United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child - States Parties Reports
Convention on the
Rights of the Child
25 January 2012
Committee on the Rights of the Child
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 12, paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the
Rights of the Child on the sale of children,
child prostitution and child pornography
Initial reports of States parties due in 2011
[17 February 2011]
I. Introduction 1–12 3
II. General guidelines 13–53 4
III. Data 54–83 8
IV. General measures of implementation 84–212 12
V. Prevention 213–242 30
VI. Prohibition and related matters 243–258 34
VII. Protection of the rights of victims 259–276 36
VIII. International assistance and cooperation 277–285 39
1. On 11 December 2008, the parliament of Uzbekistan ratified, without reservations or declarations, the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography of 25 May 2000 (henceforth the “Protocol”). In accordance with its article 14, paragraph 2, the Protocol took effect for Uzbekistan on 23 January 2009. According to article 12, paragraph 1, of the Protocol, each State party shall, within two years following the entry of the Protocol into force for that State party, submit a report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child providing comprehensive information on the measures it has taken to implement the provisions of the Protocol.
2. Pursuant to article 12, paragraph 1, of the Protocol, Uzbekistan is presenting its initial report on the implementation of the Protocol.
3. In Uzbekistan, children and persons up to 30 years of age account for, respectively, 40 and 64 per cent of the population. Accordingly, the creation of optimum conditions suitable for the physical, intellectual and spiritual development of children and young adults, and comprehensive support for families with many children, orphans and children deprived of a family environment constitute a priority area of State policy on human rights and freedoms.
4. The comprehensive protection of the rights of children to life, health, education, social protection, information and the expression of their views and other fundamental rights that ensure their harmonious physical, intellectual and spiritual development is guaranteed by the Constitution, more than 100 legal acts and other legal and regulatory instruments.
5. The Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act of 7 January 2008, adopted on the recommendation of the Committee, strengthens all rights of the child, including the right to private property, housing and employment within the framework of the relevant ratified International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions – the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) and the Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138).
6. The Prevention of Child Neglect and Juvenile Delinquency Act of 29 September 2010 defines the mechanism for defending a child’s rights against involvement in criminal activities and for safeguarding the rights of vulnerable children to social protection.
7. The provisions of international legal instruments and national legislation on the rights of the child are introduced within the framework of national plans and programmes of action in whose implementation State bodies, civil society institutions and Uzbekistan’s international partners actively participate.
8. The national system for monitoring compliance with and protection of the rights of the child, which is being developed and improved, includes:
• Committees and commissions of the Legislative Chamber and Senate of the Oliy Majlis (the national parliament);
• The Commission on Minors’ Affairs, attached to the Cabinet of Ministers and local commissions;
• The National Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons and local commissions;
• The Human Rights Commissioner of the Oliy Majlis (parliamentary Ombudsman);
• The Institute for Monitoring Current Legislation, attached to the Office of the President of Uzbekistan;
• The National Centre for Human Rights;
• The Centre for Monitoring Compliance with Legal and Regulatory Instruments, attached to the Ministry of Justice;
• The Research Centre on the Democratization and Liberalization of Judicial Legislation and the Independence of the Judicial System, attached to the Supreme Court;
• Ministries and departments dealing with issues related to education, health care and the social protection of children;
• Civil society institutions engaged in public monitoring in the area of children’s rights.
9. Special administrations for safeguarding human rights and freedoms have been created within the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Justice and the Office of the Procurator-General. Their functions include addressing questions pertaining to the fulfilment of the rights of minors.
10. The role of parliament and its working bodies in securing children’s rights by adopting acts, including on Uzbekistan’s accession to international legal instruments, was recently strengthened. In 2008, the parliament ratified the two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and ILO Conventions No. 138 and No. 182 on child labour issues. In 2009, with the support of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), a Resource Centre on Children’s Rights was created and attached to the Legislative Chamber in order to serve as an information base for deputies on children’s rights protection issues. The Centre also initiates active discussion of current issues related to children’s rights during conferences, seminars and round tables organized with the participation of State bodies and public entities dealing with such issues.
11. Uzbekistan attaches great significance to implementing the Millennium Development Goals, particularly raising quality in educational institutions, reducing child mortality and improving maternal health. A Cabinet of Ministers decision of 26 January 2011 on additional measures for achieving the Goals introduced a further set of relevant measures for the period 2011-2015; set up a working group to coordinate the implementation of those steps; and stipulated that information on the implementation of the Goals must be provided to the Legislative Chamber of the parliament on an annual basis.
12. Currently, the activity of non-profit NGOs dealing with children and contributing to the protection of children’s rights is clearly intensifying. Such non-governmental entities as the Forum for the Culture and Art of Uzbekistan, the National Association of Non-Profit NGOs, the Association for the Support of Children and the Family, the Sog’lom Avlod Uchun (For a Healthy Generation) Foundation, the Sen Yolg’iz Emassan (You Are Not Alone) Foundation, the Kamolot (Perfection) Youth Movement, the Mahalla (Community) Foundation, the Federation of Trade Unions of Uzbekistan and the Oila (Family) Centre for Applied Research pay considerable attention to children, attend to the realization of children’s rights to education, health care and social protection and monitor the situation in those areas.
II. General guidelines
13. In the period 1992-2010, Uzbekistan presented four national reports on the implementation of the Convention to the Committee. The third and fourth periodic report (CRC/C/UZB/3-4), submitted to the Committee in January 2010 and currently under consideration, provides detailed information on the implementation of articles 11 and 32-36 of the Convention, which address issues related to the exploitation, physical and psychological rehabilitation and social reintegration of children.
14. The following documents were taken into account during the preparation of this report: the Revised Guidelines regarding initial reports to be presented by States parties under article 12, paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (CRC/C/OPSC/2), adopted in September 2006; general comment No. 5 on general measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, issued by the Committee; and the concluding observations and recommendations of the Committee on the results of its consideration of the second periodic report of Uzbekistan on the implementation of the Convention (CRC/C/UZB/CO/2).
15. During the preparation of this first report, use was made of information provided by ministries and other State administration bodies responsible for issues related to the protection of the rights and legitimate interests of children, non-profit NGOs and civil society institutions.
16. Approximately 30 State bodies and organizations and over 10 non-profit NGOs took part in the preparation of this report, which presents information on the implementation of the Protocol in the period 2009-2010 and describes the legislative, organizational and awareness-raising measures taken by the State with a view to further implementation of the recommendations of the Committee.
17. Moreover, the report sheds light on the prospective goals of State policy and on the difficulties encountered within society in creating an effective system for protecting children’s rights and fundamental freedoms. The annex to the report contains information on legal and regulatory instruments on issues related to children’s rights.
18. In order to implement the general principles of the Convention and the Protocol, the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act laid down such principles and goals for State action as: prohibition of discrimination against children; respect for children’s views; children’s participation in resolving all issues affecting their interests, including judicial and administrative proceedings; inviolability of the person and privacy of the child; and prohibition of torture and other forms of cruel treatment and of economic, sexual or other exploitation of children.
19. The measures elaborated upon in the following paragraphs were taken with a view to implementing the provisions of the Convention, particularly articles 1, 11, 21, 32, 34, 35 and 36.
20. Under article 3 of the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act, a child is a person who has not yet reached 18 years of age (majority).
21. Even before Uzbekistan acceded to it, the Convention, particularly article 1 thereof, was implemented through legislation, when Act No. 179 of 16 September 2008 amended Criminal Code article 135, thus criminalizing human trafficking. Committing this crime against a person known by the offender to be under 18 was thus recognized as an element of the offence of human trafficking.
22. Article 14 of the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act guarantees a child’s right to protection from illicit transfer and confirms that every child is entitled to protection from such transfer and from non-return from abroad.
23. Travel abroad can take place only with the consent of both parents or of persons in loco parentis, in accordance with the law. Any dispute between the parents or persons in loco parentis on this issue is to be settled by a court.
24. If a child disappears, parents or persons in loco parentis must inform the appropriate bodies without delay.
25. Children unaccompanied by their parents or persons in loco parentis are guaranteed the right to return to them.
26. Uzbekistan’s diplomatic missions keep a record of children who are Uzbek citizens and are abroad unaccompanied by their legal representatives and take measures for the return of such children. If the parents have been declared missing or dead, the guardianship and custody bodies take steps to place the children in a family or, if such placement is impossible, in institutions for orphans or for children deprived of parental care.
27. Questions concerning the return of children who are abroad unaccompanied by their legal representatives are decided on the basis of the international agreements of Uzbekistan.
28. The State takes measures to prevent the illicit transfer of children regardless of the purpose, forms and methods of transfer, and to ensure their return to their country of permanent residence, in accordance with the law and international agreements of Uzbekistan.
29. Under articles 151 and 155 of the Family Code, adoption is allowed only in the case of minors and must be in their interest. Adoption is carried out by decision of the regional administrator (hokim) of the district or city on the basis of an application by those wishing to adopt a child and the recommendation of the guardianship and custody bodies.
30. A child having reached the age of 10 may be adopted only with his or her consent, which is verified by the guardianship and custody bodies.
31. Cabinet of Ministers Decision No. 171 of 12 April 1999 lays down rules for the registration of civil status acts, guardianship and custody, adoption and the placement of children in foster families.
32. The law provides for special conditions aimed at the protection of child labour. Under article 20 of the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act and article 77 of the Labour Code, children must be 16 years of age to be employed.
33. To prepare young persons for work, students of general education schools, vocational schools and secondary schools may be employed, during time off from studies, to do light work that does not harm their health or development or disturb the education process. Such students must have reached 15 years of age and have the written consent of one of their parents or a person in loco parentis.
34. Under articles 214 and 242 of the Labour Code, a medical examination is required prior to employment. The duration of work may not exceed 36 hours per week for persons aged 16-18 and 24 hours per week for persons aged 15-16.
35. Articles 239-247 of the Labour Code establish additional safeguards for persons under 18, namely a medical examination requirement, a list of types of work that they may not perform, a shortened workweek, and prohibition of night, overtime and holiday or weekend work.
36. These provisions are designed to protect persons under 18 with respect to work and to ensure their physical and spiritual growth.
37. Under article 10 of the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act, every child has the right to liberty and security of person, to the inviolability of the home and to privacy in correspondence. Every child has the right to protection from attacks against his or her honour and dignity and against illegal interference in his or her private life. A child may not be subjected to detention, arrest or confinement otherwise than on the basis of the law.
38. The State ensures security of person, and the inviolability of the home and correspondence of the child and protects the child from all forms of exploitation, including physical, psychological and sexual violence, torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, sexual solicitation, and involvement in criminal activity or prostitution.
39. Under articles 128-130 of the Criminal Code, entering into a sexual relationship with a person who has not turned 16 years of age, depraved behaviour towards a person under 16 and the preparation or dissemination of pornographic material are criminal offences.
40. Under article 135 of the Criminal Code, trafficking in persons, namely the purchase, sale, recruitment, transport, transfer, concealment or reception of a person for the purpose of exploitation, is a criminal offence.
41. Under articles 25, 26 and 65 of the Constitution, every person has the right to freedom and security of person. No one may be subjected to torture, violence or other cruel or degrading treatment. No one may be subjected to medical or scientific experiments without his or her consent.
42. Children are equal before the law regardless of their origin or their parents’ civil status. Children are protected by the State.
43. Act No. 179 of 16 September 2008 amended section VIII of the Criminal Code and, in particular, specified the concept of “exploitation of persons”. The normative definition of this concept includes the elements of trafficking in children stipulated in article 2 of the Protocol, namely: (a) transfer of a child by a person or group of persons to another person or group of persons for remuneration; (b) use of a child in sexual activities; and (c) child pornography.
44. Accordingly, the legislation in force fully covers the specific standards of the Convention and the Protocol.
45. In order to overcome the impact of the global economic and financial crisis, Uzbekistan adopted an anticrisis programme for the period from 2009 to 2011, aimed at providing social and economic protection, particularly of vulnerable social groups, through support measures for domestic producers and the prevention of unwarranted rises in the prices of food products and consumer goods.
46. In 2010, as part of a State programme entitled “Year for a Harmoniously Developed Generation”, more than 1.7 trillion sum, or twice as much as in 2008 and 30 per cent more than in 2009, were allocated under the State budget to mother and child protection, the prevention of various diseases and the development of the health care system as a whole.
47. Under the Preamble to the Constitution, priority is given to the generally recognized rules of international law. Uzbekistan acceded to the Protocol on 11 December 2008, and the Protocol took effect for Uzbekistan on 23 January 2009.
48. According to the national legislation currently in force, the standards and principles of Uzbekistan’s international agreements take precedence over domestic law. In other words, if an international agreement concluded by Uzbekistan establishes rules other than those provided for by Uzbek legislation, the rules of the international agreement prevail.
49. Accordingly, the Protocol takes precedence in domestic law over national legislation. That instrument’s provisions may be invoked directly in court and applied by national bodies.
50. Under article 1 of the Criminal Code, Uzbek criminal law is based on the Constitution and on generally recognized rules of international law and consists in the Code in question. Under article 7 of the Civil Code, where an international treaty or agreement provides otherwise than civil law, the provisions of the international treaty or agreement prevail.
51. In 2008, the parliament ratified the following international instruments relating to the rights of children:
• ILO Convention No. 138 of 1973 (4 April 2008);
• ILO Convention No. 182 of 1999 (8 April 2008);
• United Nations Convention against Corruption (7 July 2008);
• Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (8 July 2008);
• Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty (10 December 2008);
52. Issues related to the protection of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of children are regulated by a legal system which includes the Constitution; the Family, Labour and Criminal Codes; the Code of Criminal Procedure; the Penal Enforcement Code; the Administrative Liability Code; the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act; the Education Act; the Health Care Act; the Fundamentals of State Policy on Youth Act; the Citizenship Act; the Social Protection of Disabled Persons Act; the Human Trafficking Prevention Act; and other enactments which regulate various specific rights of the child and the respective obligations of State bodies regarding the implementation of such rights and their protection in the event they are violated.
53. Enactments are published in the National Database of Uzbek Legislation (LexUZ) and posted at the website htpp://www.lex.uz.
54. Under article 10 of the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act, the State ensures security of person and the inviolability of the home and correspondence of the child and protects the child from all forms of exploitation, including physical, psychological and sexual violence, torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, sexual solicitation and involvement in criminal activity or prostitution.
55. In Uzbekistan, trafficking in children is considered part of human trafficking and is not treated, in view of its insignificant scale, as a separate and independent problem. Minors account for approximately 3 per cent of the total number of victims. According to Ministry of Internal Affairs data, in 2010 there were 72 minors who were victims of human trafficking. An analysis of the investigated criminal cases revealed that of the 22 female victims under 18, 15 had been subjected to sexual exploitation and 7 to exploitation of child labour; and that the 50 males under 18 had been victims of the exploitation of child labour.
56. Uzbekistan is implementing a National Programme of Action for child welfare, 2007-2011; a National Plan of Action to prevent trafficking in human beings, 2008-2010; and a National Plan of Action for the implementation of ILO Conventions No. 138 and No. 182, 2008-2010.
57. The measures taken under these plans are aimed at protecting children from violence, trafficking and all forms of exploitation and forced labour, and include: acquainting children and specialists who work with children with the Protocol and with the Committee’s recommendations, which are raised in general discussions on violence against children in the family and in school; developing and implementing a system for identifying and recording cases of physical, psychological or other violence against children; informing the public of violations of rights and crimes against minors and the respective penalties; detecting socially dangerous or pernicious acts against children and bringing the offenders to justice; and analyzing and generalizing the implementation of legislation that protects the life and health of minors.
58. In the period considered, the procuratorial authorities carried out significant work in implementing a national plan of action to prohibit forced child labour and in ensuring compliance with the conditions of employment stipulated for minors by law.
59. As a result of procuratorial inspections, in 2009 more than 1,800 procuratorial supervision documents were processed and 991 officials incurred disciplinary, 218 administrative and 39 financial liability. In 2010 more than 2,200 procuratorial supervision documents were processed and more than 1,000 officials incurred disciplinary, 338 administrative and 17 financial liability.
60. The National Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons is engaged in targeted work to ensure the implementation of the Human Trafficking Prevention Act of 17 April 2008 and the Presidential Decision of 8 July 2008 on measures for raising effectiveness in preventing human trafficking.
61. As part of the national action plan for 2008-2010, which was approved by the above presidential decision, measures have been taken to improve the legal and regulatory framework for combating human trafficking, including:
(a) The act of 16 September 2008 established a new version of article 135 of the Criminal Code, increasing the liability for trafficking in persons, namely the purchase, sale, recruitment, transport, transfer, concealment or reception of a person for the purpose of exploitation;
(b) The Cabinet of Ministers adopted a decision dated 5 November 2008 on the establishment of a National Rehabilitation Centre to Assist and Protect Victims of Human Trafficking.
62. Preliminary inquiries into criminal cases in the area of human trafficking are conducted by investigators of internal affairs bodies (Code of Criminal Procedure, article 345, on the obligatory character of such inquiries). With a view to the comprehensive and full investigation of the cases in question, specialized investigative groups, dealing exclusively with such crimes, have been created in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, the provinces and the city of Tashkent.
63. According to statistical data, the number of criminal proceedings initiated by investigative organs under article 135 of the Criminal Code has been as follows:
• In 2008, 647 persons were charged in 670 criminal cases involving 2,941 victims;
• In 2009, 1,242 persons were charged in a total of 1,978 criminal cases involving 4,660 victims, including 116 children;
• In 2010, 847 persons were charged in a total of 1,410 criminal cases involving 2,325 victims, including 72 children;
• In 2010, the courts heard 1,423 criminal cases involving 1,946 minors.
64. The number of criminal proceedings instituted declined from 1,242 in 2009 to 565 in 2010.
65. Analysis of investigative practice showed that, of the total number of 1,978 criminal cases investigated in the country in 2009 by the investigative units of internal affairs bodies, 927 went to court; 243 were suspended under article 364, part 1, paragraph 1; 396 under article 364, part 1, paragraph 2; and 17 under article 364, part 1, paragraph 3, of the Code of Criminal Procedure; 98 were terminated under articles 83 and 84 of the same Code; 49 were combined under the procedure of article 332 of the Code; and 112 were referred under the procedure of article 345 of the Code. The total number of 1,242 citizens indicted under article 381 of the Code of Criminal Procedure in connection with the cases that went to court was broken down as follows.
403 women (by age)
839 men (by age)
66. In 2010, the investigative subdivisions of the internal affairs bodies investigated a total of 1,410 criminal cases for crimes connected with human trafficking, namely crimes under article 135 of the Criminal Code, of which 693 went to court; 188 were suspended under article 364, part 1, paragraph 1; 241 under article 364, part 1, paragraph 2; and 26 under article 364, part 1, paragraph 3, of the Code of Criminal Procedure; 92 were terminated under articles 83 and 84 of the same Code; 32 were combined under the procedure of article 332 of the Code; and 58 were referred under the procedure of article 345 of the Code. The total number of 847 citizens indicted under article 381 of the Code of Criminal Procedure in connection with the cases that went to court was broken down as follows.
342 women (by age)
505 men (by age)
67. Further analysis showed that the total number of human trafficking victims decreased from 4,660 in 2009 to 2,325 in 2010, that is, by 2,335 persons.
68. The number of human trafficking victims in 2010 was broken down as follows.
499 women (by age)
1 826 men (by age)
69. The above data attest to an intensification of the activity of law enforcement agencies, mainly in preventing trafficking, but also in detecting swiftly and prosecuting the perpetrators of trafficking in human beings, especially women and children.
70. On 30 July 2008, the Ministry of Internal Affairs published a regulatory document entitled “Strengthening the work of internal affairs bodies against human trafficking”, which introduced separate statistical records for the crimes in question, thereby permitting a monthly analysis of the relevant crime situation and the timely adoption of appropriate organizational and preventive measures.
71. A department specialized in combating human trafficking, and regional and local units thereof, were created within the Ministry of Internal Affairs. A reporting system has been developed, and every month information is collected countrywide regarding human trafficking cases, offenders and victims, disaggregated by age.
72. To prevent delinquency and crime connected with human trafficking, child prostitution, pornography and immoral activities, the central administrative board of the Ministry of Internal Affairs decided on 26 February 2004 to create, within the preventive services of the internal affairs bodies, a division for the prevention of offences involving recruitment for the purpose of exploitation or immoral activities.
73. In total, the preventive services of the internal affairs bodies monitor 4,742 establishments, including 460 baths and saunas, 190 hotels, 243 hostels, 853 dormitories, 97 video halls and parlours, 1,446 video rental and sales outlets, and 622 Internet cafes and clubs.
74. Between 2009 and 2010, the number of underage girls subject to preventive follow-up by internal affairs bodies for the commission of offences against public morals declined from 15 to 3. These three persons are subject to such follow-up for engaging in prostitution.
75. Between 2009 and 2010, the total number of underage victims of offences falling under article 135 of the Criminal Code on human trafficking declined from 108 to 29.
76. In the period 2009-2010, the internal affairs bodies did not record any offences related to child pornography.
77. In 2010, the investigative units of the internal affairs bodies initiated no criminal cases or preliminary inquiries concerning child prostitution or the dissemination of pornographic material depicting persons under 18.
78. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and its regional offices seek the prevention, prosecution and resolution of criminal cases involving trafficking in children and child prostitution and pornography, within the framework of the legislation in force.
79. Currently, prostitution and the operation of brothels are among the main factors complicating efforts to protect the morals of minors and prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.
80. Between 2007 and 2009, there was an increase in the number of: persons against whom administrative measures were taken for engaging in prostitution, from 1,838 to 1,899 (by 3.3 per cent); persons covered by preventive follow-up measures, from 1,768 to 2,005 (by 13.4 per cent); and cases involving brothel and procuring operations, from 1,189 to 1,351 (by 13.6 per cent).
81. The measures stipulated for engaging in prostitution (an administrative fine equal to between one and three times the minimum wage) and operating a brothel or procuring (a fine equal to 25 to 50 times the minimum wage, or correctional labour for up to 3 years) are inadequate in view of the public danger that these crimes pose, and this often leads to recidivism.
82. These issues have repeatedly been discussed at meetings of the central administrative board of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, at various conferences held under the directorship of the Ministry and regional internal affairs bodies, and coordination meetings of law enforcement agencies, with the participation of representatives of the relevant State bodies and civil society organizations.
83. A draft act has been drawn up to improve the legislation and increase liability for crimes and other offences against morals. It is currently in the discussion stage.
IV. General measures of implementation
84. A legal and regulatory framework has been developed for combating human trafficking, inter alia through the prevention and prosecution of trafficking in children, child prostitution and child pornography.
85. Uzbekistan has been a party to the Convention since 1992. The Committee highlights the following articles as guidelines constituting the basis for all rights provided for in the Convention: article 2 (on preventing discrimination); article 3 (on the best interests of the child); article 6 (on the right to life, survival and development); and article 12 (on respect for the views of the child). Uzbekistan’s implementation of the Protocol is directly connected with following and building on all of these guidelines.
86. Uzbekistan has taken specific action to implement the concluding observations and recommendations formulated by the Committee following consideration of its second periodic report on the implementation of the Convention.
87. The following policy instruments were adopted in order to implement the recommendations of the Committee:
• National Plan of Action to implement the recommendations of the Committee following consideration of the second periodic report of Uzbekistan on the implementation of the Convention, 2006-2010;
• National Programme of Action for child welfare, 2007-2011;
• National Plan of Action to prevent trafficking in human beings, 2008-2010;
• National Plan of Action for the implementation of ILO Conventions No. 138 and No. 182, 2008-2010;
• Action Programme for the sixtieth anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, approved by a presidential decree of 1 May 2008;
• National Plan of Action to implement the recommendations of the United Nations Human Rights Council following consideration of Uzbekistan’s national report for the universal periodic review, 2009-2011;
• State programme on the Year for a Harmoniously Developed Generation (2010).
88. Currently, the Government is preparing the National Programme of Action for child welfare for 2011-2014, and is discussing the adoption of the Children’s Ombudsman Act and the creation of the organizational and legal conditions necessary for the creation and functioning of such an institution.
89. Pursuant to the above policy instruments, Uzbekistan has taken measures to improve the situation of children and strengthen the family, including the following:
(a) The Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act of 7 January 2008, the Human Trafficking Prevention Act of 17 April 2008, the Act of 11 July 2007 amending and completing certain enactments in relation to the abolition of the death penalty, and national laws amending certain enactments related to the death penalty and the transfer to the courts of the authority to order remand in custody, of 11 July 2007, were adopted in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee.
(b) In support of the institution of the Ombudsman and the National Centre for Human Rights, measures were taken to strengthen their resource base for considering complaints by children and their legal representatives on the basis of Cabinet of Ministers decision No. 219 of 30 September 2008 on a set of measures for State support for national human rights institutions.
(c) The Prevention of Child Neglect and Juvenile Delinquency Act of 29 September 2010 was adopted in order to provide a better upbringing to minors, prevent them from breaking the law and coordinate and further improve the activity of State bodies and civil society organizations.
(d) ILO Conventions No. 138 and No. 182 were ratified, the National Action Plan to implement the fundamental ILO conventions on child labour was adopted and is being carried out and the law was amended to ensure the prevention of the illegal use of child labour and to monitor compliance.
(e) As part of the State programme on the Year for a Harmoniously Developed Generation, special attention was paid to the further improvement of the legal and regulatory framework for protecting the rights and interests of children and young persons and strengthening the legal basis for their harmonious development. The Administrative Liability Code was amended to increase the liability of entertainment establishment managers and other responsible persons for failure to comply with the established rules prohibiting the involvement of minors in criminal situations.
(f) As part of abiding by the requirements of the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act of 7 January 2008 and the related National Action Plan, the following instruments were adopted: a regulation concerning the prohibition of the employment of minors, a regulation establishing maximum limits for weights that may be lifted and carried by persons under 18, and a list of types of work with unsuitable working conditions and which may not be performed by persons in that age category, which includes the picking of cotton by hand.
90. An act of 21 December 2009 amending the Administrative Liability Code to improve the legal protection of the rights of minors established administrative liability for citizens, including parents, who use child labour on jobs that may harm a child’s health, safety or morals. Employer liability for violating labour and occupational safety and health laws with respect to minors was also increased.
91. Under article 77 of the Labour Code, children must be 16 years of age to be employed. To prepare young persons for work, students of general education schools, vocational schools and specialized secondary schools may be employed, during time off from studies, to do light work that does not harm their health or development or disturb the education process. Such students must have reached 15 years of age and have the written consent of one of their parents or a person in loco parentis.
92. In order to foster social protection, secure the normal development of children, and prevent their recruitment for jobs that are forbidden to them for health reasons, article 214 of the Labour Code provides for a mandatory medical examination prior to the employment of a worker under 18.
93. Chapter XIV, paragraph 2, of the Labour Code provides for additional safeguards for young persons, namely, for workers under 18: safeguards during recruitment (art. 239); labour rights (art. 240); jobs which may not be assigned (art. 241); shorter working hours (art. 242); remuneration for shorter daily working hours (art. 243); annual vacation (art. 244); prohibition of recruitment for night, overtime or holiday/weekend work (art. 245); additional guarantees upon termination of a labour contract (art. 246); and termination of the employment contract at the request of the parents, guardians, trustees or authorized bodies (art. 247).
94. Under article 242 of the Labour Code, the duration of work may not exceed 36 hours per week for persons aged 16-18 and 24 hours per week for persons aged 15-16.
95. In order to implement international standards regarding the labour rights of children and young persons, appropriate liability has been established for: violation of labour laws (Administrative Liability Code, art. 49); violation of prohibitions regarding the employment of minors (ibid., art. 491); refusal to hire citizens referred by local employment bodies (ibid., art. 50); coercion of a person to work by administrative decision (ibid., art. 51); violation of the right to work (Criminal Code, art. 148) and violation of labour protection rules (Criminal Code, art. 257).
96. Uzbek law on preventing and suppressing human trafficking meets the requirements of universally recognized international instruments. Act No. 154 of 17 April 2008, the Human Trafficking Prevention Act, was adopted to govern relations in this area.
97. The Act sets out the concept of “human trafficking”; specifies the State bodies that combat human trafficking and their authority in that connection; calls for the creation of a National Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons and medical, psychological, social and judicial assistance and protection for the victims; specifies the specialized institutions responsible for providing such assistance and protection; lays down rules for social rehabilitation, security and other forms of protection of human trafficking victims; and envisages measures for international cooperation in combating human trafficking.
98. Article 11 of the Act establishes standards for assisting children who are human trafficking victims. Accordingly, administrators of specialized institutions who receive information regarding such children must immediately report it to the guardianship and custody bodies in order to secure and protect the children’s rights, in accordance with the law. If placed in specialized institutions, such victims must be separated from adults, and they are offered the possibility to attend State educational establishments in accordance with the law. If such children are deprived of parental care or are unaware of their family’s whereabouts, steps are taken to locate the parents or persons in loco parentis.
99. In accordance with amendments to the Criminal Code introduced under Act No. 179 of 16 September 2008, article 135 of the Criminal Code establishes criminal liability for human trafficking. The third part of the article criminalizes the commission of that crime against a person whom the offender knows to be under 18. These amendments aligned domestic criminal law with international legal standards, thereby facilitating Uzbekistan’s full compliance with its obligations under the relevant international agreements.
100. According to a decision adopted by the Supreme Court in plenary session on 24 November 2009 on judicial practice in human trafficking cases, “exploitation of a person” means exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices akin to slavery, a state of servitude or the removal of organs or tissues.
101. Uzbekistan follows a policy of prohibiting the corporal punishment of children. That prohibition was established in general education and specialized institutions through a specific paragraph in the regulations addressing the standard rules and the rules for specific institutions. In accordance with these documents, “child-friendly schools” principles were introduced; and all the necessary conditions were established for the child’s development, upbringing and quality education. The procuratorial bodies take measures on the disciplinary, administrative and criminal levels against teaching staff who tolerate corporal punishment and other forms of cruel treatment of children.
102. In view of the inter-agency character of action against human trafficking, and in order to coordinate the activity of State bodies in combating such trafficking, Presidential Decision No. PP-911 of 8 July 2008 on measures for raising effectiveness in preventing human trafficking approved the National Action Plan to prevent trafficking in human beings, 2008-2010, and created the National Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons.
103. The main tasks of the above Commission consist in coordinating the activity of State bodies, local authorities and non-profit NGOs in combating human trafficking and taking steps to better identify and eliminate the factors and conditions favouring human trafficking.
104. Cabinet of Ministers Decision No. 240 of 5 November 2008 created the National Rehabilitation Centre to Assist and Protect Victims of Human Trafficking, under the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection. The Centre’s basic tasks and functions consist in ensuring that human trafficking victims are offered appropriate living and sanitary conditions, food, medicines, health care supplies, and urgent medical, psychological, social, judicial and other assistance.
105. Uzbek law guarantees the defence of children’s right to protection against sexual solicitation. Articles 118-121 of the Criminal Code establish criminal penalties for rape and a series of other sexual crimes.
106. Under the Criminal Code, sexual intercourse with a person under 16 (art. 128), lewd acts involving such persons (art. 129), the production or dissemination of pornographic material (art. 130) and the operation of brothels and procuring (art. 131) are crimes.
107. The State endeavours to protect children from participation in criminal activities, including prostitution. The Family Code imposes on parents and persons in loco parentis an obligation to raise children and ensure their physical, psychological, spiritual and moral development. Parents and persons in loco parentis may not harm children, and all the more so may not involve them in criminal activities. Under article 188 of the Administrative Liability Code, minor’s parents or other persons (such as guardians or custodians) are legally responsible for the minor’s involvement in anti-social behaviour. Repeated commission of that offence is punishable under article 127 of the Criminal Code.
108. Article 127 of the Criminal Code is worded as follows:
“Involving a minor in begging or the use of alcoholic beverages, or substances or preparations which, although not narcotic or psychotropic, affect his or her mental activity or will, committed after an earlier administrative penalty for the same acts, shall incur a fine equal to 100-200 times the minimum wage, or correctional labour for up to 2 years, or detention for up to 2 months, or deprivation of liberty for up to 3 years.
Involving a minor in the use of drugs or psychotropic substances shall incur deprivation of liberty for 3 to 5 years.
Involving a minor in a crime or in the acts specified in the second part of this article shall incur deprivation of liberty for 5-10 years if perpetrated:
(a) By a person having previously committed a crime related to trafficking in narcotic drugs of psychotropic substances;
(b) With respect to two or more minors;
(c) In educational establishments or other facilities used by pupils or students for educational, sport or social events.”
109. In the event of violation of a child’s rights, freedoms or legitimate interests, including if parents or persons in loco parentis do not fulfil or do not properly fulfil their obligations to support, bring up and educate a child, or in the event of abuse of parental rights, the child may independently apply to the guardianship and custody bodies for protection.
110. In order to increase the responsibility of parents and persons in loco parentis for a child’s education, article 188-1, added to the Administrative Liability Code under an act of 16 April 2008, provides that involving a minor in an administrative offence shall incur a fine equal to 10-30 times the minimum wage.
111. The prevention of Child Neglect and Juvenile Delinquency Act, Act No. 263 of 29 September 2010, is aimed at preventing neglect and homelessness of minors and their involvement in delinquent or other antisocial acts; exposing and eliminating the causes and conditions leading to such acts; ensuring the protection of the minors’ rights, freedoms and legitimate interests; encouraging law-abiding behaviour among minors; ensuring the social and educational rehabilitation of socially vulnerable minors and families; and detecting and suppressing cases of juvenile delinquency or other antisocial action.
112. Under the Act, the system of bodies and institutions engaged in the prevention of child neglect and juvenile delinquency includes commissions on minors’ affairs; internal affairs bodies; educational administrations and educational institutions; guardianship and custody bodies; health care administration bodies and health care institutions; and the bodies for employment-related matters and social protection.
113. Within the framework of their powers, the Commission on Minors’ Affairs attached to the Cabinet of Ministers and the local minors’ affairs commissions:
• Implement measures to prevent child neglect and juvenile delinquency and to ensure the protection of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of minors;
• Develop a set of measures to prevent child neglect, juvenile delinquency and other antisocial acts among minors and to ensure the protection of their rights, freedoms and legitimate interests, and monitor the implementation of such measures;
• Coordinate the activities of bodies working to prevent child neglect and juvenile delinquency;
• Help draft legal and regulatory instruments for the protection of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of minors;
• Carry out activities aimed at raising awareness of relevant legal issues among minors, teachers’ groups and the public;
• Monitor conditions for the maintenance, upbringing and education of minors in bodies and institutions that work to prevent child neglect and juvenile delinquency;
• Apply to the courts for the placement of children in specialized reform schools and on other issues provided for by law;
• Consider requests by educational institutions to exclude children from those institutions;
• Consider complaints and applications by children, their parents, persons in loco parentis and other persons concerned with violations of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of minors;
• Assist in finding employment and providing appropriate living conditions for minors released from correctional institutions or returning from specialized reform schools and help to find arrangements for minors in need of State social assistance;
• Involve volunteers who have the necessary training, background or experience with children in assisting parents or persons in loco parentis in re-educating minors who have violated the law or committed antisocial acts;
• Make representations to State bodies or other organizations with a view to eliminating violations of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of minors and improving educational and preventive action;
• Notify the procurator’s office of cases in which the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of minors are violated;
• Propose to the appropriate State bodies and other organizations that charges be brought against their officials if they fail to implement the decisions of minors’ affairs commissions or to take measures to eliminate violations of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of minors that have been reported by such commissions;
• Take appropriate enforcement action in respect of children, parents or persons in loco parentis.
114. Other key State bodies in the area of children’s rights are the following: the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education and the Ministry of National Education for organizing supervision over the maintenance, education and upbringing of minors in specialized reform schools; the Ministry of Internal Affairs for raising the effectiveness of the work of minors’ affairs inspectorates; the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, which, together with the regional administrations and the internal affairs bodies, offers practical help in securing housing and job placements for minors who have been released from correctional institutions or have returned from specialized reform schools; and procurator’s offices, for more effective monitoring of the implementation of the law on minors and for ensuring investigation into and prevention of the causes and conditions of juvenile delinquency and crime.
115. The national institutions created in the area of human rights in accordance with the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action are the parliamentary Ombudsman, the National Centre for Human Rights, and the Institute for Monitoring Current Legislation, attached to the Office of the President of Uzbekistan.
116. The parliamentary Ombudsman exercises parliamentary oversight over the observance of legislation on human rights and freedoms, including the rights of the child, by State bodies, enterprises, institutions, organizations and officials; examines complaints regarding acts or omissions violating citizens’ rights on the part of organizations and officials; and verifies applicants’ claims and draws up recommendations for eliminating the violations. The Ombudsman may call for charges to be brought against persons violating the rights of a child, including on issues addressed by the Protocol. In 2009, the parliamentary Ombudsman’s office and regional representatives thereof received 42 submissions regarding the rights of the child. Of the 159 such submissions received in 2010, none involved violations of provisions of the Protocol.
117. As an independent inter-agency advisory body for coordination and research in connection with the formulation of State strategies on the exercise of constitutional human rights and freedoms, the National Centre for Human Rights monitors the situation of human and children’s rights, summarizes the information received in the country’s periodic reports on the implementation of the Convention and receives citizens to hear claims of rights violations by State bodies. The Centre has received no submissions on issues addressed by the Protocol.
118. The Institute for Monitoring Current Legislation is a research body of the executive branch. It monitors legislation and carries out expert legal assessments of the acts adopted.
119. The Research Centre on the Democratization and Liberalization of Judicial Legislation and the Independence of the Judicial System is an independent research, information and advisory body attached to the Supreme Court.
120. The National Centre for the Social Adaptation of Children deals with issues affecting socially vulnerable children. The Centre’s basic functions are to coordinate, monitor and assess the social protection of children; carry out analyses and develop legal instruments to ensure and protect the rights and interests of socially vulnerable groups of children (children with disabilities, mental or physical development problems, or serious chronic diseases; orphans; children deprived of care by parents or persons in loco parentis; and children from troubled families, at risk at the social or legal level, or living in institutions for young offenders and specialized reform schools).
121. Informational and educational activity in the area of children’s rights has become considerably more intensive in the country. The informational activity includes publishing international legal instruments on the rights of the child and holding relevant conferences, seminars and training sessions.
122. The following books were published in the period 2006-2011:
• Protection of the rights of the child: A handbook for parliamentarians; in Uzbek, 1,000 copies;
• The Convention on the Rights of the Child; in Uzbek, Karakalpak and Russian, 2,000 copies;
• The Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocols; in Uzbek, 2,000 copies;
• Human rights for parliamentarians; in Uzbek, 1,000 copies;
• Compilation of the core ILO conventions and recommendations; in Uzbek, 2,000 copies;
• A handbook for parliamentarians: Eradication of the worst forms of child labour: Practical guidance on the application of ILO Convention No. 182; in Uzbek, 2,000 copies;
• Anniversary edition of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in Uzbek and Russian, 20,000 copies;
• A scholarly commentary on Uzbekistan’s Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act; in Uzbek and Russian, 2,000 copies;
• A compilation entitled United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Uzbekistan’s Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act; 2,000 copies in Uzbek, 1,000 copies in Russian and 500 copies in English;
• A commentary on Uzbekistan’s Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act; in Uzbek and Russian, 2,000 copies;
• A compilation entitled Legal foundations of the protection of the rights of the child: International standards and national legislation, in Uzbek, 1,000 copies;
• A compilation of legal and regulatory instruments on the prevention of human trafficking, 1,000 copies;
• A compilation of United Nations instruments of international law on human rights and the fight against crime;
• A handbook entitled Priorities and current tasks in preventing antisocial behaviour in children;
• An electronic book entitled The Rights of the Child: A compilation of international treaties;
• A textbook entitled The Rights of the Child for bachelor’s and master’s degree studies.
123. As part of the Action Programme for the sixtieth anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a monograph on “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the national system for the protection of human rights in Uzbekistan” was prepared and appeared in Uzbek, Russian and English, and a series of 15 pamphlets on “Human rights in Uzbekistan” was published, addressing various aspects of the implementation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and related international instruments. One of the pamphlets was entitled “Guarantees of Children’s rights”.
124. The subject of children’s rights is treated in many Uzbek legal, economic and pedagogical journals and newspapers. For instance, it is a priority topic for writers contributing to the journals Democratization and human rights and Public opinion and human rights published by the National Centre for Human Rights, the Office of the parliamentary Ombudsman, the Council of the Federation Trade Unions of Uzbekistan and the Public Opinion Centre. Every year, an issue is devoted to questions related to compliance with the rights of the child in the country.
125. Uzbekistan pays considerable attention to informing the population, staff of State bodies, parliamentarians, judges, procurators, staff of internal affairs services and the armed forces, social workers, teachers and parents of the provisions of the Convention and the Protocol.
126. The Protocol’s principles and provisions are covered widely by the national and regional media; they are studied in educational institutions, treated in curricula and course programmes for retraining and raising the qualifications of staff, published in the form of books, brochures, booklets and scholarly and general articles in specialized publications on children and highlighted through television, the radio and contests and competitions for schoolchildren and higher education students.
127. Independent television and radio stations and regional television and radio companies run by the national television and radio corporation regularly prepare and broadcast series of programmes aimed at raising legal awareness regarding the rights of children, adults and the emerging generation. Particular attention is paid to broadcasting such material at times convenient for the adults and the children. Such television and radio broadcasts include, inter alia, Hayot va qonun (Life and law), O’smir (Adolescent), Yoshlar va qonun (Youth and law), Bola huquqlari (Rights of the child), Yo’l boshida adashganlar (Lost at the outset), Huquqshunos javob beradi (A jurist replies), Bolalar dunyosi (Children’s world), To’rtinchi tamoyil (Fourth principle) and Bolalar va biz (Children and us).
128. In 2010, the above television and radio stations and companies prepared and broadcast more than 150 television and radio programmes on children’s rights.
129. The О’zbekiston broadcasting service’s television broadcasts entitled Arzon diskning savdosi (The cheap disk trade) (2009) and Qaroqchi diskfurushlar (Pirated disk vendors) (29 November 2010) discussed trafficking in pirated disks promoting violence, prostitution and “mass culture” and having a negative impact on the upbringing of the young generation. The broadcasts Qiz o’g’rilari (Kidnappers of girls) (December 2009) and Bola o’g’risi (Kidnapper of children) (2010) are about Tashkent and Qo’qon criminals who traffic in children.
130. In cooperation with the Procurator-General’s Office, the Ministries of Justice and Internal Affairs and the National Centre for Human Rights, 24 broadcasts were produced on the implementation in Uzbekistan of the Convention. Radio programmes entitled Adolat qonun ustuvorligda (Justice as a priority of the law) were broadcast twice a month with the participation of representatives of the above bodies and of non-profit NGOs actively engaged in protecting the rights and interests of children.
131. Approximately 60 interviews, reports and live broadcasts with representatives of national-level NGOs specializing in various areas of the fulfilment and protection of children’s rights took place through the Mash’al axboroti information programmes.
132. The stations run by the national television and radio corporation regularly broadcast public service announcements entitled Bolalar bizning kelajagimiz! (Children are our future!), Bolalarni asrang! (Take care of the children!) and Bola boshidan (The child comes first).
133. Contacts are established with television viewers and radio listeners through telephone calls and letters from children and adults to the electronic addresses of the corporation and of the television and radio stations and broadcasts. The viewers’ and listeners’ opinions and wishes must be taken into account in preparing television and radio broadcasts.
134. Of the nearly 50 periodical publications for children and adolescents, 29 are published at the national level and 20 at the provincial, city or regional levels by State and non-state bodies and individuals. Also, most of the country’s national publications contain children’s sections. The print runs of the magazines Guncha and Gulxan and the newspapers Tong yulduzi and Klass! have been increasing.
135. In 2009-2010, the media published more than 2,000 items on issues related to children’s rights, the promotion of their healthy and harmonious development, health improvement, the prohibition of forced child labour and the prevention of trafficking in children.
136. At general secondary schools, instruction is provided in seven languages, namely Uzbek, Karakalpak, Russian, Tajik, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Turkmen. All textbooks and handbooks on children’s rights are published in the seven languages. The curriculum for every class includes human rights subjects. Teachers invite to their classes parents and representatives of the mahallas (neighbourhoods), community groups and law enforcement bodies. During such lessons, the students are informed of the history of the adoption of the Convention, its basic principles and concepts, its significance, and the contents of the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act.
137. The National Centre for Education of the Ministry of National Education has prepared and disseminated methodological recommendations to teachers of the subjects entitled “ABC of the Constitution”, “Journey to the world of the Constitution” and “Foundations of the State and the law” for introducing into the lessons concepts directly related to trafficking in children, child prostitution and child pornography, taking into account the students’ age and psychological characteristics.
138. Training sessions have been held on introducing the spirit and content of the Protocol into lessons given at general education schools, including in the subjects entitled “Our rights” in grades 1-4 and “The rights, responsibility and obligations of minors” in grades 5-9.
139. Two handbooks My rights and The rights, responsibility and obligations of minors, have been produced respectively for grades 1-4 and 5-9 and are used in grades 1-4 in the subjects entitled “ABC of the Constitution”, “ABC of ethics”, “Reading book”, “The world around us” and “Natural history” (60 hours), in grades 5-7 in the subjects entitled “Voyage to the world of the Constitution”, “History”, “The feeling of the native land”, “Literature”, “Natural history”, “Botany”, “Biology” and “Geography” (136 hours) and in grades 8-9 in the subjects entitled “Foundations of the State and the law”, “Principles of constitutional law” and “Foundations of the idea of national independence and spirituality” (92 hours).
140. A legal information booklet, Your Rights under the country’s Constitution and law, was printed in 100,000 copies and has been distributed free of charge at general education establishments.
141. Optional studies on human trafficking prevention issues were introduced within the framework of the subjects “Foundations of spirituality”, “The Uzbek Constitution”, “Personality and society” and “Basics of jurisprudence” at the State teachers’ colleges administered by the Ministry of National Education.
142. Between September and December of the 2009-2010 school year, teachers of social subjects and class supervisors held discussions with grade 1-7 pupils of general education schools on such topics as “Freedom – an invaluable blessing”, “Happiness is not found in money” and “Values of the native land”.
143. Agendas for parents’ meetings held by general education establishments in cooperation with interested bodies and organizations include issues related to the prevention of human trafficking, greater awareness of the law among persons travelling abroad to work and social and legal assistance for Uzbek victims of crimes involving human trafficking.
144. A Human Rights Month is held at schools every year from 10 November to 10 December, with literary book fairs on the theme of human rights in the G’afur G’ulom park and in provincial centres. In connection with the Day of the Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, seminars on theoretical and practical issues are held in all of the country’s regions on such topics as, inter alia, “The Uzbek Constitution as a basis for our happiness, accomplishments and well-being”, “Human rights guarantees under the Constitution and laws of Uzbekistan” and “The Constitution and us”.
145. In “mothers’ schools” set up in 1,356 of the country’s mahallas, meetings and round tables are organized with the participation of girls and their mothers on the following topics: “Human trafficking – a loss for the nation”, “Spirit and content of the Human Trafficking Prevention Act” and “The adverse effects of child prostitution and pornography, and ways of preventing them”.
146. Within national education establishments, in cooperation with provincial procurator’s offices, internal affairs administrations, provincial boards of the Kamolot Youth Movement, Mahalla Foundation branches and public organizations, and with the participation of students and their parents, more than 2,300 preventive and educational events have been held on the above topics. Currently, more than 1,941,880 copies of legal publications are available in school libraries and resource centres.
147. The curricula of higher and specialized secondary educational establishments include topics related to the Convention and the Protocol. The legal programmes of institutes of higher education include 54 hours of human rights as a required subject; and a similar subject is included in the State vocational secondary school curriculum for junior specialists in medical social work (62 hours). The human rights course includes the study of international and national instruments and institutional mechanisms for protecting children’s rights, and addresses issues related to international cooperation in protecting the rights of the child.
148. The above study programmes and those on international law, labour law and criminal law include modules on the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1951) and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2000).
149. On 10 December every year, all higher education institutions and special vocational secondary education establishments hold events for International Human Rights Day, which include the presentation of relevant reports and essay contests on children’s rights.
150. The Centre for Specialized Vocational Secondary Education of the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education and the Uzbek Chamber of Commerce and Industry have developed joint measures for implementing ILO Conventions No. 138 and No. 182.
151. As part of these measures, the jurisprudence and labour law programmes for academic and vocational secondary schools have been revised, with emphasis on the above ILO Conventions and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. A plan has been outlined for training seminars on jurisprudence for teachers of academic and vocational secondary schools, to include modules on labour law and on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.
152. The following courses are currently under review: education science and psychology in teachers’ colleges, whose graduates will be directly involved in educating children; specialized courses in medical social care, whose graduates will undertake preventive work with young families and mothers in the communities; and the curricula of specialized law schools, with a view to including modules that enhance familiarization with and knowledge of the laws that protect children’s rights, ILO Convention No. 182 and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.
153. The programme of study of the Mirzo Ulug’bek National University law school includes courses on human rights (54 hours) and international law (81 hours), which address in detail issues related to trafficking in children, child prostitution and child pornography. Students of the law school and the section of the philosophy faculty entitled “The concept of national independence and the foundations of spirituality and law” study the Protocol, while law students are taught such subjects as criminal law, including information on the crime of human trafficking.
154. In the 2009/10 academic year, in their qualifying work and master’s dissertations, graduating law school students addressed issues related to trafficking in children, child prostitution and child pornography. Meetings, seminars, and training sessions on such issues are organized regularly at the Mirzo Ulug’bek National University law school.
155. As part of the advanced courses of the Office of the Procurator-General, measures are taken to disseminate the relevant content of the Optional Protocols and the Convention and to inform procuratorial staff of the basic standards they establish. Training modules have been introduced on current problems related to the hearing of human trafficking cases by the criminal courts.
156. In 2009-2010, more than 30 employees of departments of the National Interdepartmental Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons received training in special programmes on the international legal aspects of combating human trafficking.
157. In the period 2009-2010, training courses were organized under a special programme for more than 70 secretaries of minors’ affairs commissions attached to regional administrations, on problems and further improvement of the implementation of the rules of the Convention through national legislation. During the courses, the secretaries were informed of the provisions of the Protocol.
158. The following events took place in connection with advanced courses on issues related to the Protocol:
• The National Centre for the Social Adaptation of Children held a training seminar on preventing criminal offences against children.
• On 15 February 2010, a workshop on the criminalization of torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or illegal punishment took place in Ferg’ono province. It also addressed issues related to trafficking in children and child prostitution and pornography. The workshop produced methodological recommendations on the topic, which were then published.
• The National Rehabilitation Centre to Assist and Protect Victims of Human Trafficking held a conference on current issues related to the fight against human trafficking.
• The Department for the Prevention of Tax and Currency Offences and Money Laundering attached to the Office of the Procurator-General held a workshop on the priority goals and current tasks in preventing antisocial behaviour in children, with the participation of representatives of UNICEF and the Commission on Minors’ Affairs attached to the Cabinet of Ministers.
159. The Tashkent State Institute of Law has developed and introduced a new course on children’s rights. The textbook for the course, published in 2009, analyses the provisions of the Protocol; focuses on preventing trafficking in children, child prostitution and child pornography and increasing the penalties for such crimes; discusses issues related to child labour and the fight against human trafficking; and addresses aspects of these offences from a criminal law perspective.
160. In implementation of the provisions of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, the bachelor’s degree programme of the University of World Economics and Diplomacy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in its course on human rights, discusses the concept and significance of the rights of the child, covering Uzbekistan’s international agreements and national legislation on protecting such rights, together with the international and national institutional mechanisms designed to do so, and aspects of the country’s international cooperation in protecting and respecting the rights of the child. The course on criminal law looks at certain children’s rights issues related to the crimes of the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.
161. A specialized course on the national and international foundations of the fight against human trafficking has been introduced into the master’s degree programme and discusses national legislation and international standards for preventing the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. A course on international human rights law covers questions related to the international legal protection of the rights of the child, the essence and meaning of the Protocol, and international monitoring mechanisms for protecting children’s rights. A specialized course on national human rights institutions considers the activity of those institutions in protecting children’s rights and ensuring at the international and national levels that they are respected.
162. “Master classes” on human rights take place regularly at the University, with the participation of specialists from the secretariat of the parliamentary Ombudsman, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Justice and the Office of the ProcuratorGeneral. During such events, current issues relating to the protection of children’s rights in the country are discussed. Every year in the department of international law, graduate theses and master’s dissertations on the protection of the rights of the child are written, and a doctoral dissertation has been defended on the topic of “International legal issues in the recruitment of women and children”.
163. The Centre for the Further Training of Legal Specialists, attached to the Ministry of Justice, takes steps to raise students’ awareness of the role and significance of the Protocol. Special topics on the exercise of the rights and freedoms of the child have been introduced into the Centre’s educational programme, and include, inter alia: The rights of the child: international standards and national legislations; Legal foundations of the fight against international crime; The place and role of international standards in protecting human rights in the activity of law enforcement bodies; International legal assistance in civil, family and criminal cases; and Human trafficking: a crime against personal freedom.
164. Training programmes for criminal case judges in district or municipal courts and for provincial court judges include special topics on respecting citizens’ rights and freedoms during initial inquiries, pretrial investigations, judicial examination of criminal and administrative cases, and action against human trafficking, and on methods of ensuring judicial supervision over these matters. Over 3,000 people were trained at the Centre in 2009 and 2010, when respectively 126 and 138 hours of lectures were held.
165. A human rights resource unit operating in the above Centre since 10 December 2009 collects documentation specifically on human rights and maintains subject-specific electronic databases on international standards in the area of combating trafficking in children.
166. The Centre has held the following relevant events:
• On 4 and 5 May 2010, in cooperation with the German Foundation for International Legal Cooperation (IRZ Foundation), the Centre organized a seminar on the theoretical and practical aspects of dealing with minors who commit crimes, comparing Uzbek and German legislation;
• In the period February-November 2010, the Centre and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Project Coordinator organized a series of regional seminars in all the country’s regions on the tasks the judicial authorities now must face to ensure respect for human rights; they were attended by, in total, approximately 320 Ministry of Justice staff members, judges, procurators and attorneys;
• From 9 to 19 November 2010, the Centre and the OSCE Project Coordinator organized a series of regional international seminars on international standards in the administration of justice: questions of practical implementation, in Tashkent (9-10 November), Urganch (12 November), Buxora (15 November), Samarqand (17 November) and Ferg’ona (19 November). An expert from the United States of America participated in the seminars.
167. Professors and lecturers from the Department of Human Rights Theory and Practice in the Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs teach the Protocol to:
• Second-year day students (400 every year) as part of the topic “International human rights standards” within the subject of human rights theory and practice;
• Fourth-year day students (400 every year) as part of the topic “Human rights and international law” within the subject of international law;
• Advanced course students (50 every year) as part of the topic “International human rights standards for law enforcement bodies” within the subject of human rights in the activities of internal affairs agencies;
• Students of the further training department (1,100 internal affairs officers) who periodically undergo such training, as part of a course on human rights;
• Students attending advanced training courses for non-commissioned officers (1,200 every year), as part of a course on human rights.
168. Every year, the Academy’s professors and lecturers participate in awareness-raising work to improve the public’s general knowledge about human rights. In 2010, meetings were held for students of the higher grades of general secondary schools in Tashkent to acquaint them with the provisions of national and international human rights law related to the rights of the child.
169. The protection of children’s rights is also emphasized at the further training courses held for teaching staff at 16 retraining and further training institutes. Training seminars for teachers take place periodically as part of the Child-Friendly Schools programme, carried out in cooperation with UNICEF.
170. A two-hour course entitled “Guarantees of children’s rights: the law against human trafficking” has been included in the approved programme of further training courses for administrative and teaching staff of the national education system. These lectures provide information on topical issues related to human rights, including the protection of children’s rights, trafficking in children, child prostitution and child pornography. In 2010, the courses were attended by approximately 2,500 managers and staff from all categories of preschool education.
171. Moreover, the curricula of all of the above courses include six hours of discussion of the foundations of human rights. In 2010, these courses were attended by more than 105,070 participants at all the teachers’ further training and skill enhancement institutes.
172. State bodies cooperate closely with a network of NGOs working to protect and promote various human rights.
173. A number of non-profit NGOs are active in the area of protecting children’s rights.
174. The State supports the activity of non-profit NGOs, including those involved in children’s rights work, and ensures equal opportunities under the law for participation in public life. The above support takes the form of subsidies, grants and the procurement of social services. The State protects such organizations’ right of access to information, their property, their professional reputation, the outcome of their intellectual activity and their right to challenge unwarranted decisions by State bodies or the acts or omissions of civil servants before a higher body or before a court of law.
175. Non-profit NGOs, in the form of NGOs for children, trade unions and public foundations, participate in developing and implementing State and regional programmes designed to secure the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of the child. In particular, the following children’s and youth non-profit NGOs took part actively in the development and realization of the National Programme of Action for child welfare: the Forum for the Culture and Art of Uzbekistan, the Kamolot Youth Movement, the Mahalla Foundation, the Sen Yolg’iz Emassan Foundation, the Sog’lom Avlod Uchun Foundation, the Council of the Federation of Trade Unions, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Centre for Legal Studies, the Children’s Fund, the Public Opinion Centre, the Oila Centre for Applied Research, the Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan, the Progress Centre for Development and Education, Mehr Tayanchi, Ekosan and the Association of Persons with Disabilities.
176. The Forum for the Culture and Art of Uzbekistan contributes substantially to the observance of the rights of the child by means of such important cultural events for children as the Yangi Avlod (New Generation) Children’s Art Festival, the Kelajak Ovozi (Voice of the Future) National Contest for Young Talent, the Bolajonlar-Shirintoylar Children’s Fashion Festival, the Baby International Children’s Rhythmic Gymnastics Tournament, the International Competition for Contemporary Choreography and Sport Dance, the “In the Name of Childhood” Charity Ball and the Schools Spring Marathon. Moreover, the Forum organizes numerous children’s and youth projects, including under the aegis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and UNICEF.
177. The Forum has set up the Forum Junior Sport children’s sports complex, in which approximately 100 children exercise in rhythmic gymnastics, wushu and other sports. The Forum also set up the Champions’ Forum sports complex, which meets international standards for participation by children in various combat sports.
178. The international non-governmental Sog’lom Avlod Uchun Foundation was set up in 1993 with broad public support primarily to establish conditions conducive to the birth and development of well-integrated children. To that end, the Foundation designs and implements humanitarian, medical and educational programmes and projects to support gifted children and to encourage a healthy lifestyle, along with programmes for vulnerable population groups, children and young people.
179. The Kamolot Youth Movement is one of the biggest NGOs dealing with issues related to young persons’ rights. The chief priority of its work is to unite the country’s progressive youth; develop physically healthy and spiritually mature citizens of an independent Uzbekistan; educate them in a spirit of dedication to the national idea and an ideology based on national and universal values and democratic principles; champion the interests of young persons; and turn Kamolot into an authentic support mechanism for them.
180. Kamolot, in cooperation with the Association for the Support of Children and the Family, the Mahalla Foundation and other organizations, has organized approximately 2,000 awareness-raising events, meetings and round tables on the topics “My rights and me” and “Let’s study the Convention on the Rights of the Child”.
181. Kamolot has a decentralized structure, with 14 provincial and 199 district branches and 1,200 staff members. Its lead organizations working with young people have 15,800 units and are represented in all of the country’s educational establishments, military units and Government departments, as well as in a number of industrial and agricultural enterprises.
182. Kamolot currently has more than 4.5 million members (aged 14-30) and, together with the Kamalak (Rainbow) children’s movement (4 million members aged 10-14), constitutes one of the largest organizations working to develop various forms of local self-government and encourage the formation of the primary institutions of civil society.
183. Kamolot has reached out to some six million young persons nationwide through approximately 7,800 spiritual and educational events, round tables, discussions, seminars and conferences, and large-scale cultural and sport activities. It has produced 20 teacher resource handbooks as well as booklets and posters and has published more than 200 articles on specific topics.
184. Kamolot receives active support from the State. In 2006, for instance, the President of Uzbekistan issued a decree on support for the Kamolot movement and for enhancing the effectiveness of its work, under which a fund was established to raise contributions from small businesses, the first such fund to operate as a partnership. Moreover, under an agreement with the Ministry of Finance, the Taxation Committee and the Central Bank, Kamolot is exempt from tax audits and pays a lower rate for banking services.
185. Kamolot promotes public awareness among society at large, including children, by means of information disseminated through all channels of the media and in awarenessraising events, and encourages the participation of young persons in such work.
186. Kamolot’s activity is aimed at:
(a) Enhancing children’s and young people’s legal knowledge; instilling in them respect for the Constitution and its laws; and forming in them an active and uncompromising attitude against any violations of the principles of social justice;
(b) Developing networks of social services for youth, which provide various forms of social assistance to children and young persons and help them to obtain psychological, medical, legal and other types of advice; choose a profession and find a job; receive information; master modern information technology; and put their free time to good use.
187. Youth social service centres attached to Kamolot have been established throughout the country in order to enhance children’s capabilities and provide them with new skills and knowledge. Currently, 95 such centres are in operation.
188. The centres provide, inter alia:
(a) Psychoeducational, medical and legal assistance and consultations for minors and other young citizens;
(b) Social assistance to young citizens facing particular difficulties as a result of physical disabilities;
(c) Legal awareness and information for young persons regarding their pursuits in the areas of employment, education, vocational training, leisure, tourism and sport;
(d) Meaningful leisure activities for young persons at their place of residence, and other forms of assistance for young persons.
In 2009 alone, approximately 100,000 young persons benefited from various types of training at the above centres.
189. The Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan too participates in initiatives for young persons, including: large-scale implementation of the State programme on the Year for a Harmoniously Developed Generation; a set of measures to implement the “Healthy Mother – Healthy Child” programme; monitoring of the health of mothers and the young generation; improvement of the population’s reproductive health; prevention of hereditary and congenital diseases and disorders affecting mothers; and the enhancement of young people’s knowledge and sense of responsibility regarding the creation of a healthy family and sensitization to medical issues in order to promote healthy ways of living. The Committee promotes the involvement of as many children as possible, especially girls, in participatory sports; participation in preparing and carrying out the comprehensive “Young People Opt for a Healthy Lifestyle” programme and in fostering such a lifestyle among young persons. It also produces visual aids, commercials and posters, and organizes contests, shows and concerts under the slogan “Young People Opt for a Healthy Lifestyle”.
190. The Committee organizes seminars, round tables and question-and-answer evenings and conferences on theoretical and practical aspects of, inter alia, “Developing a healthy lifestyle culture – the basis for a harmoniously developed generation” and “Scientific and methodological issues in protecting youth against pernicious ideological influences and base ‘mass culture’”.
191. The national Sen Yolg’iz Emassan Children’s Foundation started operations in 2002. Its main mission is to provide comprehensive assistance so as to create conditions for children to lead decent lives and fulfil their potential to support the family as a priority, and to ensure that the necessary action is taken to better protect the interests of children in acute need of social support (orphans, children deprived of parental care, neglected or disabled children, and children from needy families).
192. The Foundation’s work is carried out in coordination with long-term programmes of assistance for children.
193. The Foundation’s basic aims and challenges involve tackling various problems affecting children by:
• Protecting the rights and legitimate interests of children in need of social protection;
• Developing a well-balanced personalities in children;
• Attending to children’s spiritual and moral development;
• Providing material, medical, legal and other assistance;
• Contributing to preventive and other health care for children;
• Improving children’s moral and mental well-being.
194. Uzbekistan has a permanent system for fostering the participation of professional cultural and art institutions (inter alia, museums, theatres and libraries) in the aesthetic education of children and the organization of cultural leisure time. Various legislative measures are adopted to develop and support the theatrical, musical and choreographic arts.
195. The following measures have been taken in order to further enhance awareness-raising and educational activities on the rights of the child:
• On 3-4 June 2009, in the framework of the International Year of Human Rights Learning, an international conference on current problems in human rights education was organized by the National Centre for Human Rights and the OSCE Project Coordinator in Uzbekistan. Foreign experts participating in the conference included Professor R. Müllerson of King’s College, London, United Kingdom, Professor C. Osakwe of Tulane University, United States of America, and Professor V. Lazarev of the Moscow State Law Academy, Russian Federation;
• From 15 to 25 July 2009, the staff of the Ministry of Justice, of the Ministry’s National Centre for the Further Training of Legal Specialists and of the National Centre for Human Rights, with the support of the OSCE Project Coordinator in Uzbekistan, were briefed on methods and forms of human rights education, including on the rights of the child, as part of a visit to Switzerland, Hungary and Slovenia;
• The National Centre for Human Rights and the OSCE Project Coordinator in Uzbekistan prepared for publication of a teachers’ handbook entitled Human Rights Education: National and International Experience, containing an analysis of the human and children’s rights education system in Uzbekistan and recommendations for further improvement in the light of international experience;
• Issues related to the rights of the child, the provisions of the Convention and related national legislation are part of the curriculum of preschool establishments, general and specialized secondary schools, vocational schools and institutions of higher education, and are included in the further training system for teachers, medical and social workers, journalists, law enforcement personnel and judges.
196. Uzbek legislation has been subject to various examinations and expert analyses to ensure that the provisions of the Family Code concerning marriage age are compatible with the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Proposals to enshrine in the law the principle of equal rights for women and men when contracting a marriage and the prohibition of child marriage are currently under public discussion. The Centre for Monitoring Compliance with Legal and Regulatory Instruments attached to the Ministry of Justice has carried out a comparative analysis of international legal standards and Uzbek legislation in the area of education and the protection of child labour.
197. The work plan of the Committee on Democratic Institutions, NGOs and Citizens’ Self-Governance Bodies of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis called for the Office of the Procurator in the third quarter of 2011 to monitor and analyze the implementation of the Protocol. Also, the 2011 work plan of the Committee on International Affairs and Interparliamentary Relations of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis called for monitoring and analysis in the provinces of Buxora, Tashkent and Navoiy of compliance with the Convention and related international documents incorporated into national legislation.
198. On 7 April 2009, the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis and the UNICEF office in Uzbekistan signed a memorandum of understanding and cooperation in the interests of children, for the period up to 2015.
199. Under the memorandum, a children’s rights resource centre was created in the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis. The centre is equipped with technical facilities and operates within the relevant national and international legal and regulatory framework regarding children’s rights, taking account also of international experience in combating child trafficking. The Centre’s programme includes awareness-raising events for deputies of the Legislative Chamber and for the staff of State bodies, institutions, law enforcement agencies and NGOs.
200. A wide range of preventive and informational activity is carried out in all provinces in order to prevent trafficking in children. The Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan, in cooperation with various State bodies and NGOs, carries out a number of activities to inform the population, particularly regarding the risks for women and girls working illegally abroad.
201. A number of public organizations have set up helplines that offer free advice on an anonymous basis. In the last two years alone, such advice has been provided in more than 60,000 cases. The helplines handle, inter alia, citizens’ requests for assistance for victims of human trafficking. More than 200 such victims have received help in returning to the country. In cooperation with embassies and consulates in such countries as the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Thailand and India, help has been given through the provision of documents and certificates for repatriation.
202. More than 60,000 persons have received advice through the helplines. There have been approximately 5,000 petitions regarding specific cases of human trafficking from such countries as the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, Turkey and Thailand. Repatriation assistance has been provided in 2,000 cases.
203. Relevant booklets in Uzbek, Russian, Karakalpak and Tajik have been distributed to the public.
204. Public service videos, prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, have been broadcast on national television channel No. 1.
205. Public service announcements designed to prevent human trafficking have been broadcast daily on the Yoshlar radio station.
206. Two videos entitled Otalar So’zi (Fatherly guidance) about human trafficking for labour and sexual exploitation have been produced and broadcast.
207. Approximately 1,000 related seminars and youth events have been held for students of general education schools, academic and vocational secondary schools and higher education institutions, as have more than 600 events in local communities.
208. In December 2004, a Rehabilitation Centre for Victims of Human Trafficking opened in the city of Tashkent, as part of the Combating Human Trafficking in Central Asia project. The Rehabilitation Centre, attached to the Istiqbolli Avlod Youth Education Centre, which implements the project in Uzbekistan, is designed for girls who have been victims of trafficking for labour or sexual exploitation. When necessary, the victims are assigned counsels who initiate criminal proceedings against the persons who recruited them and, if the victims so wish, represent the victims’ interests in court.
209. The Rehabilitation Centre helps victims to learn a trade. Many girls attend vocational courses. Currently, approximately 100 girls have received training in hairdressing, manicure, pedicure and secretarial work. Where possible, the staff of the Centre seeks employment for girls who have completed such courses.
210. Since the establishment of the Centre in December 2004, 325 girls who were victims of human trafficking have been helped with rehabilitation. In many cases, the Rehabilitation Centre functions as a transit point for girls from out of town arriving late at night in Tashkent who can then proceed to their destinations. The location of the shelter is kept confidential.
211. Under the 2009-2010 joint activity plan of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Istiqbolli Avlod Youth Education Centre, eight regional conferences on the prevention of human trafficking in the provinces took place in 2009 with the participation of representatives of procurator’s offices, internal affairs agencies, State bodies and the public.
212. In 2009, representatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs participated in a seminar on combating human trafficking organized by OSCE in May and another organized by the Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan in October. On 11 November 2009, representatives of the Ministry participated in and presented a report at an international theoretical seminar and workshop on current problems in combating human trafficking, held as part of the advanced courses of the Office of the Procurator-General.
213. In line with Uzbekistan’s international obligations undertaken on the country’s accession to the Protocol, and in particular under article 9 thereof, the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis takes the necessary measures to prevent the crimes indicated in the Protocol, focusing especially on the protection of those children that are vulnerable to such practices. Parliamentary hearings thus took place in 2011 on the implementation of the Convention and the Protocol within the system of the Ministry of Justice.
214. The task of the children’s social and legal assistance centres, which operate within the Central Department for Crime Prevention of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, is to prevent child neglect, juvenile delinquency and, in particular, sexual violence against children and adolescents, and to provide them with appropriate guidance and social, legal or other help from the State and society. The country’s regions, with the exception of Surxondaryo province, are covered by 13 such centres. A total of 12,051 neglected children and juvenile delinquents were accommodated in the centres in 2009 and 10,782 in 2010.
215. Children and adolescents aged 3-18 stay in the centres until they are found places elsewhere, but no longer than 30 days; they are given food, clothing, footwear and accessories.
216. The Central Department for Crime Prevention and its subordinate local internal affairs units provide protection and assistance, within their competence, to children who are victims of crimes involving human trafficking or child prostitution and pornography; they also help all relevant State bodies, agencies and organizations to take such measures and ensure the victims’ rehabilitation and reintegration.
217. The ministries and agencies concerned carry out awareness-raising work in the form of seminars and discussions with the public on:
• The prevention of discrimination against socially vulnerable children;
• The best way to safeguard the children’s interests and right to life;
• Civil rights and freedoms;
• Respect for the views of the child in the family, school and in other institutions.
218. The Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan and its local branches carry out activities to raise women’s and children’s awareness of legal issues.
219. All of the country’s community committees hold meetings and round table discussions to raise awareness of the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act; these involve the chairpersons of community committees, advisers to citizens’ assemblies, women, community leaders and local crime prevention officers. Advisers to citizens’ assemblies visit vulnerable families to provide legal, moral, material and other forms of assistance and engage in preventive work, as appropriate.
220. General education schools and academic and vocational secondary schools take specific steps to improve children’s knowledge of the law, including in respect of violations of their rights. No statistical data exist on cases brought concerning issues of discrimination, and no clear cases of such discrimination have been noted. A special commission for minors’ affairs attached to regional administrations, the community committees and citizens’ group advisers engage in specific work in this area.
221. In addition to raising the legal literacy of assistant regional administrators and community advisers, such steps have also increased the significance and enhanced the status of international legal instruments.
222. Special structures have been established in all the regions to provide help to women who have been victims of violence. These include crisis centres, confidential telephone hotlines, centres for the social adaptation of women, health centres and social and psychological assistance centres.
223. The centres for the social adaptation of women, which function throughout the country and were created at the initiative of the Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan, play an important role. There are currently 69 such centres in the country (47 in Buxoro and 12 in Navoiy; such centres also operate in the Republic of Qoraqalpog’iston and in the provinces of Qashqadaryo, Namangan, Farg’ona, Andijon, Samarqand, Surxondaryo, Sirdaryo, Tashkent, Xorazm and Jizzax). The Centres for Social and Legal Support for Women, including young women, located in the country’s provinces and regions, are currently fully operational, having the necessary technology, equipment, supplies and premises to train women in baking, computer use and dressmaking. Counselling services are provided by psychologists, lawyers and doctors.
224. In 2009, for instance, these centres assisted 2,815 women with legal matters, 2,381 with social questions and 1,120 with health issues, and 524 courses and more than 200 seminars were organized. A building has been provided in Tashkent and organizational work is in progress to set up a National Centre for Social Adaptation.
225. In 2010, procuratorial staff carried out approximately 8,000 legal information activities to prevent and warn against human trafficking. In all of the country’s regions, 1,438 banners and 317,000 posters were exhibited and approximately 4 million booklets on the subject were distributed.
226. Public information meetings on the means and methods of human trafficking are organized for local communities in cooperation with the Mahalla Foundation and local government bodies on topics such as “Human trafficking: a global problem”, “We are the generation of a free State” and “Don’t become a slave”. A show entitled Tortadurman Jabrini, describing the negative consequences of human trafficking, has been staged at the National Academic Theatre.
227. Optional studies on issues related to combating human trafficking have been included in the curricula of higher education institutions, academic and vocational secondary education establishments and other schools.
228. Arrangements have been made with the relevant agencies to provide citizens travelling abroad with information, advice and legal assistance.
229. The internal affairs bodies have introduced a separate information system for crimes of human trafficking that have been reported to them or investigated.
230. At the initiative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and in cooperation with the Istiqbolli Avlod Youth Education Centre, 19 seminars have been held at various places in the country with the participation of the staff of those services involved in combating human trafficking. The seminars addressed issues related to operational organization and cooperation between law enforcement bodies and associations, NGOs and international organizations. Conference participants were also informed about the correct application of legal regulations during initial inquiries.
231. The staff of the internal affairs bodies attach particular importance to using the media to encourage the public to abide by the law, prevent crimes and respect human rights.
232. At the initiative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, a joint plan of work was drawn up for the Ministries of Health, Labour and Social Protection, and Higher and Specialized Secondary Education, the Mahalla Foundation, the Kamolot Youth Movement and the Istiqbolli Avlod Youth Education Centre. The aim of the plan was to prevent offences related to human trafficking and illegal migration in the population and among students of higher education and specialized secondary schools in the period 2009-2010.
233. Under the plan, Ministry of Internal Affairs staff held over 16,000 meetings during the reporting period with inhabitants in settlements (auls), communities, villages, districts and cities, and among employees of agencies and institutions, students of higher and secondary education establishments, and students of academic secondary schools and other schools. Some of these meetings with members of community citizens’ assemblies were held in agencies, higher education institutions, academic and vocational secondary schools and general secondary education establishments.
234. The Istiqbolli Avlod Youth Education Centre, together with the crime prevention service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Internal Affairs Administration of Tashkent province, has, in areas along the border with Kazakhstan, undertaken repeated informational initiatives for persons leaving Uzbekistan in order to work in Kazakhstan or the Russian Federation, distributing booklets on their rights and obligations and on matters related to employment, health and rest in the host country.
235. In 2010, staff members of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Tashkent Central Internal Affairs Department, in cooperation with the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education and the Ministry of National Education, held 12,383 meetings with students and teaching staff of higher education institutions, academic and vocational secondary education establishments and secondary schools. The meetings were attended by 1,561,000 persons.
236. A legal information campaign was carried out among the population. At the initiative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, a joint plan of work for the period 2009-2010 was drawn up for the Ministries of Health, Labour and Social Protection, and Higher and Specialized Secondary Education, the Mahalla Foundation, the Kamolot Youth Movement and the Istiqbolli Avlod Youth Education Centre. The aim of the plan was to prevent offences related to trafficking in persons, particularly women and children, among students of higher education and specialized secondary schools.
237. Under the plan, 22,351 meetings, seminars and round table discussions took place in 2009 with inhabitants of settlements, communities, villages, districts and cities, and among employees of agencies and institutions, students of higher and secondary education establishments, and students of academic secondary schools and other schools. More than 1,561,000 persons participated in these events. Of the meetings, 7,711 took place in communities (more than 358,000 participants); 2,257 at various institutions and organizations (approximately 78,000 participants); 321 at higher education establishments (more than 127,000 participants); 444 at academic secondary schools (more than 53,000 participants); 1,596 at vocational secondary schools (more than 248,000 participants); and 10,022 at other secondary schools (more than 698,000 participants).
238. At the initiative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in 2009-2010, senior staff from the Ministry met with students of all the higher education institutions in Tashkent to address the prevention of delinquency, crime, drug abuse, extremism, offences linked to the sale of children and child prostitution and pornography and issues related to public morality and human rights. Similar meetings took place with students of Tashkent’s academic and vocational secondary education establishments and general education schools.
239. In 2009, the staff of the preventive services of internal affairs agencies prepared 1,770 items for the media (including 278 for television, 997 for the radio and 428 for newspapers) on preventing and eliminating offences related to human trafficking, prostitution and pornography, including the sale of children and child prostitution and pornography, and immoral activities.
240. In 2010, 19,254 meetings, seminars and round tables were held under the plan with inhabitants in settlements, communities, villages, districts and cities, and among employees of agencies and institutions, students of higher and secondary education establishments, and students of academic secondary schools and other schools. More than 1,291,000 persons participated in these events. Of the meetings, 5,846 took place in communities (289,135 participants); 1,713 at various institutions and organizations (approximately 60,961 participants); 333 at higher education establishments (approximately 82,091 participants); 635 at academic secondary schools (approximately 77,721 participants); 1,745 at vocational secondary schools (233,820 participants); and 8,892 at other secondary schools (548,016 participants).
241. In 2010, the staff of the preventive services of internal affairs agencies prepared 1,562 items for the media (245 for television, 889 for the radio and 428 for newspapers and magazines) on preventing and eliminating offences related to human trafficking, prostitution and pornography, including the sale of children and child prostitution and pornography, and immoral activities.
242. The media —television, radio and the press— have been actively used to promote a healthy lifestyle, law-abiding behaviour and the prevention and suppression of offences related to the sale of children and child prostitution and pornography, and to inform the general public about work regarding such issues. The television programmes Reports from the Ministry of Internal Affairs press centre and On wavelength 02 have been used for this purpose, as have the Ministry’s newspaper Na postu/Postda (On Guard) and its magazine Schit/Qalqon (Shield).
VI. Prohibition and related matters
243. The Administrative Liability Code, in chapter XV (Administrative liability for offences against public order), article 189 (Dissemination of pornographic material), provides as follows:
“The preparation, distribution, advertising or display of works, printed publications, images of subjects, cinema or video films, television programmes, radio programmes, video or audio recordings, film materials or other products with pornographic content shall incur a fine of between two and five times the minimum wage, as well as confiscation of the material in question and of the means of its production and distribution.”
244. Article 130 (Preparation or distribution of pornographic items) in section V (Crimes against the family, youth and morals) of the Criminal Code provides as follows:
“Preparation in order to display or distribute, and the display or distribution, of pornographic items among persons under 21, if perpetrated after the imposition of an administrative penalty for the same acts, shall incur a fine of between 100 and 200 times the minimum wage or correctional labour for up to three years.”
245. Pornography and the display of sexual violence through the media is prohibited by law as a negative social phenomenon aimed at degrading society’s moral foundations and ethics.
246. The Fundamentals of State Policy on Youth Act prohibits any activity that undermines moral principles among young people, including the promotion of a culture of violence, pornography or cruelty.
247. The Publishing Act, the Media Act, and the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child Act contain guarantees to protect children against the harmful influence of pornographic, violent or cruel material.
248. Targeted programmes have been adopted and are being implemented to strengthen the spiritual and moral upbringing of children and adolescents on the basis of national and universal values and traditions and to prevent the harmful influence on such persons of a reprehensible “mass culture” involving the promotion of pornography, violence and cruelty.
249. In 2007-2009, only eight criminal cases involving trafficking in pornographic products were opened and investigated. That reveals that the criminal law mechanisms for detecting and preventing such crimes are not effective enough.
250. The lack of any clear definition of “pornographic production” in national legislation results in specific problems in law enforcement, and leads to an arbitrary interpretation of the term by art analysts.
251. Moreover, criminal law does not include any specific provisions to make trafficking in pornographic material involving children a more serious offence, in line with article 3 of the Protocol. A bill to that effect is currently being drawn up.
252. A serious gap in the country’s law is the absence of any penalty for trafficking in items conducive to a culture of violence and cruelty, material which, like pornography, harms the development of the emerging generation and encourages negative attitudes, increasing the risk of anti-social behaviour.
253. Under Act No. 244 of 17 May 2010 amending the Administrative Liability Code, the managers or other staff in charge of restaurants, cafes, bars, clubs, discotheques, cinemas, Internet cafes, other Internet shops or other leisure or entertainment establishments may incur fines of between 10 and 15 times the minimum wage for admitting minors unaccompanied by either a parent or a person in loco parentis at night.
254. Chapter 20 of the Family Code addresses issues related to adoption. Note should be made of article 168 (Basis for invalidating an adoption), article 169 (Basis for annulling an adoption) and article 171 (Procedure for invalidating or annulling an adoption). Cabinet of Ministers Decision No. 171 of 12 April 1999 established regulations for the adoption of minors and for placement with a foster family.
255. Uzbekistan is a party to various multilateral and bilateral treaties on legal assistance, including agreements regulating adoption and prohibiting the abduction and expatriation of children. Such treaties include:
• The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction of 25 October 1980;
• The Convention on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases of 22 January 1993;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and the Czech Republic on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil and Criminal Cases of 18 January 2002;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and Ukraine on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil and Family Cases of 19 February 1998;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases of 18 June 1997;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases of 2 June 1997;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and Lithuania on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases of 20 February 1997;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan on the Provision of Mutual Judicial Assistance in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases of 24 December 1996;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases of 27 November 1996;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and Georgia on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases of 28 May 1996;
• The Agreement between Uzbekistan and the Latvia on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Labour and Criminal Cases of 23 May 1996.
256. In accordance with the Regulations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, adopted by Cabinet of Ministers Decision No. 140 of 16 March 1994, the Ministry functions as depositary of international instruments and treaties.
257. In accordance with the law and established practice regarding the implementation of international agreements and treaties, extradition issues come under the jurisdiction of the Procurator-General.
258. Chapter 65 of the Code of Criminal Procedure governs extradition to face criminal charges or serve a sentence. Article 599 of the Code deals with requests for the extradition of a person residing in a foreign country. Under article 601 of the Code, a person residing in Uzbekistan may be extradited if:
• The Uzbek Criminal Code stipulates that the act for which the person to be extradited may face criminal charges is liable to punishment in the form of deprivation of liberty for at least 1 year or a more severe penalty;
• The person to be extradited has been sentenced to deprivation of liberty for at least 6 months or a more severe penalty;
• The requesting State guarantees that the person to be extradited will face criminal charges only for the crime indicated in the request; that, after the case is heard and the sentence served, that person may freely leave the territory of that State; that he or she will not be exiled, transferred or extradited to a third State without Uzbekistan’s consent; and that he or she will not be subjected to torture, violence or other cruel or degrading treatment or punishment and will not be subject to the death penalty.
VII. Protection of the rights of victims
259. The Oydin Nur Centre for Social Protection of the Family (Buxoro province) embodies one successful way of providing services to victims of violence. In the period 2008-2009, 1,290 women turned to the Centre for help. Since January 2001, the Centre has received 9,500 calls to a confidential telephone support line or individual client visits. Since 1 September 2004, as part of free legal counselling provided by the Centre, 450 clients have been assisted, with a number of them helped during court hearings, and for 35 clients, the Centre has acted as a public defender to protect women’s interests during such hearings. At a temporary shelter opened in the Centre on 14 November 2007, care has been provided to 28 women and 12 of their children. As at 1 January 2009, 123 human trafficking victims had received psychological assistance, 164 medical assistance and 149 legal assistance; 32 persons had attended vocational training courses, 47 women had been provided with employment and 92 had received social assistance.
260. The rights and interests of children who have been victims of crimes are protected on the same basis as others, with the difference that such children receive particular attention and that their interests are represented in court by, inter alia, their parents, guardians or trustees.
261. A special chapter in the Code of Criminal Procedure is devoted to the specific characteristics of investigations into cases involving minors. It regulates procedures for cases involving crimes perpetrated by minors; the circumstances subject to proof in such cases; participation of minors’ legal representatives; participation of a defence counsel; participation of representatives of enterprises, institutions or organizations in the judicial hearings; indictment of minors; interrogation of underage suspects or defendants; participation of a teacher or psychologist in the interrogation of underage defendants; pretrial detention of underage defendants; the procedure for placing minors under supervision; placement of minors in institutions for children; detention of minors; termination of preliminary investigations and the opportunity for minors to examine their case files; consideration of cases involving underage offenders in closed hearings; removal of underage defendants from the courtroom; notification of the minors’ affairs commission of investigations into cases; questions to be resolved by courts in reaching verdicts regarding underage defendants; and the procedure for acquitting or imposing coercive measures on minors.
262. On 15 September 2000, with a view to the precise and uniform application of criminal and criminal-procedure law standards in hearing such cases, the Supreme Court in plenary session adopted an order on judicial practice in cases concerning offences by minors.
263. In addition, an order adopted on 14 November 2007 by the Supreme Court in plenary session on the use by the courts of preventive measures in the form of remand in custody during pretrial investigations lays down the relevant procedures in the case of minors. Paragraph 5 of the order specifies that, under article 558, part 1, of the Code of Criminal Procedure, remand in custody as a pretrial preventive measure may be applied to minors only in connection with the intentional commission of an offence for which the Criminal Code stipulates deprivation of liberty for more than 5 years, and only if appropriate behaviour by the accused cannot be secured through a different preventive measure.
264. Remand in custody may not be used as a pretrial preventive measure in the case of minors who have committed offences by negligence or for reasons specified in article 242, part 2, of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
265. In considering whether to apply for the imposition on a minor of remand in custody as a preventive measure, the procurator must personally study the case file, assess the appropriateness of choosing such a measure, be convinced of the exceptional character of the case, and question the accused on the circumstances related to the imposition of such a measure.
266. The Prevention of Child Neglect and Juvenile Delinquency Act, adopted on 29 September 2010 in order to prevent the growth of juvenile delinquency, is aimed primarily at protecting the rights and interests of minors; better preventing the neglect of and lack of control over minors that are conducive to delinquency; ensuring an upbringing in the spirit of respect for and compliance with the law; ensuring the social and pedagogical rehabilitation of vulnerable children and families; and detecting and suppressing cases of young people becoming involved in crime and anti-social behaviour.
267. With a view to the implementation of the above act and its correct application, on 24 December 2010, the Office of the Procurator-General, the Supreme Court and the Ministry of Internal Affairs adopted a joint order on the procedure for placing minors in the appropriate social and legal assistance centres and specialized reform schools.
268. Such protective measures are taken within a generally applicable framework and always so as to avoid harming the interests of the persons accused. The rights and obligations of accused persons and suspects are provided for in articles 46 and 48, respectively, of the Code of Criminal Procedure, and those rights may not be violated.
269. In accordance with a Cabinet of Ministers decision of 5 November 2008 on the setting up of the National Rehabilitation Centre to Assist and Protect Victims of Human Trafficking, a modern building with 30 places for victims of human trafficking was swiftly built and brought into use in Tashkent.
270. The Centre is currently in operation. It is guided in its work by the principles of nondiscrimination against human trafficking victims; confidentiality in respect of their private lives and identities; social and legal support; and individual care. It helps to provide them with decent living and sanitary conditions, food, medicines, health care supplies, and urgent medical, psychological, social, judicial and other assistance, security and help in establishing contacts with relatives. Special attention is paid to social rehabilitation and assistance with employment for people who have suffered from human trafficking.
271. In accordance with the above-mentioned decision, the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection issued Order No. 211 on organizational measures for the activity of the National Rehabilitation Centre to Assist and Protect Victims of Human Trafficking, which was published on 11 November 2008. Since then, the Centre has provided psychological, legal, social, medical and other assistance to more than 100 human trafficking victims on the basis of individual rehabilitation plans.
272. In its activities, the Centre is guided by the principles of non-discrimination against human trafficking victims; confidentiality in respect of their private lives and identities; social and legal support; and individual care. It helps to provide them with decent living and sanitary conditions, food, medicines, health care supplies, and urgent medical, psychological, social, judicial and other assistance, security and help in establishing contact with relatives and engaging in social rehabilitation.
273. To prevent offences related to human trafficking and to inform the public, regular training seminars are organized with the participation of staff from the Centre to raise public awareness of the pernicious consequences of human trafficking, including trafficking in children, and to address problems in that area. The following seminars were held in 2010:
• “Assistance and rehabilitation under the law for human trafficking victims”, National Rehabilitation Centre, 29 March 2010
• “Prevention and suppression of crimes related to human trafficking, prosecution of traffickers and protection and assistance for victims”, in cooperation with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 7-9 April 2010
• “Judicial response to the challenge of human trafficking: challenges, lessons learned and best practices”, in cooperation with OSCE, 11-14 May 2010
• “Foreign experience in combating human trafficking and assisting the victims”, in cooperation with the Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan and the Istiqbolli Avlod NGO, 14-15 May 2010
• “Human trafficking investigations: challenges, lessons learned and best practices”, in cooperation with OSCE, 25-27 May 2010
• “Human trafficking: a modern form of slavery”, in cooperation with the regional administration of Sergeli district, Tashkent, and with the participation of representatives of Sergeli district community committees, women’s councils and law enforcement bodies, 4 June 2010
• Introductory meeting with the participation of representatives of the Uchtepa district community women’s committee, Tashkent, National Rehabilitation Centre, 16 June 2010
• “Foreign partners’ experience in combating human trafficking and assisting the victims”, with the participation of international organizations and representatives of the law enforcement agencies, 17 September 2010
• Training seminar for administrators of employment and social protection centres, Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, 25 October 2010
• Introductory meeting with the second secretary on economic matters of the United States Embassy to prepare a report for the Department of State’s annual review of human trafficking in the world, 27 October 2010
• Methodological training seminar for the heads of the anti-human trafficking departments in the internal affairs agencies, with distribution of manuals and compact discs with slides, organized by the Office of the Procurator-General and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, National Rehabilitation Centre, 25 November 2010
• Participation in an international forum on “Healthy lifestyles as the basis for a harmoniously developed generation”, in which a lawyer from the National Rehabilitation Centre explained to breakout groups the harmful effect of human trafficking crimes on the emerging generation, addressed problems in the fight against such crimes and rehabilitation of its victims and stressed the urgent need to organize a separate children’s section in the Centre with the necessary equipment, a playroom and a playground, 29-30 November 2010
• Interactive discussion with students of the graduating classes of secondary school No. 17, Tashkent, including a presentation on child trafficking and illegal child labour, related recruitment methods and their dangerous consequences, and ways of avoiding becoming victims of child trafficking, prostitution and pornography, in cooperation with the National Centre for the Social Adaptation of Children, on the occasion of Constitution Day, 7 December 2010.
Victims undergoing rehabilitation at the Centre are provided with safe accommodation; protection of their rights during investigative and judicial procedures; legal support; professional psychological assistance; and re-issued personal documents. Support is given to children to help them return to preschool establishments, schools and academic or vocational secondary schools and integrate into the family and society; they also receive extended observation in the form of individual monitoring of each family.
274. In 2010, an underage girl from Sirdaryo province underwent rehabilitation together with her mother. All rehabilitation procedures and interviews took place in the presence of the child’s mother. The child was illiterate: because of her family and social conditions, the girl had attended school only up to the third grade. After rehabilitation by a member of the regional interdepartmental commission, the provincial employment and social protection centres, in cooperation with the district commission on minors’ affairs, ensured that a place was found for the girl at a school.
275. Children who are trafficking victims are entitled to compensation for damages on the basis of the generally applicable rules for awarding compensation. The Code of Criminal Procedure, in articles 275 and 276, sets out the rules for filing civil claims; article 277 provides a procedure for recognizing a person as a civil claimant, and the rights and obligations of such claimants are specified in article 57 of the Code.
276. Articles 1021 and 1022 of the Civil Code lay down the rules, forms and amounts of compensation for moral injury.
VIII. International assistance and cooperation
277. In combating human trafficking, Uzbekistan cooperates actively with international organizations, particularly UNODC, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UNICEF, OSCE and international NGOs. It also engages in regional and bilateral cooperation.
278. The Government seeks to safeguard children’s rights through the formulation and implementation of programmes supported by the UNICEF office in Uzbekistan. A joint country programme for 2010-2015 has been signed; its aim is to ensure access for women and children to quality basic services.
279. Project UZB/S20 of the UNODC Regional Office for Central Asia on strengthening the criminal justice response to trafficking in persons in Uzbekistan is designed to fundamentally improve the collection of relevant information by law enforcement bodies. Its main aims are to build capacity in law enforcement and prosecution through training, create a database on human trafficking and facilitate regional and international cooperation.
280. Currently, Uzbekistan is engaged in negotiations on extradition treaties with Afghanistan, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates and Poland. Uzbekistan’s legal practice and treaties make extradition possible only for crimes punishable by sentences of at least 1 year’s imprisonment.
281. Uzbekistan has concluded 25 bilateral treaties (listed in annex 7) on combating crime, including the offences specified in the Protocol.
282. Uzbekistan has ratified (or acceded to) the following international treaties:
• Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (Lake Success, New York, 25 July 1951)
• Final Protocol to the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (Lake Success, New York, 21 March 1950)
• United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (New York, 15 November 2000)
• Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime (New York, 15 November 2000)
• Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (the Hague, 25 October 1980)
283. The question of Uzbekistan’s accession to the Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in respect of Intercountry Adoption has not been considered.
284. Uzbekistan is not party to any bilateral or multilateral agreements on adoption.
285. Uzbekistan has concluded no extradition agreements since the ratification of the Protocol in December 2008.
[*] In accordance with the information transmitted to States parties regarding the processing of their reports, the present document was not formally edited before being sent to the United Nations translation services.
[**] The annexes can be consulted in the files of the secretariat.