United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child - States Parties Reports
Convention on the
Rights of the Child
19 July 2011
Committee on the Rights of the Child
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 8, paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict
Initial reports of States parties due in 2008
[30 October 2009]
I. Introduction 3
A. 1. General situation 3
B. 2. Legal status of the Optional Protocol 3
C. 3. Mechanisms for the implementation and monitoring of the Optional Protocol
and agencies responsible 3
D. 4. Dissemination and training 5
E. 5. Preparation of report on the implementation of the Optional Protocols of the
II. General principle 7
A. 1. Legislative measures 7
B. 2. Voluntary recruitment 8
C. 3. Schools and colleges under the Royal Thai Armed Forces 9
III. Prevention 10
A. 1. Education 10
B. 2. Public health services 11
C. 3. Birth certificate 11
D. 4. Border security 11
IV. Cooperation 12
A. 1. International cooperation 12
B. 2. International instruments ratified by Thailand 12
A. 1. General situation
1. Thailand ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 12 February 1992. The Convention entered into force on 26 April 1992. On 27 February 2006, Thailand acceded to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the involvement of children in Armed Conflict, which became effective on 27 March 2006.
2. At various meetings, both at the national level and within the Cabinet, to consider becoming a State party to this Optional Protocol, it was agreed by consensus that Thailand already has the necessary domestic legal framework to enable it to adopt and implement the Optional Protocol. In particular, the provisions under the Thai laws regarding minimum age for recruitment for military service, both voluntary and compulsory, are in line with the Optional Protocol. Thailand recognized that becoming party to the Optional Protocol would enhance the protection mechanisms for children.
3. For the purposes of the implementation of the Optional Protocol, children under the consideration of Thailand include both Thai and non-Thai children, child immigrants and displaced children fleeing armed conflict, including those in the temporary shelters. Thailand seeks to ensure that all children in Thailand below the age of 18 years will not take a direct part in armed conflict and be forcibly recruited into the Thai armed forces or groups.
B. 2. Legal status of the Optional Protocol
4. Thailand has internalized the principles and provisions under both the Convention and the Optional Protocol as shown by its domestic laws concerning children which are mostly in line with the Convention. The Constitution of Thailand of 2007 states that “children, youth and family members shall have the right to be protected by State against violence and unfair treatment and shall enjoy the right to survive and to receive physical, mental and intellectual development potentially in suitable environment. An interference and imposition of rights of children, youth and family members shall not be made except by virtue of the law specially enacted for the maintenance of family institution or utmost benefit of such person” (Art. 52).
5. In addition, Article 152 of the Constitution stipulates that “in considering a bill concerning children, the youth, women, the elderly, the disabled or handicapped, if the House of Representatives does not consider it by its full committee, the House of Representatives shall appoint a non-standing committee consisting of representatives from private organizations concerned with the respective types of persons, of not less than one-third of the total number of members of the committee and the members thereof shall consist of women and men in closely apportion”. The Sub-Committee on Law Reform is responsible for the revisions of child-related laws in pursuant to the Thai Constitution and the Convention.
C. 3. Mechanisms for the implementation and monitoring of the
Optional Protocol and agencies responsible
6. A number of agencies are involved at various levels in the implementation of the Convention and its Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict. The Office of Welfare Promotion, Protection and Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups under the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security is the main coordinating agency. There are mechanisms at both national and regional levels, as well as independent mechanisms, for supporting and monitoring the implementation of commitments under the Convention and the Optional Protocol, including:
7. 3.1 The National Youth Commission, chaired by the Prime Minister or designated Deputy Prime Minister. It is responsible for the formulation of policies and guidelines concerning children and youth and monitoring their implementation. “The Sub-Committee on Child Rights” was appointed to formulate guidelines supporting the implementation of the Convention, and to prepare periodical reports on the result of Thailand’s implementation submitted to the United Nations Child Rights Committee since 1989. Then on 1 September 2004, the composition of the Sub-Committee and its jurisdiction were amended to cover the implementation of both optional protocols of the Convention. The Sub-Committee now comprises 36 members, including representatives from the parliament, government agencies and non-governmental organizations; academicians; legal experts; representatives from UNICEF and one girl and one boy.
8. The Office of Welfare Promotion, Protection and Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups has the responsibility of preparing an annual situation analysis of children and youth in Thailand and organizing a national assembly on child and youth development every two years. However, with the enactment of the National Promotion for Child and Youth Development Act of 2007, which came into effect on 13 April 2008, the National Child and Youth Commission was appointed to supersede the aforementioned National Youth Commission, which had been dissolved along with the revocation of the National Youth Promotion and Coordination Act of 1978.
9. 3.2 The National Child Protection Committee. By virtue of the National Child Protection Act of 2003, the National Child Protection Committee was established, chaired by the Minister of Social Development and Human Security. Provincial Child Protection Committees were established in all 76 provinces of Thailand, acting as implementation mechanisms at the regional level. The Ministry of Social Development and Human Security and the Provincial Office of Social Development and Human Security act as secretary of the Committee and are responsible for formulating policies and coordinating plans concerning children with relevant agencies at both the national and provincial levels.
10. 3.3 The National Human Rights Commission. Pursuant to the Thai Constitution of 2007, the National Human Rights Commission was established as an independent body responsible for promoting respect for human rights and monitoring practices that constitute human rights violations. Under the Commission, the Sub-Committee on Child, Youth and Family was appointed to be responsible for the implementation of the Convention and its optional protocols. The Sub-Committee has been holding periodical meetings with relevant agencies to keep abreast of progress and constraints in the implementation of the Convention and its protocol. It also conducts visits, receives complaints and commissions researches and studies in order to make informed recommendations on policies and practices on child rights.
The chart below shows the mechanisms for coordination at the national and regional levels.
National Promotion for Child and Youth Development Act 2007
Child Protection Act 2003
Ministry of Social Development and Human Security
National Council for Child and Youth Development
Office of Welfare Promotion, Protection and Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups
Provincial Office of Social Development and Human Security
Local Administrative Organisations
Sub-Committee on Child Rights
Sub-Committee on Law Reform
National Human Rights Commission
Sub-Committee to Combat Trafficking in Children and Women
Provincial Child Protection Committee
National Commission on Child and Youth
National Child Protection Committee
D. 4. Dissemination and training
11. (1) The translation of the Optional Protocol into Thai and disseminated to various agencies, including government and non-governmental agencies, local administrative organizations and the media since 2001, even before Thailand’s ratification of the Optional Protocol in 2006. Following the ratification, the Optional Protocol has been printed and incorporated into the copies of the Convention, along with its summary, and distributed to relevant agencies to inform them of Thailand’s obligations under the Optional Protocol, in particular, and the Convention, in general. Copies of the translation have also been distributed to various academic institutes and local administrative organizations nationwide.
12. In addition, numerous meetings and seminars have been organized at the national and regional levels specifically to disseminate knowledge on the Convention and the Optional Protocol to a wide range of audiences, including representatives of relevant agencies, law practitioners, academicians, training facilitators, child rights volunteers, community leaders, and child and youth groups. Key content of the Optional Protocol has also been incorporated into wider meetings and seminars concerning children and disseminated via the internet.
13. (2) Appointment of the Sub-Committee for the Dissemination of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Laws in the Military Curricula. The Ministry of Defense approved the Ministerial Regulations (Specific) No. 143/43 appointing the Sub-Committee for the Dissemination of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Laws in the Military Curricula, responsible for the following:
(1) Dissemination and integration of international humanitarian laws (including laws concerning armed conflict or war) and human rights subjects into all levels of the military training curricula; and updating and standardizing the curricula;
(2) Reviewing the appropriateness of the law curricula on armed conflict and human rights currently used by educational institutes, in regards to their contents, facilitators, lecturers, complementary materials, teaching methods and resources;
(3) Evaluating teaching results;
(4) Making recommendations on necessary revision of teaching and learning methods for human rights and armed conflict laws, in keeping with the present reality;
(5) Appointing a sub-committee or working group to execute relevant duties;
(6) Coordinating and collaborating with relevant agencies, both at the national and international levels;
(8) Reporting the implementation results to the Minister of Defense.
14. (1) Training for observation missions. A 112-hour training course is provided to soldiers who are due to travel on observation missions abroad, focusing on improving knowledge and understanding of the concepts and principles of international and human rights organizations and laws, including: the United Nations and its agencies, the United Nations Charter, principles of peacekeeping, negotiation and mediation techniques, law of armed conflict/human rights, humanitarian assistance, the role of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), etc.
15. (2) Peacekeeping training. A 40-hour training course is provided to soldiers prior to their departures on peacekeeping missions, covering general concepts and principles of peacekeeping, such as reinforcement strategy, the ICRC role, rules of engagement and conflict management.
16. (3) Sensitization and training on the Convention and the Optional Protocol. Training is organized by such agencies as the Ministries of Interior, Education, Justice, Labour, Public Health, Social Development and Human Security; the Office of the General-Attorney; the Royal Thai Police; and non-governmental organizations, such as Holt Sahathai, the Foundation for Child Development; the Centre for the Protection of Child Rights Foundation, and the Buddhist Youth for Development Foundation. The Convention and its Optional Protocol have been incorporated into both general training curricula on child rights and specialized training.
17. Child rights sensitization training was initiated in 1997 for child rights practitioners in government and non-governmental agencies. From 2003 onwards, child rights sensitization and training of trainers has been conducted regularly at the national, international and local levels to raise awareness on child rights, the Convention and its Optional Protocols. Training activities conducted each year include:
18. (1) Two 12-day international training modules, namely child rights sensitization training of trainers and child participation training, for child rights practitioners from 13 countries in the Asia and the Pacific regions.
19. (2) A five-day national child rights sensitization module for child rights practitioners from various government and non-governmental agencies, child and youth groups and local administrative organizations.
20. (3) A one- or two-day local child rights sensitization module for local leaders, children, youth, parents, guardians, teachers, child minders, child rights volunteers and the general public. This training is aimed at creating networks for the development and protection of children.
E. 5. Preparation of report on the implementation of the Optional
Protocols of the Convention
21. A working group was appointed to prepare a report on Thailand’s implementation of the Optional Protocol for submission to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. The working group comprises representatives from relevant government and non-governmental agencies and child representatives. Information was gathered and meetings held with relevant agencies for the preparation of the report. A public hearing was also held to allow public participation in the drafting process.
II. General principle
A. 1. Legislative measures
22. Thailand has legislative provisions ensuring against any recruitment or coercion of a person under 18 years of age into its armed forces and combat. According to Thailand’s declaration to the United Nations, Thai males are not liable for compulsory military service until they reach 21 and non-governmental militias are prohibited by law, regardless of the age of persons concerned. The most important legislative framework concerning the involvement of children in armed conflict is the Military Service Act of 1954. Under this Act:
23. Thai men reaching the age of 18 have a duty to register on the inactive military personnel list at the districts of their domiciles within the year in which they turn 18. They will be considered “inactive military personnel” from 1 January of the following year onwards.
24. Official documents for registration include:
• Birth certificate or identity card
• House registration (specifying the names of father and mother)
Once the documents are verified and approved by the district officer, a form known as Sor Dor 9 will be issued.
25. The registration will be announced at the district office, village headman’s office, and other public places. The district officer will send the announcement to the village headman to notify the villagers.
2. Call-up notice
26. Every male aged 21 must report for a physical examination within the year in which he reaches 21 at the district of his domicile.
27. Upon receiving a call-up notice, the inactive military personnel must report to the authority on the date and at the time and venue specified in the notice. Such notice will be issued only to those who have already registered on the inactive military personnel list, namely:
• All males aged 21 in the year of conscription
• All males aged between 22–29 years who have never undergone conscription or whose exemption status has expired
28. The recruitment will be done by the “Local Recruitment Committee”. The inactive military personnel will be required to undergo a physical examination by a medical officer. Selected inactive military personnel will become active military personnel. Waivers are granted in cases of personal hardship, for example, when an individual was the sole support of parents who are disabled or pronounced incompetent, or children whose mother has died or siblings whose parents have died and are incapable of supporting themselves. Exemptions are also granted to students, Buddhist monks, career teachers and people with disabilities.
29. Active military personnel are required to serve two years of active military duty, or less if the person has special qualifications or falls within the special category according to the Ministerial Regulations.
30. Thus, no person under 18 years is forcibly recruited to join the Thai armed forces or coerced to engage in a combat. In no circumstances will a reduction in the age of inactive military personnel below 18 years be allowed, even in times of national crisis.
B. 2. Voluntary recruitment
31. Inactive military personnel may also voluntarily apply to become active military personnel to serve in the national armed forces. Details of the application and qualifications of the applicants are specified in the Defense Ministerial Regulation of 2000 as follows:
(1) A person voluntarily applying to become active military personnel must be between 18-20 years of age and physically qualified. For example, the person must be over 160 cm in height and over 76 cm in body size and have no contagious diseases;
(2) Documents needed for the application include a Sor Dor 9 form (issued upon registration for inactive military personnel and indicating date of birth); a copy of passport; and letter of consent from parents or legal guardian;
(3) The recruiting officer will keep all the documents for evidence. A list of applicants aged between 18-20 years will be prepared in order of year of birth from the oldest to the youngest. A Local Recruitment Committee will determine the application. All opinions will be noted and signed for. Decision will be made on the basis of a majority of votes;
(4) Benefits and entitlements of voluntary active military personnel include:
• Salary and daily allowances
• Education and training opportunities, such as entitlement to take an entrance examination to become a private first class student subject to the annual quota. A private first class student with a good performance will be selected to become a cadet
• Entitlement to serve less than two years of military service on a case-by-base basis
C. 3. Schools and colleges under the Royal Thai Armed Forces
32. There are 18 schools and colleges under the supervision of the Royal Thai Armed Forces. These can be categorized into pre-undergraduate and undergraduate levels.
3.1 Pre-undergraduate level
33. Include: Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School, Royal Thai Air Force Band, Royal Thai Navy Band, Royal Thai Army Band, Military Technical Training School, Military Survey School, etc.
Minimum age for attendance: 12 years and over.
(1) Basic general subjects, such as social science, science, physical education, math, etc.;
(2) Vocational subjects, such as naval mechanics and engineering;
(3) Military subjects, such as military training.
Study units. Study units required for basic general subjects are more than those for military subjects. For example, Military Technical Training School requires 92-100 units of basic general subjects and vocational subjects and eight units of military subjects. The Royal Thai Army Band requires 30 units of basic general subjects, 72 units of vocational subjects and 14 units of military subjects.
Military service status. For some schools, such as the Royal Army Band, students will be admitted into a military service upon completion of their studies. For other schools, such the Royal Thai Army Band, higher study is required. Admittance into military service for some schools is also based on a physical examination, general knowledge examination and consent from parents or legal guardian.
3.2 Undergraduate level
34. Includes: Royal Thai Army Nursing College, Royal Thai Navy Nursing College, Royal Thai Air Force Nursing College, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, Royal Thai Army Academy, Royal Thai Air Force Academy, etc.
Minimum age for attendance: 16 years and over.
(1) Basic general subjects such as social science, science, physical education, math, etc.;
(2) Vocational subjects, such as nursing, mechanical engineering;
(3) Military subjects, such as weapons handling, land, naval and air logistics, military disciplines, international laws, etc.
Study units: study units required for basic general subjects are more than those for military subjects. For example, the Royal Thai Navy Nursing College requires 3,684 hours of basic general and vocational subjects and 124 hours of military subjects (96 hours of theory and 28 hours of training) equivalent to 3.25% of the total study units. The Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy requires eight weeks of military training per year.
Military service status. Students who have not graduated do not have the membership status of the armed forces and cannot participate in battles. For some schools, students will be admitted into a military service upon completion of their studies. If the studies are financed by private means, the students are entitled to pursue careers outside the armed forces. Age of graduation in most cases is 18 years and over.
35. In addition to these schools, there are military training units at some educational institutes which are open to interested people of both genders who are over 16 years of age and have parental consent. At present, there are 3,706 such units nationwide. The curriculum is divided into years 1–5, focusing on disciplining and good citizenship. The present demand for military training exceeds the annual quota of 30,000 students. The Royal Thai Armed Force is seeking more budget from the Government to expand the training units.
36. Thai laws have provisions prohibiting the recruitment of children below 18 years of age into its armed forces as mentioned in Chapter 2. Thailand does not have a policy which allows individuals or groups to establish operational bases on Thai soil which might affect the sovereignty and security of other countries. Thus, there are no armed groups operating within the territory of Thailand. Relevant agencies are required to carry out strict surveillance and supervision of temporary shelters to prevent covert cross-border recruitment of children taking refuge in these shelters. If there is evidence of any person taking away children taking temporary refuge in Thailand for recruitment purposes, such person will be criminalized according to the Thai Penal Code and the Child Protection Act of 2003, regardless of the offender’s nationality.
37. Preventive measures taken by Thailand with regards to at-risk children, including street children, orphans, disadvantaged children, stateless children, displaced children and children having fled armed conflict, include:
A. 1. Education
38. The National Education Act of 1999 ensures the right of all children born in Thailand to free basic education of at least 12 years. The Compulsory Education Act of 2002 requires all children born in Thailand to attend nine-year compulsory education. Education sector enjoys the highest allocation of the government budget, approximately 18 per cent of the overall budget in 2006 in addition to budget from the private sector and local administrative organizations.
39. The Cabinet approved a resolution on 5 July 2005 expanding educational opportunities for disadvantaged children and allocating budget to educational institutions that accommodate children who have no Thai nationality or formal document, such as a house registration. The budget was allocated based on expense per student, covering from pre-school to higher secondary education. It requires the Ministry of Education to arrange suitable education modules for displaced children, fleeing having fled persecution, who have sought temporary asylum in Thailand. It requires the Ministry of Interior to develop a database of children without Thai nationality and formal documents and permit these children to travel for the purpose of education within the duration of such curriculum.
40. The Border Patrol Police College also provides education in remote areas for children of all nationalities and religions according to the Compulsory Education Act of 2002 and the National Education Act of 1999. Since its inception in 1954, there are at present 192 of such schools nationwide. Once the area became more developed, the supervision of the school would be taken over by the Office of the Basic Education Commission or Provincial or Sub-District Administrative Organizations.
B. 2. Public health services
41. Other welfare services, health care, etc. are provided to all children indiscriminately, including children who are illegal immigrants. Children who are illegal workers accompanying fathers or mothers who are registered migrant workers are entitled to health insurance. Children fleeing armed conflicts in temporary shelters are provided basic health care by the Ministry of Interior and NGOs.
C. 3. Birth certificate
42. The National Security Council formulated a strategy to deal with the problematic status and rights of persons, requiring a survey and preparation of records of persons without legal status in Thailand, with a view to helping them attain appropriate status based on facts, and to access necessary basic services. Children born of persons without legal status are issued birth certificates on the basis of which their legal status will be determined. The Department of Local Administration has developed necessary guidelines to translate the policy into practice.
43. In addition, Thailand is also in the process of revising two important items of legislation relating to birth registration and acquisition of nationality, namely:
(1) Amendment of the Civil Registration Act of 1991 to make the birth registration process clearer and more comprehensive. A registrar is required to register the births of, and issue birth certificates for, both Thai children and children born without Thai nationality according to the Thai nationality law and available facts;
(2) Amendment of the Nationality Act of 1965 concerning the acquisition of Thai nationality by a person born of a Thai father or mother, whether within or outside the Kingdom. The additional amendment stipulates that a father in this Act also applies to the father who is not legally married to the child’s mother.
Concerning a person who does not acquire Thai nationality because both father and mother are aliens and at the time of birth, the child’s lawful father or the father who did not marry the child’s mother, or the child’s mother being: (1) the person having been given leniency for temporary residence in the Kingdom as a special case; (2) the person having been permitted to stay temporarily in the Kingdom; (3) the person having entered and resided in the Thai Kingdom without permission under the law of immigration, the new amendment stipulates that such person’s status shall be considered according to the Ministerial Regulations with due consideration to the security of the Kingdom and human rights, a change from the original version where such person would be deemed to have entered and resided in the Thai Kingdom without permission.
44. An application on behalf of a child not yet having attained majority for naturalization as a Thai can also be made by the child’s legal guardian or director of a State welfare institute or adopted parents in the manner prescribed in the Ministerial Regulations.
D. 4. Border security
45. The national strategy concerning border security was developed through the National Security Council and approved by the Cabinet. It aims to provide a framework for coordination and collaboration between relevant agencies to enhance border security and cooperation with neighboring countries. The collaborative and peaceful environment in areas along the border is a key deterrent against any movement of armed groups, particularly those groups who have fled armed conflicts. These armed groups have a tendency to recruit children as child soldiers.
46. The current five-year national security strategy (2007–2011) still focuses on economic and social development and border security as the key factors for empowering people, communities and localities against potential problems. Importance is also placed on close collaboration between Thai and neighboring border communities and effective administration and management of areas along the border.
A. 1. International cooperation
47. Thailand participated in a workshop to campaign for the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict organized by Southeast Asia Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (SEASUCS) and the National Child Rights Committee of the Philippines at Quezon, the Philippines during 27–29 November 2007. The workshop provided a forum for sharing experiences, lessons learned and achievements in regards to national policies and plans of action concerning the Optional Protocol. Some of the key recommendations which emerged from this workshop include: the development of a regional action plan for the protection of children involved in armed conflict and implementation guidelines for relevant authorities; advocacy for the integration into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) agenda of the issue of children involved in armed conflict and appointment of a secretariat and focal point in ASEAN for flagging the issue of children involved in armed conflict.
B. 2. International instruments ratified by Thailand
48. International instruments relevant to the issue of the involvement of children in armed conflict to which Thailand is a State party include the following:
(1) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864;
(2) Convention (II) with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(3) Convention (III) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 22 August 1864. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(4) Declaration (IV,1), to Prohibit, for the Term of Five Years, the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons, and Other Methods of Similar Nature. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(5) Declaration (IV,2) concerning Asphyxiating Gases. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(6) Declaration (IV,3) concerning Expanding Bullets. The Hague, 29 July 1899;
(7) Convention for the Exemption of Hospital Ships, in Time of War, from the Payment of all Dues and Taxes Imposed for the Benefit of the State. The Hague, 21 December 1904;
(8) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 6 July 1906;
(9) Convention (III) relative to the Opening of Hostilities. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(10) Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(11) Convention (V) respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(12) Convention (VI) relating to the Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(13) Convention (VII) relating to the Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-Ships. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(14) Convention (VIII) relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(15) Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(16) Convention (X) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(17) Convention (XI) relative to certain Restrictions with regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(18) Convention (XIII) concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(19) Declaration (XIV) Prohibiting the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons. The Hague, 18 October 1907;
(20) Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. Geneva, 17 June 1925;
(21) Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 27 July 1929;
(22) Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929;
(23) Procès-verbal relating to the Rules of Submarine Warfare set forth in Part IV of the Treaty of London of 22 April 1930. London, 6 November 1936;
(24) The four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, concerning the protection of the wounded and sick in armed forces in the field; wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea; prisoners of war; and civilians who find themselves under the rule of a foreign power in the event of international conflict;
(25) Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 14 May 1954;
(26) Protocol for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 14 May 1954;
(27) Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction. Opened for Signature at London, Moscow and Washington. 10 April 1972;
(28) Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction, Paris 13 January 1993;
(29) Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, 18 September 1997.
49. Efforts have been taken to monitor Thailand’s progress toward implementing its obligations under these agreements. Notably, the National Committee for Humanitarian Mine Action and the National Mine Action Center were established pursuant to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction. The Center acts as focal point for all humanitarian operations concerning landmines. Four operations units were established to coordinate, monitor and implement mine clearance, landmine/unexploded ordnance Survey, mine awareness and victim assistance activities throughout Thailand. These units are required to submit a monthly report on the results of the operations.
50. Efforts have been made to raise awareness of Thailand’s personnel on the importance of these treaties and obligations, through the dissemination of video on laws concerning armed conflict and rules of engagement, and regular training.
51. In the case where a member of the armed forces is reported to have violated these obligations, an Inquiry Committee will be set up to investigate the matter. If found guilty, the person will be subjected to the disciplinary measures and judiciary procedures of the military. Ever since the end of the Second World War, no armed conflicts have occurred on Thai soil. The peacekeeping personnel of Thailand have never violated these obligations.