enterprise of Orthopaedic Prostheses distributed wheelchairs to 702 disabled persons in need. Rest periods were spent by 2,228 war and labour veterans and disabled persons in four State sanatoriums for those groups (Romit in the city of Vakhdat, Dusti in the Kumsangir district, Yamchun in the Ishkashim district and Kharangon in the Varzob district). Agencies for social services at home provided more than 20 types of assistance to 5,134 vulnerable persons with disabilities or living alone or older persons, including women.

60. Under article 11 of the Architectural, Urban-Planning and Construction Activities Act, urban planning documents must provide for a network of special facilities for physically disabled persons, taking into account their age and/or diseases (inter alia, hospitals, rehabilitation centres, veterans’ shelters and residential establishments for disabled and older persons); and it must be ensured that such persons are able to move unimpeded (inter alia, on foot or wheelchair or using private or public transport), access buildings and structures, including dwellings and apartments, and walk and act freely within such premises and in leisure and tourist facilities.

Article 10[13]

61. The following Tajik State bodies and public organizations engage in combating violence against women: Committee for Women and the Family attached to the Government (hereafter “Committee for Women and the Family”), Government Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Bovari (“Trust”) Crisis Centre for Women, Support Centre for Girls Victims of Violence (attached to the Committee for Women), domestic violence prevention inspectors (in the Ministry of Internal Affairs), 75 information and counselling centres in local executive authorities, and 18 NGO crisis centres for the rehabilitation of women victims of violence. Under a project, 31 crisis centres operated for six months in local executive authorities in 2008.

62. In the period 2004–2010, the Bovari crisis centre, attached to the Committee for Women and the Family, offered legal advice to more than 8,000 women. Counselling is provided to 12 girls living in the State Support centre for girls victims of violence and the Charogi khidoyat (“Guiding Light”) educational centre for orphaned girls. Every month, jurists and psychologists offer legal and psychological counsel to 20-50 women who address themselves to the crisis centres for the rehabilitation of women subjected to violence.

63. Under article 160 of the Labour Code, women may not be employed in heavy or underground work, under harmful working conditions or on jobs involving manual lifting or carrying of weights over a certain limit. Pregnant women and women with children aged up to 3 may not be required to work overtime.[14]

64. The maternity benefit is equal to 100 per cent of the worker’s average earnings during the period preceding entitlement to the benefit.

65. Child-care leave counts as part of total and uninterrupted length of service. Women keep their job or position during such leave.

66. Under article 172 of the Labour Code, an employer may not terminate a labour agreement (contract) with a woman who is pregnant or has children under 3 or a disabled child under 16.

67. According to amendments and additions to the Family Code, the legal age of marriage was set at 18 as from 1 January 2011.

Article 11[15]

68. As part of the implementation of the National Development Strategy, the Poverty Reduction Strategy programme for the period 2007–2009 has been successfully completed and the analogous programme for the period 2010–2012 has entered into force.[16]

69. The rate of poverty declined from 72.4 per cent in 2003 to 53.5 per cent in 2007 and 46.7 per cent in 2009.As the basic strategic document, the National Development Strategy for the period up to 2015 is designed to provide a solid basis for the country’s further development in accordance with the MDGs.

70. Food security and agricultural sector development are basic economic development goals. The country’s uninterrupted food supply largely depends on such development. Investment in foodstuff production infrastructure and processing facilities must be a priority because as a rule international donor support is limited to basic humanitarian and food assistance.

71. The agricultural sector is faced with such problems as limited access to credit, technology and markets, including the domestic consumer market, underdeveloped agricultural infrastructure, high vegetable and fruit processing costs, fodder shortages as a result of reduced fodder-crop sowing, failures in the system of using outlying grazing areas, decreased livestock productivity and inadequate veterinary services. Inadequate information on agrarian reform and modern agricultural production, increased nutrition-related morbidity, and a weak legal, managerial and laboratory infrastructure for ensuring healthy nutrition add to the difficulties.

72. State policy on food security is outlined by the Food Security Act[17] and the National Food Security Programme, 2015.[18]

Social sphere

73. According to the Statistics Agency reporting to the President, social facilities put into operation in the period 2006–2010 comprise, regardless of funding sources, 582 establishments, including 453 general education schools, 2 preschool establishments, 43 hospitals, 83 health centres and 1 cultural centre.

74. The capacity of the above facilities consists in 99,264 general education pupil and student places, 150 preschool places, 1,663 hospital beds, 3,333 visits per health-centre shift and 500 cultural centre places.

75. Total investment in the social sphere in the period 2006–2010 totalled (in US$ thousand) 128,265.4, broken down as follows: 27,446.7 in 2007, 33,209.49 in 2008, 26,569.34 in 2009 and 17,503.79 in 2010.

Right to water (recommendation contained in para. 66 of the Concluding Observations)

76. The Programme for improving the supply of clean drinking water, 2007–2020, adopted by Government Decision No. 514 of 2 December 2006, is expected to provide 85 per cent of village inhabitants with access to quality water.

77. In 2010, 55.8 per cent of the population (compared to 58.1% in 2009) were provided with drinking water from the central supply system, the respective figures in urban and rural areas being 94.5 per cent (95.3% in 2009) and 42.1 per cent (32.1% in 2009). The remaining population (44.2%) meets its domestic and drinking water needs from other, epidemiologically risky sources. Thus, 18.6 per cent of the population uses water from canals, ditches and wells; 9.0 per cent uses spring water; 1.5 per cent water from bore holes without any distribution network; 6.8 per cent river water; 3.8 per cent hand-pumped water; 1.9 per cent water from wells; 2.5 per cent trucked-in water; and 0.2 per cent rainwater.

78. The drinking water situation gives grounds for concern in some areas, such as the Kurgan-Tyubin district, Khatlon province, where only 25.8 per cent of the population is supplied with such water and more than half of the inhabitants use water from open sources (canals, ditches and wells). In that respect, conditions are particularly poor in the Pyanj and Vakhsh districts. Although drinking water is supplied to 65.9 per cent of the population in Kulyab district, Khatlon province, the respective rates for the Farkhor, Baljuvan, Temurmalik, Khovaling and Shurobod districts lag behind the national average.

79. In the case of 2.5 per cent of the country’s population, water for domestic drinking needs is trucked in from sources located at a distance of 1-5 km. That situation is observable in the districts of Vose, Temurmalik, Kumsangir, Kabodiyan, Jilikul and Nosiri Khusrav.

80. Water supply operators monitor the quality of the drinking water produced. The State health and epidemiological monitoring service and its local offices carry out selective checks on the quality of water and its compliance with health requirements.

Right to housing (recommendation contained in paras 64 and 65 of the Concluding Observations)

81. In Tajikistan, housing is regulated by the Housing Code (of 12 December 1997) and other legal and regulatory instruments.

Improvement in housing conditions, 2006–2010



Housing conditions improved
Waiting list for housing conditions improvement or acquisition of a plot to build a dwelling
(as of 1 January 2011)
2 102
7 754

82. During the above period, apartments belonging to the municipality of Dushanbe were mainly made available to persons whose dwellings were subject to demolition. In that context, 138 flats were leased out on a priority basis or sold on favourable terms.

83. In the period 2006-1 January 2011, 93,824 applications for housing conditions improvement were filed by low-income and poor persons in the cities and districts of Sughd province.

84. In the same period, 1,067 thousand sq. m. of housing, consisting of 13,337 (3- and 4-apartment) buildings, including 88.7 thousand sq. m. funded by the State, were made available in the cities and districts of Khatlon province, where 7,681.64 hectares were earmarked for construction and housing conditions improvement for persons in need. Of the 240 persons who are thus currently in possession of a land plot and a building permit, 61 are located in the Bokhtar, 129 in the Muminabad and 50 in the Baldzhuvan districts. The distribution of plots on a priority basis continues according to established procedures.

85. In the period 2005–2010, housing conditions were improved for 54 low-income families in the Tajikobad district, through the distribution of land plots or community housing space.

86. On the basis of an application and voluntarily, 180 Khatlon province families were relocated from the city of Tursunzade to the Dangarin, 228 to the Rudaki and 184 to the Nurabad districts. Land plots of 0.08-0.10 hectares have been made available and foundation concrete has been poured for 867 families relocated to the Dangarin district; and 265 families have been relocated to the Nurabad district.

87. In connection with the construction of the Rogun power plant, 372 families are subject to relocation from the city of Rogun. Under Government Decision No. 47 of 20 January 2009 on the relocation of Rogun city and Nurabad district inhabitants from the flood zone of the Rogun power plant, the relocation of 4,888 families has been planned for the period 2010–2015.

88. As land has been earmarked for State and public uses, 521 apartments in new buildings owned by the municipality have been made available in the period indicated.

89. In the period 2006–2010, provincial land management committee experts detected 2,754 cases of arbitrary land occupation, totalling 234 hectares. In 1,909 of those cases, representing a surface of 186 hectares, reports were drawn up and the offenders incurred administrative liability and penalties in the amount of 871,416 somoni.

90. In the said period, in view of 1,540 infringements consisting in arbitrary occupation of land, 154 hectares were recovered and restored to the previous land users. Under Government Decision No. 603 of 11 November 2010, 9,868 hectares were earmarked as land plots for low-income families in cities and districts. As of 1 March 2011, of the 86,154 families scheduled to obtain such land, 27,446 or 31.9 per cent had received and 58,708 were expecting the plots in question. As part of land use planning in cities and districts of Khatlon province, under Government Decision No. 793 of 22 December 2006, 32 families were relocated in the period 2006–2008 from the construction zone of Sangtudin power plants 1 and 2 to the Zagertut Jamoata settlement, the village of Vakhdat, the cities of Sarband and Jamoata and the village of Iftikhor in the Abdurakhmon Jomi district. Those families received land plots, a lump-sum benefit of 300 somoni, and 510,475 somoni as financial compensation. The Ministry of Labour covered the costs of transport, by truck, of the household belongings of the relocated persons to their new place of residence.

91. For information regarding private expenditure on food, food-product consumption, social policy allocations, drinking water and housing, see the tables in annex 5 to this report.

Article 12[19]

92. The health sector is basically financed under the State budget. In recent years, the country’s overall expenditure on health increased significantly, as follows:

• 2007: 1.9 per cent of GDP or 5.6 per cent of the State budget;

• 2008: 1.7 per cent of GDP or 5.7 per cent of the State budget;

• 2009: 1.9 per cent of GDP or 6.4 per cent of the State budget;

• 2010: 1.6 per cent of GDP or 6.0 per cent of the State budget.

93. The wages of health sector workers increase every year and are, on the average, as follows: 332 somoni for physicians, 206 somoni for intermediate medical personnel, 122 somoni for junior medical personnel, and 206 somoni for other workers (according to data as of 1 October 2010).

94. Every year, the network of out-patient facilities and health centres handles more than 32 million visits (more than four visits per inhabitant on the average), many of which are preventive. Every year, in-patient establishments handle more than 900,000 hospitalizations (12 hospitalizations per 100 persons on the average) and conduct approximately 200,000 operations (heart and major vessel surgery, joint replacement surgery, kidney transplants and stem cell therapy).

95. The National Health Strategy, 2010–2020, adopted by Government Decision No. 368 of 2 August 2010, is aimed at health care development and health protection. The Ministry of Health has approved a strategy implementation plan for the period of 2010–2013 and related monitoring and evaluation matrix.

96. The Programme of State Guarantees Relating to Medical and Health Care in Pilot Regions, 2010–2011, adopted by Government Decision No. 52 of 12 February 2010 and applied to eight such regions, is primarily aimed at regulating medical support and social protection. As part of the Programme, broad ranges of persons on social benefits and others where medically indicated receive comprehensive medical attention free of charge. First aid and emergency medical care are also provided free of charge to all citizens.

97. The skills drain constitutes a serious problem, in connection with which the leadership of the Ministry of Health plans to broaden the scope of paid services. The Government and the Ministry of Health make every effort, particularly by enhancing the earnings and social protection for qualified personnel, to stem the skills drain.

98. Government Decision No. 600 of 2 December 2008 on the procedure for medical and health-care services provided by establishments of the State health care system was adopted in order to regulate informal payments in the health sector and introduce official co-payment and paid services in medical facilities. The first stage of progressive implementation of that decision is taking place in the areas of auxiliary, rehabilitation or expensive medical services.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 69 of the Concluding Observations

99. For statistics on drug addiction and alcoholism, see tables 1 and 2 in annex 6 to this report.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 70 of the Concluding Observations

100. Of the 2,857 cases of HIV infection registered as of 1 January 2011, 2,280 were men and 577 women. Significant efforts have been put into expanding HIV testing coverage in recent years. Of the 826,103 HIV tests conducted in the country in the past five years, 93,852 were carried out in 2007, 148,000 in 2008, 210,179 in 2009 and 280,281 in 2010. That expanded coverage, especially among groups at risk, leads to timely detection of the infection. The number of HIV infection cases detected increased from 339 in 2007 to 373 in 2008, 481 in 2009 and 1,004 in 2010.

101. Since February 2006, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment of HIV infection has been carried out in accordance with the HIV/AIDS-related assistance and treatment clinical guidelines laid down in a Ministry of Health order. Of the 725 persons having undergone ARV treatment as of 31 December 2010, 487 were men, 238 women and 22 children under 14; 156 died (from Kaposi sarcoma, cirrhosis, terminal tuberculosis, drug overdose, cancers and accidents); 65 had their treatment terminated (as a result of use of intravenous drug injections or departure abroad); and 504 (298 men, 206 women) are still under treatment. The number of patients receiving ARV in 2006 was 74 (45 men, 29 women), in 2007 51 (26 men, 25 women), in 2008 106 (73 men, 33 women), in 2009 193 (134 men, 59 women) and in 2010 301 (209 men and 92 women).

102. Of the 168 pregnant women diagnosed as HIV-positive in the period 2004–2010, 123 received preventive ARV treatment in order to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission; 105 gave birth by natural delivery, 53 gave birth by caesarean section; 7 saw their pregnancy terminated; and 3 are under observation. Of the 158 newborns, 2 died within hours; while 106 were put on bottle-feeding, 41 on breastfeeding and 9 on mixed feeding.

103. The HIV/AIDS Prevention Programme, 2007–2010, has been adopted to safeguard the rights of vulnerable groups of patients, reduce the spread of the disease and promote prevention among both genders, including young persons and adolescents. Through the National Coordinating Committee for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control, relevant sectoral programmes were approved and adopted by the Ministries of Health, Defence and Education, and the Committee for Youth, Sport and Tourism.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 72 of the Concluding Observations

104. As of 2010, there were in total 47,000 psychiatric patients (0.62% of the country’s population).

105. In 2007, the Ministry of Health set up medical counselling units for youth-friendly services in six reproductive health centres in Dushanbe and in two such centres in the centrally administered districts. These units provide increased access to clinical and counselling services and aim to improve young people’s knowledge, attitudes and basic habits in respect of sexual and reproductive health.

106. Dissemination of knowledge on transmission and prevention is an important component of the strategy to reduce the level of HIV/AIDS infection and to improve attitudes towards HIV patients. In 2007, 68.5 per cent of persons aged 15-49 were aware of HIV/AIDS. Men show greater awareness on all issues than women. In recent years, the number of infections among women has increased: for instance, women accounted for 20.6 per cent of registered patients as of 1 April 2010 compared to 14 per cent in 2000.

107. Increasing numbers of HIV cases are being reported among migrant workers, with that group accounting for 20.2 per cent of new cases of HIV infection in the first half of 2009.

108. The curriculum of the State Islamic Institute of Tajikistan covers issues related to reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. Religious leaders are trained locally and encouraged to advocate safe behaviour.

109. Cases are currently reported in which medical workers take, in their work, a negative attitude towards and discriminate against persons living with HIV (PLWH). In order to prevent such occurrences, it is necessary to organize training seminars and awareness-raising activities for health personnel, particularly primary medical and health care specialists, and to acquaint medical workers with the legal and regulatory instruments and guidelines for HIV/AIDS prevention adopted by the Government and the Ministry of Health.

110. Analysis of maternal mortality cases has revealed a 25 per cent rate of deaths during pregnancy and labour among multiparae. The infant mortality rate (deaths among children up to 1 year of age) was, per 1,000 live births, 17.7 in 2009 according to official demographic statistics; while independent surveys (by United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)/State Statistics Committee (Goskomstat) – 2007) assessed it at 46.0 and the child mortality rate (deaths among children up to 4 years of age) at 53 per 1,000 live births.

111. Data covering three years show a sharp increase in neonatal mortality in 2009, apparently in connection with improved registration of deaths. In that year, neonatal mortality accounted for 57.1 per cent of infant mortality. In 2010, however, neonatal mortality decreased by 217 cases or 14.4 per cent compared to 2008 and by 540 cases or 35.8 per cent compared to 2009 but accounted again for 57.1 per cent of infant mortality, compared to 52.2 per cent in 2008.

112. With regard to post-natal mortality, most deaths are caused by respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia. The respective rates were 714 and 308 cases (45.4 and 19.7%) in 2008, 692 and 288 cases (45.1 and 18.8%) in 2009, and 575 and 221 cases (50.9 and 25.5%) in 2010. Intestinal infections, second most important factor, accounted for 20.6 per cent of deaths in 2008, 19.3 per cent in 2009 and 14.5 per cent in 2010. Acute respiratory infection, third most important factor, accounted for 16.8 per cent of deaths in 2008, 20.2 per cent in 2009 and 21.1 per cent in 2010.

113. Heart defects accounted for 52.6 per cent of deaths from congenital abnormalities in 2008, 53.9 per cent in 2009 and 59.5 per cent in 2010. Evidently, that increase reveals improved diagnosis.

114. The Ministry of Health and its local offices are focusing their efforts on reducing infant mortality, whose main causes remain respiratory diseases, pneumonia and intestinal infections. The WHO (World Health Organization) Integrated Management of Childhood Illness is being introduced into the country’s health care practices in order to address those problems and reduce child mortality from such ailments.

115. The maternal mortality rate, per 1,000 live births, was 44.4 in 2010, compared to 47.2 in 2009. According to an analysis of the situation in 2010, the causes of maternal mortality are, by order of significance, extragenital disorders, haemorrhage and gestational toxicosis.

116. Under the Strategic Plan for the Protection of Child and Adolescent Health for the period up to 2015 and the National Plan for the Protection of Maternal Health for the period up to 2014, which were adopted by Government decision in 2008:

• A national paediatrics and children’s surgery research and treatment centre and a national centre for the rehabilitation of children were created;

• With UNICEF and World Bank support, all of the country’s primary health-care facilities have been fully equipped with anthropometric appliances (scales and height rods);

• 68 per cent of the country’s maternity institutions hold an international “child-friendly establishment” certificate. The increase in the number of such institutions in recent years has contributed to reducing the number of home births, whose rate in 2010 was 12 per cent;

• 35 guidelines on newborn care and treatment, 8 clinical guidelines on individual treatment of childhood diseases and 7 guidelines on undernutrition have been drawn up and approved; and so have guidance notes on “Iodine, vitamin A and iron microelements” for medical and community workers, an information note on “Nutrition during pregnancy, and breast feeding” for mothers, and a guidance note on “Determining a child’s health group”;

• 20-bed therapeutic nutrition centres, supported by UNICEF and the World Food Programme (WFP), have been organized and operate in the Shaartuz district and the city of Kulyabe in Khatlon province. For the first time in the country, F-75 and F-100 formulas and Sprinkles micronutrients are used on underweight children for prevention and therapeutic nutrition purposes. With UNICEF support, 4,284,000 Sprinkles micronutrient envelopes have been obtained and distributed to 71,400 infants aged 6-24 months in 16 pilot districts. Vitamin A is distributed twice a year for children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years to prevent infectious diseases and reduce child mortality. Every year, approximately 814,000 children (95.7%) and 6,569 post partum women up to 40 days after childbirth (96.3%) receive vitamin A;

• In 2010, with the support of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and UNICEF, medicines of a value of US$ 145,081.98 were obtained and distributed to primary health care establishments as part of the second component of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy;

• Standards have been drawn up for antenatal care, physiological births, haemorrhage and high blood pressure disturbances; and 11 standards have been developed for complicated pregnancies and childbirths;

• A regulation has been drawn up for first- and second-level in-patient maternity clinics;

• A draft regulation has been drawn up for third-level in-patient maternity clinics;

• A draft regulation has been drawn up on safe abortion procedures;

• Quarterlies entitled Mother and Child and Paediatrics and Child Surgery in Tajikistan are published;

• More than 700 specialists (obstetrician-gynaecologists, anaesthesiologist-resuscitators, neonatologists, general practitioners, midwives and nurses) have received training in the standards adopted;

• In 2010, with German Organisation for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) support, eight physicians specialized in anaesthesiology and resuscitation and eight neonatologists of the country’s major maternity facilities received training in Kaunas, Lithuania;

• Emergency obstetrical care departments have been created in the Research Institute of Midwifery, Gynaecology and Perinatology; the provincial hospital in the city of Kurgantyube, Khatlon province; the provincial maternity facility in the city of Khudzhand, Sughd province; and the provincial hospital in the city of Khorg, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (GBAO). With the help of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), these departments have been equipped with special mobile resuscitation vehicles. The new departments are responsible for providing any necessary specialized obstetrical care and handling complicated deliveries requiring higher obstetrical skills. In 2010, specialists of these departments dealt with more than 400 requests and saved the lives of at least 300 women;

• In cooperation with UNFPA, city and district maternity hospitals were provided with necessary drugs and suture material meeting the relevant standards;

• In the preceding year, pregnant women were vaccinated against influenza and related complications;

• Five “Mothers’ schools”, providing prenatal training for women, have been created in each of the following areas: Khatlon province, Sughd province and Dushanbe.

117. For information on the number of medical doctors and dentists in Dushanbe and the country’s provinces in the period 2006–2010, see table 3 in annex 6 to this report.

Articles 13 and 14[20]

118. The strategy, goals and tasks of education development are laid down in the following legal and regulatory instruments, which were adopted during the reporting period:

• State Programme for the Development of Education, 2010–2015;

• State educational standards (2009);

• Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2010–2012, education sector (2009);

• State Programme for computerization of secondary schools, 2011–2015;

• Policy Framework for Transition to a New General-Education System (2010);

• State School-Reconstruction Programme (2008).

119. According to Ministry of Education data, 3,747 general education establishments, including six correspondence schools, operated in Tajikistan in the 2010/11 school year. General education day schools were attended by 1,694 thousand pupils or students, as follows:

Thousand pupils or students
Level I – Initial education (grades 1-4)
Number of girls
Level II – Basic education (grades 5-9)
Number of girls
Level III – Secondary general education (grades 10-11)
Number of girls

120. Of the 3,841 schools in operation, 607 (16%) function in one shift, 2,987 (80%) in two shifts and 147 (4%) in three shifts.

121. In 2010, of the 158.5 thousand basic-education (grades 1-9) graduates, 73.3 thousand were girls.

122. Of the total number of grade 9 graduates, approximately 75 per cent enrol for grade 10, trade schools or secondary vocational education establishments; while 25 per cent leave the education system, mainly to enter the labour market.

123. Of the 85,000 persons graduating on the average from secondary school (grade 11) every year, girls account for 40 per cent, 3 per cent more than in 2005; and 45.9 per cent (only approximately 33% in the case of girls) enter higher education.

124. Free secondary basic and general education expenditures cover mainly such items as wages and social insurance contributions, management, office supplies, community services, and equipment procurement and repair.

125. With a view to providing equal access to basic education and increasing secondary school enrolment, improved quality of education is a priority under the National Educational Policy Framework and the National Policy Framework for Transition to a New General-Education System. To that end, a shift to a 12-year general education system is planned. The main lines of education policy consist in improving access to education, especially for pupils from low-income families; raising school attendance; promoting gender equality through modernization and reform of the education system; and ensuring participation by all political, economic and social institutions in raising children. Special attention is paid to the introduction of new technologies; development of new curricula and textbooks; rehabilitation of schools; provision of new equipment; management of educational resources and teaching potential; legislative reform; financial management reform, including funding based on costs per pupil or student; expansion of vocational training; and effective monitoring and evaluation of quality and planning.

126. The State systematically guarantees free basic education in specialized institutions for persons who have not followed or completed primary education. The country’s 15 boarding schools for children with disabilities or requiring prolonged treatment are attended by 2,504 children, including 605 girls.

127. The Initial Vocational Training Act[21] provides for, inter alia, making the training in question available in various types of educational institutions; organizing integrated programmes of initial and secondary vocational education matching labour market needs; retraining the jobless or unemployed; offering further training on a paying basis; and providing services to the population. All forms of initial vocational training are governed by appropriate State standards.

128. The National Action Plan to reform initial vocational training and the education system, 2006–2015, adopted by Government Decision No. 227 of 3 June 2006, is aimed at implementing the relevant strategy.

129. Of the 22,300 students attending the country’s 66 professional and technical schools (PTUs) during the 2010/11 school year, 3,400 were girls. The period of instruction at a PTU is two years after grade 9 and one year after grade 11. Every year, approximately 13,000 enter and 10,500 graduate from secondary vocational schools. Girls account for 58 per cent of graduates.

130. Every year, approximately 29,000 students enter and 25,700 graduate from higher education institutions. Girls account for 28 per cent of graduates. Including branch establishments, 34 professional higher education institutions operate in the country. Of the 154,800 students attending them in 2010, 57,400 studied with financial assistance provided under the State budget.

131. In view of demand and the capabilities of the education system, higher education instruction is provided in the State language (76.9%), Russian (21.6%) and Uzbek (2.2%).

132. In 2008, the President of Tajikistan established the Durakhshandagon International Grant,[22] through which 171 Tajik citizens studied in higher education institutions in, inter alia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, China, Turkey and Egypt in the period 2008–2010; and 27 places were made available for students abroad in the 2011–2012 period. In the period 2005–2010, the Ministry of Education sent in total 2,452 students to foreign higher education institutions.

Partial information regarding the recommendation of paragraph 74 of the Concluding Observations

133. In 2010, total expenditures on education amounted to 1,092 million somoni or 4.6 per cent of GDP, compared to 3.5 per cent of GDP in 2005.

134. Since 2003, the education system has absorbed more than US$ 54.03 million in international loans and grants. According to expert estimates, in view of the demographic 2.0 per cent annual increase in the number of students and the requirements of quality education, the education sector should be financed at an overall rate equal to at least 7 per cent of GDP, regardless of funding sources.

135. For information on the annual breakdown of the education budget by education level, see paragraph 693 (regarding art. 13) in Tajikistan’s initial report.

136. The State Programme for building, renovating and reconstructing schools, 2009–2015, is funded under the budget and by international organizations.

Development of the number of student places[23]

Student places
6 840
14 386
16 617
Of which:
places funded under the State budget
1 688
2 501

137. As mentioned above, the State Centre for Adult Education, operating under the Ministry of Labour, has branches in the country’s various districts and cities. Further related information is provided, in relation to the relevant articles, in Tajikistan’s initial report on the implementation of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW/C/TJK/1).

138. Information on the education system, conditions related to graduates, the state of education financing, the population’s education level, education management expenditures and the number of teachers and lecturers is also contained in the tables in annex 7 to this report.

Article 15[24]

139. New legislation has been adopted in the form of the Historical and Cultural Heritage Act of 3 March 2006.

Funding for various areas of the sector of culture, 2006–2010


Thousand somoni
Million somoni

Educational institutions
4 332
6 039
6 929

Culture and art
12 256
14 334
17 247

2 036

17 548
21 265
26 212

Share of culture and art in total Ministry of Culture expenditures (%)

140. The following bodies and organizations operate in the area of culture:

• Ministry of Culture (and, inter alia, its local offices and divisions, the Directorate for Culture, the Directorate for Art, the Division for the protection and use of historical and cultural heritage, and the art experts’ unit);

• Scientific Research Institute on Culture and information;

• National Conservatory;

• State Institute of Art;

• Music and Choreography College.

141. The country’s 15 State professional theatres include the following, inter alia:

Lokhut State academic dramatic theatre;

Ayna State academic theatre of opera and ballet;

Vakhidov State youth theatre;

• Mayakovski State Russian dramatic theatre;

• State puppet theatre.

142. Concert organizations:

• State philharmonic society;

• State association of creative organizations;

Valamatzade “Lola” State dance ensemble;

Bazmoro State concert tour association.

143. A State circus is in operation.

144. The following institutional infrastructure bodies have been created in the area of popular arts and crafts in order to promote participation in and access to cultural life:

Khaft paykar international fund for Tajik craftsmen and Association of Tajik craftsmen, which specialize in the production and marketing of ethnic artistic gold-embroidered articles;

Umed women’s NGO for ethnic artistic decorative embroidery of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (GBAO);

Rukhom organization for the production of marble and silver adornments;

Interfer organization for artistic hide and fur processing;

• Women’s workshops, established in centrally administered districts for the manufacture of the well-known suzani embroidered textiles and unique quality ceramic souvenirs and items for everyday use.

145. Under the State Programme for computerization of public libraries, 2011–2013, adopted by the Government, all provincial, central, urban and district libraries are to be computerized and connected to the Internet.

146. Under the Cultural Development Programme, 2008–2015, adopted by Government Decision No. 85 of 3 March 2007, the Ministry of Culture organizes every year a national festival for young artists, to which gifted low-income family, immigrant and refugee children, including from Afghanistan, are invited.

147. In the provincial libraries of the Sughd and Khatlon provinces, compartments for visually impaired readers have been set up and provided with special equipment and literature set in Braille.

148. Ethnic cultural centres protect and develop the cultures of the respective minorities. Such centres are effective in lending additional impulse to the comprehensive development of social and cultural activities.

149. Within the framework of the Educational and Cultural Technology Programme and the Programme for the computerization of educational institutions operating under the Ministry of Culture, 2007–2010, all educational institutions in the area of culture and the arts are provided with computers, printers and multimedia technology, which facilitate access to the possibilities offered by modern technology.

150. The Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act forms the basis for interrelations between authors and users and lays down the principle of contractual freedom. The Act has been examined by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and meets international intellectual property protection standards.

151. Forgery and other violations of copyright provisions are punishable under articles 375-310 of the Code of Administrative Offences.

152. More than 2,000 cultural monuments from all periods of human history are currently recorded in State registers and include inter alia: 220 settlements and fortifications, 70 fortresses, 81 ancient tombs, 93 excavations, 654 sites not yet studied, 69 mausoleums of Tajik historical figures, 58 historical mosques, 5 caravanserais, 12 minarets, 13 madrasas, 160 sculptures and 179 monuments commemorating various cultures and civilizations. In 2010, the unique archaeological site of Sarazm, one of the earliest human settlements, was included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO.

153. In the last two years, the Government earmarked more than 3.5 million somoni for the protection, renovation and rehabilitation of immovable cultural heritage, making it possible to restore or rehabilitate more than ten architectural monuments and protect two monuments. Conservation and restoration work is also funded by local executive authorities, ministries, departments, bodies and individuals under the supervision of Ministry of Culture experts.

154. The conservation of cultural heritage is also financed by various international organizations and foreign delegations. For instance, UNESCO completed the conservation of the Buddhist seventh-century cloister of Ajina-Tepa at a cost of US$ 711,000; and the United States Embassy restored the Hodja Mashkhad madrasa, a unique architectural monument, at a cost of US$ 116,000.

155. Preliminary work is currently under way with a view to the inclusion of eight renowned monuments in the World Heritage List of UNESCO.

156. Work is in progress for the creation of separate protected zones of national or local historical or cultural significance, such as reserves at Khulbuk and Dangara. The Government is directly supporting repair and restoration work on the Gissar fortress with a view to creating a centre of international tourism.

157. Through the Akhmad Donish Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography, the Institute of Oriental Studies and the Fund of manuscripts, the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan deals with issues related to the protection and use of immovable and movable cultural heritage,. In addition to the National Museum of Antiquities and the Museum of Ethnography, the above Institute oversees two protected archaeological areas (Sarazm and Pendzhikent) and three archaeological sites. After more than 60 years of studies, experts of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg launched conservation work on the ancient fortification of Pendzhikent.

158. The Institute of Oriental Studies and the Fund of manuscripts possess more than 5,000 handwritten books, other manuscripts, parchment documents and related items covering centuries of history. However, the safety of those articles is an issue. Many need restoration. There is a noticeable shortage of professionals in that area.

159. As of 1 January 2011, 268 newspapers, 136 magazines and 8 information agencies were registered in Tajikistan. Newspapers are published in various languages as follows: 85 in Tajik; 85 in Russian; 6 in Uzbek; 14 in Tajik and Uzbek ; 83 in Tajik and Russian; 2 in Russian and English; 26 in Tajik, Russian and English; 14 in Tajik, Russian and Uzbek; 3 in Tajik, Russian, English and Farsi; and 1 in Kyrgyz, Tajik and Persian. Of the newspapers, 56 are State-owned, 136 private, 36 public and 39 sector-based.

160. Magazines are published in various languages as follows: 19 in Tajik; none in Russian; 4 in Uzbek; 4 in Tajik, Russian and Uzbek; 1 in Tajik and Uzbek; 49 in Tajik and Russian; 37 in Tajik, Russian and English; 1 in Tajik, Russian and Arabic; and 1 in Tajik, Russian, Kyrgyz and English. Of the magazines, 12 are State-owned, 49 private, 23 public and 52 sector-based.

161. Of the eight information agencies, only Khovar is governmental.

162. The following four State television channels operate in the country: First Channel, Safina Channel, Bakhoriston Channel for children and adolescents and Poytakht Channel.

163. Information centres, computerized sections and an electronic library operate in the National Library and the provincial Toshhuja Asiri Library.

164. Tajikistan has concluded a number of international scientific and cultural cooperation agreements (see annex 8).

IV. Replies regarding the recommendations contained in the Concluding Observations of the Committee

Recommendation contained in paragraph 43

165. In accordance with the strategic plan of action of the Council of Justice Judicial Training Centre, subjects related to the Covenant (two hours) have been included in the training programme for judges.

166. The Judicial Reform Programme, 2011–2013, was adopted by Presidential Decree No. 976 of 3 January 2011.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 44

167. In March 2008, the parliament adopted the Commissioner for Human Rights Act. For further information on the activity of the Commissioner, see paragraphs 45-47 of Tajikistan’s second periodic report on the implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR/C/TJK/2).

168. Of the Commissioner’s total 2011 budget of 829,191.7 somoni, 641,720 somoni were allocated under the State budget and 187,471.7 somoni were provided by donors.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 46

169. The principles underlying the national anti-corruption policy involve the formulation and ongoing implementation of measures taken by the State to eradicate factors and situations conducive to the spread of corruption. The components of that policy consist in the systematic enhancement of the effectiveness of the State’s legal mechanisms in combating corruption; the development of a modern legal and institutional framework for that combat; and a long-term approach to the problem in question.

170. On 25 September 2006, Tajikistan acceded to the United Nations Convention against Corruption, ratified by the Tajik parliament on 16 April 2008. Upon signature of the Convention in 2006 and before ratification, work was launched on aligning the country’s legal and regulatory instruments with the requirements of the Convention; and, as part of State administration reform, the number of ministries and departments was reduced from 25 to 17. In particular, tax police authorities, the Government Financial Control Committee and the anti-corruption directorate in the Office of the Procurator-General were abolished. In order to promote comprehensive action against corruption, the relevant Presidential Decree of 10 January 2007 transformed those structures into the Government Financial Control and Anti-Corruption Agency, an independent specialized law-enforcement body whose basic tasks consist in preventing, detecting and prosecuting corruption-related offences; inquiring and investigating crimes involving corruption; and exercising governmental financial monitoring to ensure appropriate use of budget funds.

171. The Convention’s requirements were also taken into account in the Government Financial Control and Anti-Corruption Agency Act of 20 March 2008, pursuant to which the Agency reports, as regards its activity, solely to the President of Tajikistan; and, with regard to government financial monitoring, is accountable to the lower chamber of the parliament. Any improper interference in the Agency’s activity is punishable under the law.

172. The Agency comprises the General Directorate for Government Financial Control, the General Directorate for Combating Corruption and Related Economic Crimes, the Investigation Directorate, the Special Operational Directorate, the Organization and Inspection Directorate, the Corruption Prevention Directorate, the Internal Security Directorate, the Information Analysis Division, a number of other sections and regional directorates in the provinces and in Dushanbe. The Agency employs a staff of 575.

173. Through 3,739 inspections and checks carried out in its four years of activity in ministries and departments, State bodies and organizations, and local authorities of the State, the General Directorate for Government Financial Control identified a total financial damage in the amount of 374.4 million somoni, much of which was recovered through the measures taken. To this date, the General Directorate for Combating Corruption and Related Economic Crimes and its local offices have detected more than 3,000 cases of corruption, related economic crimes and tax evasion, including approximately 500 occurrences of bribery and more than 1,040 misappropriations of State assets. In that period, the Agency’s inspectors fully investigated and brought more than 1,000 criminal cases involving more than 1,300 indicted persons.

174. The Anti-Corruption Strategy, 2008–2012, adopted by Government Decision No. 34 of 26 January 2008, has been successfully implemented.

175. An anti-corruption programme for the education sector, 2009–2012, was adopted by a Ministry of Education decision of 3 September 2009. Under that programme, the Ministry, in cooperation with the Government Financial Control and Anti-Corruption Agency, provided for the introduction into the study programmes of all of the country’s higher education institutions of a special course on preventing and combating corruption; and prepared and approved courses and lectures for law and business students which are based on the findings of the Agency’s corruption-related investigations.

176. The Presidential Decree of 30 April 2010 on additional measures for strengthening action against corruption is aimed at reinforcing compliance with the provisions of the State Anti-Corruption Strategy and with international obligations under the United Nations Convention against Corruption. Under the Decree, the heads of ministries and departments are directly and personally responsible for the measures taken against corruption in the services directed by them. In implementation of the Decree, Government Decision No. 431 of 2 September 2010 established a schedule for the measures to be taken for its enforcement, and specified the respective executing entities and time limits for the period 2010–2012.

177. Tajikistan actively participates in the implementation of the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia; the Eurasian Group on combating money laundering and financing of terrorism; the Coordinating Council of the Chiefs of Tax Crimes Investigation Services of the CIS Countries; and other international and intergovernmental anti-corruption bodies.

178. Tajikistan has paved the way for gradual transition to full implementation of OECD recommendations for introducing legislation in line with Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) standards. In particular, by Decision No. 292 of 16 September 2009 of the Board of the National Bank of Tajikistan, amendments were made to National Bank Guideline No. 148 on the procedure to be followed by authorized representatives of the National Bank in checking credit organizations, microcredit deposit organizations and their branches. That document, drawn up in light of the criteria proposed by FATF with regard to doubtful and suspicious operations, must be complied with by all credit organizations in opening and maintaining accounts, issuing guarantees, offering security, extending loans, providing cash management and payment services, conducting other operations or entering into other contractual relationships.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 48

179. Under Government Decision No. 599 of 2 December 2008 adopting the immigration control regulation, the Ministry of Internal Affairs is entrusted with working with asylum seekers. The Ministry’s Law Enforcement Directorate includes the Division for Citizenship and Work with Refugees. The regulation of the Ministry’s commission which considers applications for refugee status has been adopted.

180. Under Government Decision No. 1501 of 2 December 2009 on the adoption of the Act amending and completing the Refugees Act, work is under way to facilitate admitting, placing and determining the status of refugees, most of whom come from Afghanistan.

181. Tajikistan, which is a workforce source country, has also become a receiving and transit country for Afghan refugees. In 2009, the competent authorities approved 2,051 refugee status applications. The somewhat improved political situation observed in Afghanistan in the previous year encouraged Afghan refugees to return to their country. With the support of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), in cooperation with the Government of Tajikistan, a programme was developed and implemented for the voluntary migration of more than 1,000 Afghan refugees to Canada and the United States. Currently, the number of refugee status applications stands at 493. Refugees enjoy all rights and freedoms to which Tajik citizens are entitled, subject to restrictions necessitated by national security considerations and the need to protect the health of the indigenous population. Refugee children attend secondary and specialized schools and may enter higher education institutions on an equal footing with Tajik citizens.

182. In 2010, in accordance with Tajik law and regulations, refugee status was refused in 71 cases.

183. In Tajikistan, work with refugees complies with the basic principles and standards enshrined in international treaties. For instance, 12 refugee status applications by heads of families that totalled 56 members were approved in view of events in Kyrgyzstan.

Recommendation contained in paragraphs 49 and 62

184. For detailed information on the protection of the rights of migrant workers and members of their families and measures against human trafficking, see Tajikistan’s initial report on the implementation of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and second periodic report on the implementation of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 56

185. Currently, the social contribution (social tax) payable by corporate and individual employers amounts to, respectively, 25 and 20 per cent of total payroll; while an insured worker contributes 1 per cent of wages.

186. The Contributory and State Pensions Act, adopted in January 2010 and scheduled to take effect on 1 January 2013, aims to reform and improve the pension system in order to make it more effective. A draft Statutory Pension Insurance Act, a draft Statutory Professional Pension Insurance Act and other legal and regulatory instruments currently under preparation are expected to improve and regulate further relations in respect of pension insurance and professional pensions under the multi-tiered pension system.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 60

187. A department of social protection for mothers and children, set up in cooperation with the UNICEF country office, has been operating in the headquarters of the Ministry of Labour since October 2007. In accordance with the quarterly work plan of the department of social services and social protection for families and children, a draft standard regulation for social services at home and related draft standards have been prepared on the basis of recommendations intended to fill gaps in the system of such services. Moreover, a draft checklist of State-guaranteed social services (provided at home, in hospitals and in State temporary-stay shelters) has been prepared for the social insurance system.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 61

188. Funding for labour, employment and social protection supervision services has steadily increased. Compared to 2008, for instance, it increased by 33.5 per cent in 2009 and 48.9 per cent in 2010. In certain international organizations, there are currently draft proposals for providing technical support to Government services in the form of computers, measuring instruments and laboratories for assessing working conditions and certifying workplaces. Preparatory work is under way with a view to hiring specialists on a competitive basis to fill vacant posts in such services.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 63

189. The Poverty Reduction Strategy is aimed at raising the standard of living of the population, especially socially vulnerable groups, through economic growth and human potential enhancement. Measures under that strategy are in line with the statement on “Poverty and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” and with plans to implement the Committee’s recommendation to step up the integration of economic, social and cultural rights into the strategy. Action under the above strategy is based on the objectives and priorities of the National Development Strategy (State administration reform; private sector development and encouragement of investment; and human resources development) and aims to promote Tajikistan as a democratic and prospering State, in which the achievements of political, social and economic development will benefit all members of society on an equal footing.

190. Cross-cutting problems encountered in connection with the Poverty Reduction Strategy are specifically addressed through three main thrusts of the relevant policy. The issues thus addressed include primarily the following:

System transformation, involving consistent institutional reforms in all sectors of public life with a view to expanding and deepening market relations and promoting economic development, poverty reduction and comprehensive respect for human rights;

Demographic problems, requiring an intersectoral approach to employment promotion, migrant labour regulation, workforce quality enhancement and family planning;

Environmentally sustainable development, achievable only through coordinated measures in the areas of management, industrial development, agriculture, energy, infrastructure, and the education and health care systems;

Gender equality and promotion of women’s rights and capabilities, particularly in the areas of management, occupational remuneration and safety, education, health and a safe living environment.

191. Donor assistance pledged for the implementation of the poverty reduction strategy at the Meeting of the Consultative Group of Donors for Tajikistan, Development Forum,[25] totalled US$ 596 million, broken down as follows:

• 2007: US$ 229 million;

• 2008: US$ 208 million;

• 2009: US$ 159 million.

192. With regard to macroeconomic development, it should be noted that, shortly before the global financial and economic crisis, Tajikistan’s economy was experiencing considerable development, leading to significant positive changes at the macroeconomic level. The country’s macroeconomic situation in early 2009 was characterized by the developments described in the rest of this paragraph. In that year, as world prices for the country’s main export products declined, foreign trade shrank by 27.2 per cent compared to the previous year (by 28.3% in exports and 21.5% in imports). The foreign trade balance deteriorated because export (cotton-fibre and aluminium) prices declined faster than import prices, causing a current account deficit. A slump in the Russian Federation’s economy affected the employment of migrant workers and translated into a 31.4 per cent decline in their remittances. The measures taken by the Government in the face of the global crisis ensured a steadier economic development. With a nominal GDP of 20,628.5 million somoni in 2009, the real economy attained 103.9 per cent compared to 2008. The per capita GDP of 2,762 somoni was 15.5 per cent higher than in 2008. Last year’s draft State budget of 5,541.2 million somoni or 26.9 per cent of GDP was equal to 99.7 per cent of total revenue. As a result of limited consumer demand and coordinated monetary policy, consumption-related inflation in 2009 increased at a normal rate, attaining 5 per cent, 2.4 times less than its 2008 level (11.8%).

193. In order to counteract the impact of the global crisis on the country’s domestic economic processes, the Government adopted in April 2009 a plan for additional short-term anticrisis measures. Under the anticrisis plan, the donor community approved, in 2009, coordinated assistance to the country in the amount of US$ 154 million. In April 2009, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a three-year (2009–2011) agreement with the Government of Tajikistan on a mechanism for poverty reduction financing and on economic development assistance in the amount of US$ 116 million (including US$ 70 million granted in 2009). Moreover, IMF earmarked an additional US$ 100 million as support for the Government’s anticrisis action.

194. There are plans to analyze the taxation mechanism and align it with modern requirements with a view to boosting entrepreneurial and investment activities. In view of the complexity of authorization procedures, there are also plans to abolish unnecessary licences that are incompatible with market conditions and to introduce the “one stop shop” approach in order to streamline the insurance system, enhance the business community’s accountability and establish limited control over its activity.

195. In order to promote Tajikistan’s participation in the global economy and complete the process of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), a set of measures is envisaged, aimed at analyzing the consequences of globalization, ensuring access to internal markets, reviewing the country’s economic interests, fulfilling the conditions of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), reducing technical barriers to trade, meeting sanitary and phytosanitary standards, providing advanced training to international trade and law experts, revitalizing the activity of Tajikistan’s missions to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva which entertain relations with WTO, and ensuring full participation in the process of formulation and adoption of international trade decisions.

196. The development of regional cooperation requires improving the relevant legal and regulatory framework; building cooperation on transport and transit within the various regions in addressing regional transit problems and transport-related deadlocks; furthering cooperation on the effective use of water and energy resources and hydrocarbon reserves; developing regional trade; adopting measures for streamlining trade-related procedures at the regional level; stepping up the process of entry into the Customs Union and the Single Economic Zone within the Eurasian Economic Community; participating more actively in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SOC); fostering relations within the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO); establishing transport corridors; and setting up an international energy consortium and building the capacities for power transmission in other countries of the region through new power lines.

197. Diversifying the product and sectoral structure of trade and streamlining trade-related procedures constitute one of the most complex problems in this area. In view of limited available resources, priority is given to boosting the country’s foreign trade through consistent efforts to develop the export-oriented sectors of the economy; designing sectoral export-development programmes on the basis of the country’s comparative advantages; improving the tariff and customs policy by creating an advisory committee on trade-related procedures; entering negotiations with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and the Russian Federation on eliminating monetary deposit requirements for the transit of merchandise through these countries; improving the mechanism for issuing licenses for the production, transport and sale of alcoholic products; improving the insurance system for legal entities and individuals; and resolving the issue of the establishment and functioning of free economic zones.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 71

198. Regarding the protection of the rights of persons deprived of liberty, see the relevant sections of Tajikistan’s second periodic report on the implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and second periodic report on the implementation of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 74[26]

199. Within the education system, measures are taken to shift from a project-based to a sectoral approach. In February 2008, the Ministry of Education proceeded to formulate its own an investment plan, financed by the Catalytic Fund and managed by the World Bank Group. It is expected that all future investment plans will be drawn up by the Ministry. Presumably, the gradual decline of project management centres and the enhanced role of sectoral ministries and departments will lead to more effective management of resources and greater project sustainability.

Recommendation contained in paragraph 76

200. Low-income families are designated as such in accordance with Government Decision No. 379 of 1 August 2008 and the related rules for designating low-income families and granting and paying power and natural gas consumption allowances.[27]

201. Allowances are paid at the place of residence to low-income families whose monthly average per capita income does not exceed 50 per cent of the current minimum wage; families with many children which have lost their breadwinner or include disabled children; families whose head or at least two of whose members are disabled; older persons living alone; and persons with disabilities. Priority is given to families whose average monthly income per family member does not exceed 50 per cent of the average monthly wage applicable to their place of residence.

202. Provincial, district and urban commissions and the commissions of town and village administrations, housing and utility bodies or Makhalla councils ascertain low-income family status and entitlement to allowances; establish the list of beneficiaries; and monitor the use of funds.

203. Government Decision No. 244 on low-income families with children attending general education schools was adopted on 2 May 2007.

204. The country’s legal and regulatory framework on social standards includes the State Social Standards Act, adopted on 19 May 2009. Indicators and standards in respect of low-income families were developed in 2010 under Government Decision No. 586 of 30 October 2010 on launching a pilot mechanism for targeted social support in the city of Istaravshan and the Yavan district. That Government Decision also established the procedure for determining and paying targeted social benefits.

205. The method for defining criteria for low-income families entitled to targeted social benefits was designed and approved by the Ministry of Labour in concert with the Ministry of Economic Development, the Ministry of Finance and the Statistics Agency reporting to the President. Moreover, in accordance with Government Decisions No. 244 (referred to above) and No. 379 of 1 August 2008, indicators and standards were established with respect to low-income persons.

206. Under Government Decision No. 379, provincial, district and urban commissions are formed by decision of the head of the province, district or city and consist of staff members of social protection, finance, labour, employment and statistics services, the energy supply organizations, trade union bodies and other relevant entities.

207. Records are kept only for low-income families and persons, with a breakdown by district or city. The aforementioned commissions are entrusted with drawing up the relevant lists. In the period 2006–2010, the number of low-income families developed as follows: 412,882 in 2006, 323,214 in 2007, 233,696 in 2008, 241,000 in 2009 and 241,400 in 2010.

[*] In accordance with the information transmitted to States parties regarding the processing of their reports, the present document was not formally edited before being sent to the United Nations translation services.

[1] See paras. 1, 13 and 14 of Tajikistan’s initial report (E/C.12/TJK/1).

[2] Http:// For detailed information on the volume of loan and grant disbursements by sector in the period 2007–2010, see annex 1.

[3] Government Decision No. 215 of 10 May 2000.

[4] Act No. 565 of 3 December 2009 (new version).

[5] Paras. 47, 50 and 52 of the Concluding Observations of the Committee.

[6] Including the recommendation contained in para. 51 of the Concluding Observations.

[7] Adopted by Government Decision No. 692 of 31 December 2009.

[8] For further information, see table in annex 5 to this report.

[9] See table 6 in annex 3 to this report.

[10] See paras 245, 246, 250 and 252–255 of Tajikistan’s initial report, and table in annex 4 to this report.

[11] See table 3 in annex 4.

[12] Including para. 55 of the Concluding Observations. For information on art. 8, see Tajikistan’s initial report.

[13] See paras. 414–416, 420 and 432 of Tajikistan’s initial report.

[14] For information on maternity benefits and leaves, see para. 56 above.

[15] Including the recommendation contained in para. 63 of the Concluding Observations.

[16] Adopted by the parliament as enactment No. 1557 of 24 February 2010.

[17] Act No. 671 of 29 December 2010.

[18] Adopted as enactment No. 72 of 2 February 2009.

[19] Including the recommendation contained in para. 68 of the Concluding Observations.

[20] For basic information, see paras. 655-690 (regarding art. 13) in Tajikistan’s initial report.

[21] Act No. 21, adopted on 22 April 2003.

[22] Presidential Decree No. 502 of 2 August 2008.

[23] According to data of the Ministry of Education and the Statistics Agency reporting to the President.

[24] Including the recommendation contained in para. 73 of the Concluding Observations. For information on art. 15, see the statement on that article in Tajikistan’s initial report.

[25] The amounts pledged for the period 2007–2009 appear, broken down by sector, in annex 10.

[26] Partial information is provided in paras 132–137, regarding arts. 13 and 14, of this report.

[27] Under the Government decision and rules in question, allowances are granted and paid to low-income families for power and natural gas consumption; and procedures, conditions and principles are laid down for the creation and operation of provincial, district and urban commissions on granting and paying such allowances to low-income families and persons living alone.

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