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Yemen - Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under Article 44 of the Convention: Fourth periodic report of States parties due in 2008 [2012] UNCRCSPR 35; CRC/C/YEM/4 (23 October 2012)


United Nations
CRC/C/YEM/4
G124651801.wmf
Convention on the
Rights of the Child
Distr.: General
23 October 2012
English
Original: Arabic

Committee on the Rights of the Child

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention

Fourth periodic report of States parties due in 2008

Yemen[∗]

[21 October 2010]

Contents

Paragraphs Page

I. Introduction 1–9 7

A. The reporting mechanism 4–11 7

B. Follow-up of the implementation of the Committee’s recommendations

with respect to the third periodic report 12–19 9

II. General measures of implementation 20–51 10

A. Legislative measures 20–22 10

B. National plans and strategies 23 10

C. Structures 24–25 11

D. Independent monitoring institutions 26–33 12

E. Cooperation with civil society organizations 34–35 13

F. Cooperation with donor institutions 36–39 14

G. Budgets for children 40–43 14

H. Data systems and databases 44–49 15

I. Dissemination of the Convention 50 16

J. Training 51 17

III. Definition of the child 52–65 17

IV. General principles 66–84 20

A. The principle of non-discrimination 66–71 20

B. The right to life, survival and development 72–77 21

C. Best interests of the child 78–80 22

D. Respect for the views of the child 78–80 23

V. Civil rights and freedoms 80–131 24

A. Name and nationality 85–107 24

B. Preservation of identity 108 29

C. Freedom of expression 109–110 29

D. Freedom of association and of peaceful assembly 111–112 29

E. Protection of privacy 113–117 30

F. Access to appropriate information 118–126 31

G. The right not to be subjected to torture and other cruel, inhuman or

degrading treatment 127–131 33

VI. Family environment and alternative care 132–169 35

A. Parental guidance 132–134 35

B. Parental responsibilities 135–136 36

C. Separation from parents 137–138 36

D. Family reunification 139 37

E. Recovery of maintenance for the child 139 37

F. Children deprived of a family environment 140–149 37

G. Family foster care (kafalah) for orphans 150 38

H. Transfer of children abroad 151 39

I. Ill-treatment and neglect 152–169 39

VII. Basic health and welfare 170–307 43

A. Children with disabilities 170–219 43

B. Health and health services 220–282 51

C. Social security and an adequate standard of living 283–307 63

VIII. Education, leisure and cultural activities 308–399 67

A. Education 308–393 67

B. Leisure, recreation and cultural activities 394–399 89

IX. Special protection measures 400–538 94

A. Children in situations of emergency 400–428 94

B. Children in armed conflicts (art. 38), including physical and

psychological recovery and social reintegration (art. 39) 429–463 99

C. Children in conflict with the law 464–495 105

D. Children in situations of exploitation, including physical and

psychological recovery and social reintegration 496–538 111

Tables

1. Number of civil society organizations working on children’s issues 123

2. Statistics on types and numbers of NGOs working on children’s issues 123

3. Total pledges made during, before and after the donor conference ($ millions) 124

4. Total allocations to sectors by State and international donor institution 126

5. Public spending, 2000–2005 (percentage of GDP) 127

6. Percentage of components of the functional distribution of public spending to

GDP, 2000–2005 127

7. Allocations for 2008 by sector and funding source 128

8. Birth registration figures from the Department of Civil Status, 2003–2008 129

9. Special programmes on family and children’s issues and air time devoted to them 130

10. Themes covered by media programmes aimed at families and children 131

11. Types of radio and television programmes and their mission objectives 132

12. Total number of broadcasting hours for children’s radio and television programmes 133

13. Number of Channel One broadcasting hours, 2003–2006 133

14. Issues covered by radio and television stations 134

15. Air time devoted to family and children’s programmes on local radio and

television channels 135

16. Number of government orphanages in the Republic of Yemen 136

17. Orphan homes in the the Republic of Yemen run jointly by the Government

and NGOs or by NGOs only 137

18. Number of users of the services of the Social Welfare Fund as at the end of 2007 140

19. Number of users among children with disabilities by service provided according to

the statistics of the General Department for Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR)

for 2007 140

20. Number of persons with disabilities in the governorate, 2007 140

21. Number of persons who benefited from CBR during 2007 141

22. CBR programmes for persons with disabilities 141

23. Number of children at the Early Intervention Centre 141

24. Number of males and female in the Education Section 142

25. Users of services from centres for the blind during 2007 142

26. Family planning methods distributed to all governorates during the period 2005–2007 142

27. Comparison of family planning methods used during the period 2006–2008 142

28. Number of persons living with AIDS by gender in the Republic of Yemen 143

29. Groups targeted by AIDS awareness during the first half of 2006 at the central

and governorate levels 143

30. Persons targeted by AIDS and STI training 144

31. Overall poverty incidence during the period 2007–2010 144

32. Service and development projects implemented by the Ministry of Social Affairs

and Labour during 2007 144

33. Status of microfinance programmes as at the end of December 2007 145

34. Indicators for phase II of the Integrated Intervention Programme 146

35. Number of kindergartens in school years 2001/02–2008/09 by oversight body

(governmental – NGO/private) 147

36. Number of kindergarten teachers in school years 2001/02–2008/09 147

37. Number of kindergarten pupils in school years 2001/02–2008/09 147

38. Number, type and academic level of pilot schools for gifted and high-achieving

pupils and target governorates 148

39. Number of students in the 10–20 age group enrolled in alphabetic literacy centres

in school years 2001/02–2007/08 148

40. Growth in numbers of literacy centre personnel during school years 2001/02–2007/08 148

41. Girls’ education training courses and workshops delivered in 2007 149

42. Growth of girls’ enrolment in basic and secondary education during school years

2001/02–2008/09 149

43. Comparison of basic education enrolment rates for males and females in school

years 2001/02 and 2008/09 149

44. Total admissions for all ages to basic grade 1 during school years 2001/02–2007/08,

percentage of females to males and the gender gap 149

45. Items of educational equipment, educational supplies and learning resources

distributed to schools in years 2003/04–2008/09 152

46. Number of trainers and military personnel in the school workforce by gender

and training programme for years 2001/02–2008/09 151

47. Public education expenditure compared with general public expenditure and GDP

for the period 2003–2007 (YRI millions) 154

48. Total annual posts allocated to units of the State’s administrative apparatus and

percentage allocated to public education during years 2003–2007 154

49. Proportion of enrolment in technical education (two years + three years) to

enrolment in university education 154

50. Number of students enrolled in and graduated from intermediate institutes for

years 2002/03–2006/07 154

51. Breakdown of technical education and vocational training expenditure during the

period 2003–2007 (YRI millions) 155

52. Growth in number of mainstream schools by level and type during school

years 2001/02–2008/09 155

53. Growth in number of mainstream schools by level and supervisory authority

(governmental – NGO/private) during school years 2001/02–2008/09 156

54. Growth in number of classroom teachers in mainstream schools by level of

school and gender during school years 2001/02–2008/09 157

55. Growth in number of pupils in mainstream schools by level of school and gender

during school years 2001/02–2008/09 157

56. Growth in kindergarten enrolment rates by child gender, and teacher-to-child ratio

and average class density during school years 2001/02–2008/09 158

57. Growth in number of administrative personnel in mainstream schools by gender

and level of school during school years 2001/02–2007/08 158

58. Growth in number of administrative personnel in kindergartens by gender during

school years 2001/02–2007/08 159

59. Sports activities performed during the period 2001–2007 by type of activity and gender 159

60. Participation in sports events abroad and rankings achieved by Yemen during the

period 2001/02–2007/08 160

61. Number of parks and leisure areas country-wide 160

62. Number of refugee children attending educational and vocational training facilities

in camps and in neighbouring areas and villages in Lahij and Aden governorates

during the 2007 school year 161

63. Health services provided to refugees 161

64. Training courses implemented for persons working with children affected by

armed conflict 162

65. (a) Cases heard by juvenile courts in some of the country’s governorates

(San`a City, Aden, Ibb and Ta`izz) 165

(b) Cases heard by juvenile courts in some of the country’s governorates

(Hajjah, Abyan and Hadramawt) 165

66. Juvenile court statistics, 2004–2007 165

67. (a) Number of juveniles in social guidance homes and types of delinquency, 2003 167

(b) Number of juveniles in social guidance homes and types of delinquency, 2004 168

(c) Number of juveniles in social guidance homes and types of delinquency, 2005 169

(d) Number of juveniles in social guidance homes and types of delinquency, 2006 170

(e) Number of juveniles in social guidance homes and types of delinquency, 2007 171

(f) Number of juveniles in social guidance homes and types of delinquency, 2008 172

68. Number of imprisoned children, 2003–2008 173

69. Number of children living with their mothers in prison, 2003–2008 173

70. Number of social guidance homes for juveniles 174

71. Social groups targeted by the programme (2006–2007), including child workers,

their siblings and their families, employers, civil society organizations and schoolchildren, and partnership activities of the Child Labour Unit at the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour and rehabilitation centres for child workers in San`a City, Aden and Seiyun 175

72. Number of users of safe childhood centres (street children) in the governorates 178

73. Number of deported children and interceptions of children being smuggled 178

I. Introduction

1. The Constitution of the Republic of Yemen enshrines the principles of democracy and political pluralism and the State takes a positive approach to new human rights concepts in general and to children’s right in particular, given that children are a part of the present and every part of the future. Believing that to be so, the Republic of Yemen acceded to the first Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, by Act No. 19 of 24 August 2004, and to the second Optional Protocol thereto on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, by Act No. 20 of 24 August 2004.

2. A comprehensive review was carried out to ensure that the domestic legislation is substantially reflected in national strategies and plans in order to serve the best interests of the child. The resulting draft amendments are essentially intended to address the inconsistency in national legislation concerning the definition of a child; provide legal protection for children, especially those living in difficult circumstances; deal with issues relating to the protection of children from sexual and economic exploitation and to, inter alia, child smuggling, early marriage, child labour and juvenile rights; introduce stricter penalties for all categories of offenders against children and violators of children’s rights; and promote harmonization of national legislation with international conventions in a manner that is in keeping with the teachings of Islam.

3. The present fourth report was prepared on the basis of the recommendations contained in the concluding observations of the Committee of the Rights of the Child on the third periodic report concerning the situation of children in Yemen, which was submitted to the Committee and considered in June 2005. This is an indication of the commitment of Yemen to the Convention and international instruments.

A. The reporting mechanism

4. The accumulated expertise of the Yemeni Government in periodic reporting was a key point of reference in the process of preparing the fourth periodic report. In that regard, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood took the necessary measures in line with a participatory approach aimed at ensuring the engagement of all stakeholders in the different stages of preparation outlined below.

Stage I: Preparation and information-gathering

5. Designated pursuant to a decision of the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour, vice-chairperson of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, the entities involved in gathering information from governmental bodies and civil society organizations included the following: the Ministry of Public Health and Population; the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour; the Ministry of Human Rights; the Ministry of Justice; the Ministry of Education; the Ministry of Awqaf; the Ministry of Finance; the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation; the Ministry of the Interior; the Ministry of Culture; the Ministry of Tourism; the Ministry of Information; the Ministry of Legal Affairs; the Ministry of Water and Environment; the Ministry of Higher Education; the Ministry of Technical and Vocational Education; the House of Representatives; the Shura Council; the Office of the Public Prosecutor; the Reform Association; the Yemen Women’s Union; the Coordinating Authority for Child Rights Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs); the Women’s National Committee; the Saleh Foundation for Social Development; the Human Rights Information and Training Centre; the Yemeni Observatory for Human Rights; the Youth Advisory Council; and the Technical Secretariat of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood.

6. Difficulties were encountered in the information-gathering process; in particular, modern information systems were unavailable in most of the bodies concerned, meaning that the time allocated to this stage was protracted. The Democracy School – an NGO – was also unable to take up the invitation extended to it to participate in this stage, as it represents the Secretariat-General of the Children’s Parliament and will be preparing a shadow report.

Stage II: Initial drafting of the report

7. A drafting committee of national experts was formed to work under the direct supervision of the Secretary-General of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood. The committee based its activities on the guidelines for periodic reporting and the Committee’s concluding observations on the third periodic report.

Stage III: Review

8. The review process was conducted in two phases:

(1) The initial draft of the report was presented and discussed at a national workshop attended by some 70 participants from relevant governmental entities, civil society organizations and donor agencies, as well as by representatives of the Children’s Parliament and stakeholders from some of the main governorates;

(2) The final draft and the report on the outputs from the workshop were presented to a review committee chaired by the Secretary-General of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, with a membership consisting of the Minister of State for Social Affairs and Labour (Development Sector), the Assistant Secretary-General of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, the Director of the Periodic Reports Department at the Ministry of Human Rights, and the human rights officer at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Stage IV: Approval

9. The final draft of the report was presented to the Technical Committee for Human Rights, which comprises representatives of various governmental stakeholders: the Presidency of the Republic; the Office of the Prime Minister; the Ministry of the Interior; the Ministry of Justice; the Ministry of Legal Affairs; the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour; the Office of the Public Prosecutor; the Ministry of Information; the Political Security Agency; the Ministry of Human Rights; and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report was also transmitted to the Cabinet and the Presidency of the Republic for consideration and approval. Following its approval at a meeting of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, it was formally transmitted to the Committee on the Rights of the Child through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

10. The transmission of the report was delayed on account of several factors, in particular:

• The difficulty of obtaining information and reports from stakeholders;

• The substandard quality of the information and its lack of compliance with the guideline requirements, which led to more work for the drafting and review committees in terms of re-examining the information and checking key sources.

11. We wish here to thank profusely the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and Save the Children for the support which they provided for the successful completion of the reporting process.

B. Follow-up of the implementation of the Committee’s recommendations with respect to the third periodic report

12. In accordance with the recommendations made by the Committee in June 2005, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, working in coordination with Save the Children Sweden, held a series of consultations with representatives of ministries, governmental institutions, the Yemeni Coordinating Authority for Child Rights NGOs and international organizations (UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden) in order to follow up implementation of the recommendations and observations relating to periodic reports.

13. The recommendations and concluding observations were made widely available to government ministries and stakeholder institutions. They were also transmitted to the governorates and NGOs through official communications to which a copy of the observations was annexed so that they could be reflected in the yearly work plans.

14. The third periodic report was printed in a book containing the Committee’s observations and recommendations, which was circulated and disseminated nationally and in activities implemented at the centralized and decentralized levels.

15. A national workshop was held in September 2005 with the aim of enlisting the help of participants in defining the role of the entities concerned with implementing the concluding observations and recommendations.

16. A working group of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood and ministerial representatives was formed to monitor implementation of the plan and it held a number of meetings to follow up on the efforts of child-related institutions.

17. A report on recommendations implemented in connection with the Convention on the Rights of the Child was compiled in 2006 from the reports of ministries and governmental institutions on that subject. This endeavour was the fruit of the partnership between the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood and Save the Children Sweden in implementing a project called “Together for follow-up of the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child”. The project comprises a set of components and activities designed to strengthen the role of the Supreme Council in following up, together with other stakeholder institutions, the implementation of the Convention by the Yemeni Government.

18. Civil society organizations joined in briefing stakeholders about the Committee’s recommendations through workshops and meetings, and the Children’s Parliament played its part in following up implementation of the Committee’s recommendations by devoting one of its sessions to a discussion with officials about the Government’s efforts on that score and about our country’s level of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

19. In the following parts of this report, we will examine the legislative, executive, administrative and judicial measures taken at the national level to implement the Convention in general and those taken with respect to the Committee’s concluding observations and recommendations.

II. General measures of implementation

A. Legislative measures

20. In order to strengthen the status of the Convention in national laws, and given the importance of harmonizing domestic legislation with the Convention, the Yemeni Government profited from the Committee’s recommendations concerning the reports submitted in 2000, 2003 and 2006 to undertake a comprehensive review of a number of national laws, in particular:

(1) The Children’s Act No. 45 of 2002;

(2) The Juvenile Welfare Act No. 24 of 1992;

(3) The Military Penal Code No. 21 of 1998;

(4) The Penal Code No. 12 of 1994;

(5) The Personal Status Act No. 20 of 1992;

(6) The Prisons Regulation Act No. 48 of 1991.

21. A committee of legal experts from governmental bodies and NGOs was formed and the services of two experts, one national and one international, were engaged. An advisory meeting was organized with stakeholders from all governorates in order to expand the circle of participation. After a discussion of the national legislation, draft amendments[1] were submitted to the Cabinet, which debated and approved them at its meeting held on 5 December 2006 and submitted them to the House of Representatives. The amendments focused on a number of key issues of relevance to children’s rights, including:

• The legislative inconsistency concerning the definition of a child;

• Issues relating to the protection of children from violence and exploitation, the suppression of female genital mutilation (FGM), early marriage, child labour and juvenile rights;

• The introduction of stricter penalties for offenders against children and violators of children’s rights;

• The harmonization of national legislation with the international conventions ratified by the Republic of Yemen.

22. The Government also presented to the House of Representatives a number of bills relating to children’s issues, in particular the Public Health Bill, the Safe Maternity Bill and the Labour Bill, all of which were referred to the competent committees of the House of Representatives for consideration and review.

B. National plans and strategies

23. As part of implementing the Convention and the Committee’s recommendations concerning the allocation of human and financial resources for the implementation of national plans and the development of indicators for monitoring and evaluating plans, the Government reviewed the Second Five-Year National Plan (2001–2005) and began implementing the Third Five-Year Plan (2006–2010). Focus was centred on investment projects, infrastructure development and broadening the scope for projects relating to education, health, social affairs and youth, with an emphasis on vital projects for children and targeted strategies and plans for mothers and children, including:

• The National Poverty Reduction Strategy (2003–2015);

• The National Strategy for Children and Youth (2006–2015);

• The Social Protection Strategy for ensuring the effectiveness of the social safety net in the efforts to combat poverty and achieve social development, which is being formulated in line with the Millennium Developments Goals (MDGs);

• The National Strategy to Promote Birth Registration, approved in 2008;

• The National Strategy for the Control of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs);

• The National Reproductive Health Strategy (2007);

• The National Strategic Plan for Disability (2004–2008);

• A joint national plan to combat child smuggling (2007);

• A national plan to combat harmful traditional practices (FGM) (2007);

• Preparation of a national strategy for baby and infant nutrition;

• Preparation of a national school health strategy (2008);

• Preparation of a national human rights strategy (2008).

C. Structures

24. In the interest of attuning its working methods and structure to the functions required of it, both as a supreme national institution concerned with maternal and child affairs and as a coordinating body that brings together government establishments and NGOs, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood was restructured, a monitoring and evaluation department was created and departments were renamed to correspond with the Council’s work and functions. At the recommendation of the Council, the Cabinet issued Decision No. 120 of 2006 concerning a number of issues relating to children’s rights and the Council membership was expanded by the addition of the Minister of the Interior; the Minister of Justice; the Minister of Youth and Sports; the Saleh Foundation; the General Federation for Persons with Disabilities; and a well-known personality from the private sector.

25. Committees were formed and networks and alliances were established, including in particular:

• The Higher National Committee for Children and Youth, chaired by the Vice-President of the Republic and instituted by Republican Decree No. 87 of 2007;

• The Technical Committee for Combating Child Smuggling (2007);

• The National Child Protection Network (2008);

• The National Safe Maternity Alliance (2007).

D. Independent monitoring institutions

26. The Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood works with the Ministry of Human Rights to follow up and monitor the implementation of national programmes relating to child rights.

27. The Ministry is the government body chiefly responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights. While, from a legal standpoint, it is part of the executive branch, its organizational structure, functions and terms of reference are consistent with many of the Principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (the Paris Principles), approved pursuant to Commission on Human Rights resolution 1992/54 of 3 March 1992. The Ministry exercises its functions in accordance with the organizational regulation issued by Republican Decree No. 255 of 2003.

28. The first of the Paris Principles states that: “A national institution shall be vested with competence to protect and promote human rights”. This principle is echoed in article 2 of the organizational regulation, which states that: “The Ministry of Human Rights, in conjunction with the competent ministries, entities and authorities, shall promote and protect human rights and develop national mechanisms for the protection and promotion of human rights, in conformity with the international conventions and treaties ratified by our country”. The article enumerates a series of tasks and functions to be performed by the Ministry in pursuance of these aims, as summarized below:

• Proposing policies, plans, programmes and measures for the promotion and protection of human rights and implementing them in conjunction with the competent authorities;

• Examining legislation and laws to assess their compatibility with the principles and norms embodied in the international human rights conventions and treaties ratified by our country, and proposing amendments to domestic laws in keeping with the Constitution and applicable laws;

• Receiving and examining complaints from citizens, organizations and institutions and dealing with them in accordance with the Ministry’s terms of reference and in coordination with the relevant authorities;

• Promoting public awareness of the law by advising citizens on their constitutional and legal rights, disseminating a human rights culture throughout society by means of various awareness-raising techniques, and strengthening cooperation with civil society human rights organizations;

• Preparing periodic reports on our country’s international commitments, in conjunction with the competent authorities, and coordinating and developing cooperation with international human rights organizations;

• Gathering, analysing and documenting information on human rights and the Government’s human rights policy.

29. Dealing with communications and complaints concerning the violation of individual and collective rights is a key area of work to which the Ministry attaches enormous importance. Accordingly, the Ministry’s Department of Complaints and Communications is tasked with receiving, examining, summarizing and categorizing complaints from individuals and institutions and suggesting remedial action for matters falling within the Ministry’s jurisdiction, which covers both internal and external complaints. It also advises complainants concerning the procedures for resolving cases that fall outside the Ministry’s jurisdiction.

30. The promotion and protection of human rights also fall within the general purview of committees in other government entities and authorities, which receive complaints from individuals and in particular from institutions, most notably: the Office of the Presidency of the Republic; the Office of the Prime Minister; and the Judicial Inspectorate of the Ministry of Justice, which monitors the performance of judges.

31. In addition to the above, the House of Representatives and the Shura Council have established two human rights committees to monitor the human rights performance of the Government (the executive), including its protection of those rights. The Higher Committee for Children and Youth also plays an important role in monitoring and evaluating the implementation of child rights programmes as part of its follow-up of the implementation of the National Strategy for Children and Youth.

32. Needless to say, the judiciary provides a key framework for the realization and implementation of rights. It is a legally, financially and administratively independent authority and its organs include the Department of Public Prosecutions. All disputes and offences are adjudicated by the courts and judges are independent; in their administration of justice, they are subject to no authority other than the law.

33. Civil society and other social organizations active in the field of children’s issues likewise perform a major role in this sphere, such as by setting up helplines offering psychosocial counselling for children and families. They play a part, too, in identifying children exposed to gross violence, informing the public about the effects of such violence and monitoring the child rights situation. Examples of these organizations include the Democracy School, the Arab Human Rights Foundation, the Coordinating Authority for Child Rights NGOs, the Observatory for Human Rights and the National Child Protection Network.

E. Cooperation with civil society organizations

34. The relationship with civil society organizations is considered a mainstay of the process of implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to which end the Government took various measures to strengthen cooperation with such organizations, in particular by:

• Providing technical and material support and exempting civil society organizations from customs duty;

• Adopting joint programmes and activities and designating civil society organizations to run a number of government programmes;

• Involving NGOs in the formulation of national plans, such as the National Strategy for Children and Youth, and in the preparation of periodic reports;

• Building the administrative capacities of civil society organizations;

• Stepping up the engagement of civil society organizations in the implementation of the Convention by involving them in the programmes and projects under way and ensuring likewise their involvement in all training courses run by the Council in the different governorates.

35. A total of 49 civil society organizations working in the field of children’s rights were established between 2003 and 2007 (see tables 1 and 2 showing, respectively, the number of civil society organizations working on children’s issues and statistics on types and numbers of children’s NGOs for the period 1989–2007).

F. Cooperation with donor institutions

36. As part of the endeavour to strengthen cooperation and partnership with donor institutions and organizations and to attract investment by facilitating legal procedures, a donor conference was held, in November 2006, in the United Kingdom capital, London. The aim of the conference was for Yemen to expand the partnership with donor States and organizations in the context of reviving its economy, alleviating poverty, creating new jobs in order to improve individual and household living standards, and devoting greater attention to children’s projects.

37. As a result of the collaborative efforts of the Government, represented by the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, and donors to complete the pledging process, pledges as at December 2007 for projects under the Public Investment Programme (PIP) amounted to $3,714,830, or 70 per cent of total pledges and 57 per cent of the total gap of $6.3 billion, while funding agreements worth $982 million overall, or 18.5 per cent of total pledges, were signed (see table 3, which shows total pledges made during, before and after the donor conference).

Breakdown of allocations by sector to cover the funding gap

38. The findings of the PIP review conducted in the light of donor pledges and trends identified a funding gap of $6.3 billion, attributing the rise in the gap to the addition of a further 85 programmes and projects not included in the PIP presented at the donor conference. Table 4 shows the sums allocated to bridging the funding gap by sector, which amounted to 57 per cent of the total gap. The human development and social protection sectors received 72.4 per cent of the total gap, followed by those of infrastructure at 60.8 per cent, and good governance and institutional reform at 46.7 per cent, corresponding to the priorities and objectives of the Plan (see table 4).

39. Substantial support for children’s activities is provided by UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO). International NGOs also play a conspicuous role as socioeconomic development partners and are instrumental in effectively stimulating the engagement of local civil society organizations, with the result that the international community has greatly depended on their capacities in recent years. International NGOs have been active in Yemen since 1964. At the end of 2005, there were 45 foreign, Arab and Islamic NGOs working in the country, primarily in the areas of education, health, rural development and gender issues.

G. Budgets for children[2]

40. In the reporting process, genuine difficulties were encountered in identifying the amount of funding delivered by the Government for children’s activities and programmes. With the help of those concerned at the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, however, it was possible to arrive at an approximation of the amount of direct and indirect spending on children’s sectors (see table 5, which shows public spending as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) for the period 2000–2005).

41. The share of public spending on education rose from 17.6 per cent of total spending in 2000 to 21.2 per cent in 2005. Average public spending on the health sector amounted to roughly 6 per cent of GDP during the period 2005–2009, with current spending averaging 88.4 per cent of the education budget during the same period. As to public spending on social protection, it failed to increase its share to 1 per cent and remained at an average of 0.4 per cent of the total throughout the period. Spending, however, achieved an average growth of 9.3 per cent against a target of 32.7 per cent, apart from year-to-year fluctuations. Current spending averaged 87.4 per cent of this spending (see table 6).

42. The data show the Government’s efforts to increase the PIP funding allocations in the general budget of 2008 in line with PIP, the Five-Year Plan and the budget, PIP being a dynamic process that must be periodically reviewed in the light of new developments and facts, exploitable opportunities created as a result, and risks to be avoided. The Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation accordingly carried out a two-stage PIP review, in conjunction with various government entities and donors and with the assistance of international expertise. The first stage took place after the donor conference in order to account for the initial donor pledges, and the second took place after the first follow-up consultative meeting of the Government and donors in order to accommodate the outcome of the meeting and the observations of the participating donors. The finding of the review was that the PIP funding gap had increased from $5.5 billion to $6.3 billion. Various projects, specifically those in the sectors of agriculture, water, fisheries, human resources, energy, good governance and institutional reform, were similarly reviewed so as to match the Plan.

43. Various measures were also taken in this sphere, the most important of which can be summarized as follows:

(a) PIP priorities were identified on the basis of the following criteria:

• The financial pledges announced at the London donor conference;

• Donor trends and observations concerning PIP projects;

• Project readiness and its immediate and rapid impact on achievement of the sectoral goals and indicators contained in the Plan;

(b) New projects funded by pledges from traditional donors were added and projects already under way received additional funding;

(c) All PIP projects concerning which it had been agreed to allocate sums from the PIP donor pledges made in 2008, including allocations for 2008 from government sources (Yemeni Government commitment), were approved (see table 7).

H. Data systems and databases

44. The Government’s data-collection activities were noted with appreciation by the Committee, which, in paragraph 25 of its concluding observations, recommended that the State party should strengthen its efforts to establish a comprehensive and permanent mechanism within the national statistical system covering all children. Efforts are currently under way to promote use of the DevInfo programme and the advanced version of the Childinfo programme, which will significantly enhance the national statistical system owing to the inclusion of data disaggregated by gender, age and location (rural and urban). The 2004 census also provided a valuable opportunity for the collection of a great deal of information and data on all population groups.

45. Steps have been taken at the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour to monitor children with disabilities and at the Ministry of Justice to implement a juvenile database project. Modern centres in Harad, established through the General Department for Juveniles at the Ministry of the Interior and through stakeholders, have likewise taken steps to set up a database for monitoring child labour and smuggled children.

46. The Ministry of Human Rights and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) also ran a joint project to create a human rights database containing most of the international and regional conventions and treaties signed and ratified by Yemen, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, in addition to training manuals (the elimination of slavery and contemporary forms of slavery; the Antabawi manuals, including a section on juvenile offenders, penal policies and social integration; and a guide to preparing alternative reports under article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and on the child’s right to survival, development and participation and protection from exploitation). Also included are working papers, reports (report of the United States State Department Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report - Yemen), studies, research, decisions, declarations, statements and recommendations for use by researchers and members of the public.

47. Supported by UNICEF, the Ministry of Justice is also working with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour to develop and complete a database on the juvenile justice system and to connect stakeholders, i.e., the juvenile police, the juvenile prosecution service, the juvenile court and social care institutions, to the database.

48. The Labour Section at the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour is building a national database on child labour in order to collect data and information on child labour for dissemination on the website www.childlabour-ye.org.

49. Data collection nonetheless remains inadequate. Furthermore, some ministries and government institutions are too poorly resourced to establish an appropriate data-collection mechanism for assisting the development, location and systematic gathering of information.

I. Dissemination of the Convention

50. Multiple channels have been used to disseminate and raise awareness of the Convention on the Rights of the Child:

• Official (audiovisual and print) and unofficial (non-governmental and political party) media;

• Yemeni and international NGO activities;

• Text messages and various other media to raise awareness of the rights of the child;

• The website of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood and other governmental and non-governmental websites;

• Radio and television spots, posters and leaflets to raise awareness of children’s rights in different spheres;

• Publication and dissemination of a poster to raise awareness of the importance of children’s participation;

• Publication and dissemination of posters to raise awareness of girls’ education;

• Publication and dissemination of posters and brochures to combat violence against children;

• Printing of the third periodic report on the implementation of the Convention and of the Committee’s concluding observations and the dissemination of both to a broad spectrum of national child rights institutions;

• Preparation of guides for mosque preachers and religious instructors and counsellors in order to raise awareness of children’s rights;

• Publication of yearly calendars containing material designed to raise awareness of child rights, child protection and child welfare.

J. Training

51. Special attention has been devoted to training and capacity-building. Training activities have been expanded and awareness heightened through training courses organized for a large number of governmental authorities and institutions and civil society organizations. An outline of the main training activities is as follows:

• Child rights training for nine national personnel (representing 50 per cent of all students in the first batch) as part of a master’s programme in child rights at the Lebanese University, in cooperation with the Arab Institute for Human Rights;

• Early child development training for 17 national personnel via Canada’s Victoria University;

• Special courses for judges (including presidents of juvenile courts), prosecutors, lawyers, juvenile police officers and women police officers;

• Courses for personnel working in social care homes and for social workers working with children in conflict with the law;

• Courses on implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the two Optional Protocols and on follow-up of the implementation of the Committee’s recommendations;

• Courses for teachers and head teachers;

• Courses for health professionals, personnel working with mothers and children, and mental health personnel;

• Courses on combating child smuggling;

• Courses on combating AIDS;

• Special training for personnel, supervisors and experts in the area of child protection;

• Courses for educators on alternatives to corporal punishment in schools;

• Training and awareness courses for families in local communities;

• Further training for 22 personnel in a diploma for social workers at San`a University (Early Child Development Department).

III. Definition of the child

Age of majority

52. Further to the information stated in the previous report, the national laws relating to child rights have been scrutinized and reviewed. Amendments to those laws have been drafted and include raising the age of majority to 18 years, in conformity with the Convention, in addition to raising the age of criminal responsibility, the age of marriage and the age of voluntary military service. Provisions prescribing penalties for offences committed against a person under 18 years of age have also been added to the relevant articles. These offences include: incitement of minors to theft; violation of personal liberty; use of force; deprivation of liberty; slavery; abduction and associated offences; threat; rape; indecent assault with coercion; incitement to prostitution and depravity; forcing a confession; and organ trafficking.

Medical consultation

53. Article 22 of the Medical and Pharmaceutical Professional Practice Act No. 26 of 2002 provides as follows: “The consent of the patient or his guardian must be obtained before any medical intervention is carried out, except in emergencies.” Article 24 provides that: “Surgical procedures are carried out on a patient after he has been provided with the necessary information about the procedure and his written consent has been taken. If the patient is unconscious, legally incompetent or prevented by a disability from expressing his wishes, consent shall be taken from his guardian.” Article 29 provides that: “It is prohibited to transplant to the body of another person organs from persons who are legally incompetent or prevented by a disability from expressing their wishes. The organs of such persons shall be transplanted only with the written consent of their guardian.”

Compulsory school age

54. Pursuant to the Education Act, the basic stage of education ends at 15 years of age. The stages of formal education include those of pre-basic education, basic education, post-basic technical education, general secondary education and vocational training. Article 17 of the Act states that the pre-basic education stage comprises nursery and kindergarten, to which children aged between three and six years are admitted. Article 18 affirms that basic education provides a unified general education for all pupils in the Republic, is nine years in duration and compulsory. It serves to identify the aptitudes and interests of pupils, who are admitted to it from the age of six, and to develop their innate abilities.

Conscription into the armed forces

57. The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict was ratified pursuant to Act No. 19 of 2004. Article 149 of the Children’s Rights Act also affirms that: “The State shall endeavour to respect the rules of international law relating to armed conflict and to protect children in armed conflict by:

(a) Prohibiting the carrying of weapons by children;

(b) Protecting children from the effects of armed conflict;

(c) Protecting children from reprisal;

(d) Ensuring that children are not directly involved in war;

(e) Recruiting no one under 18 years of age into the armed forces.

58. The National Defence Service Act No. 22 of 1990 includes the following: “Article 3: (a) National military service shall be incumbent on all Yemeni males over 18 years of age.”

The death penalty and life imprisonment

59. Article 37 of the Juveniles Act provides that if a juvenile who is over 15 years of age commits a crime punishable by the death penalty, he shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 3 years and not more than 10 years. In all other offences, he shall be sentenced to a penalty of not more than one quarter of the maximum penalty prescribed for each offence by law.

60. There is a draft proposal to amend the article to provide as follows: “If a juvenile over 15 years of age commits a crime punishable by the death penalty, he shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 3 years and not more than 10 years. In all other offences, a juvenile shall be sentenced to a penalty of not more than one third of the maximum penalty prescribed for each offence by law.”

61. The Penal Code also deals with this issue under the heading “Responsibility of minors and persons of equivalent status”. Article 31 provides that: “A person who was under 7 years of age at the time of committing the act constituting the offence shall not be held criminally responsible. If the act was committed by a juvenile who was over 7 but under 15 years of age, the judge shall order, instead of the prescribed penalty, imposition of one of the measures provided for in the Juveniles Act. If the offender was over 15 and under 18 years of age, he shall be sentenced to a penalty of not more than one half of the maximum penalty prescribed by law. If this penalty is death, he shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of not less than 3 years and not more than 10 years. In all cases, the sentence shall be served in specially designated places where the offender is appropriately treated. No young person shall be held fully criminally responsible if he was under 18 years of age at the time of committing the act. If the age of the accused cannot be verified, it shall be estimated by the judge, with the assistance of an expert.”

62. The draft legal amendments include an amendment to this article so that it reads as follows: “No penalties or measures shall be inflicted on a child who was under 7 years of age at the time of committing the act constituting the offence. If he was over 7 and under 15 years of age, the judge shall order, instead of the prescribed penalty, imposition of one of the measures provided for in the Juveniles Act. If the offender was over 15 and under 18 years of age, he shall be sentenced to a penalty of not more than one third of the maximum penalty prescribed by law. If this penalty is death, he shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of not less than 3 years and not more than 10 years. In all cases, the sentence shall be served in juvenile rehabilitation and care homes. No young person shall be held fully criminally responsible if he was under 18 years of age at the time of committing the act. If the age of the accused cannot be verified, it shall be estimated by the judge, with the assistance of a competent physician.”

63. These provisions are consistent with the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (the Beijing Rules), which affirm that the penalty must be commuted, stipulating as they do in Rule 17-2 that: “The death penalty shall not be imposed for any offence committed by juveniles.”

Court testimony in civil and criminal cases

64. The Evidence Act No. 21 of 1992, as amended in 1996, is the law applicable to this matter in that it lays down conditions concerning witnesses and the legality of a child’s testimony. Article 27, paragraph 1, provides that a witness must be a discerning, exemplary and reputable adult. Children’s testimony, however, is dealt with in article 31, which provides that a child capable of discernment is not competent to testify but that his statements concerning what he witnessed are heard as evidence in the fact-finding and information-gathering process.

65. Furthermore, in an attempt to promote the child’s entitlement to provide testimony and be afforded due consideration, article 32 of the same Act provides that the testimony of young persons about what happens between them is admissible, provided that there were no adults involved and that they are predominantly thought to be telling the truth. The admissibility of child testimony is, however, restricted to this instance of disputes among children in which there are no adults involved.

IV. General principles

A. The principle of non-discrimination

66. From the legislative standpoint, issues of discrimination are addressed by the Yemeni Constitution in that it guarantees the equality of all Yemeni citizens with regard to economic, social, cultural and political rights and duties, without discrimination. The Constitution vests in children these rights, which are embodied in the Children’s Rights Act. Amendments have been drafted to develop and expand the articles of the Act with respect to non-discrimination. Draft article 9 provides that every child has the right to enjoy all public rights and freedoms, together with the care guaranteed by the laws in force to human beings in general and to children in particular, without distinction on the basis of colour, belief, social origin, wealth, birth or any other status.

67. A proposed amendment to article 27 reads “the period of child custody shall be 13 years for males and females, unless the court decides otherwise in the interest of the child”, instead of “... 9 years for males and 10 years for females ...”. This is as part of the legal reform aimed at preventing discrimination between males and females.

Education

68. The Constitution of the Republic of Yemen affirms that all Yemeni citizens, both male and female and in both urban and rural areas, have the right to education. The National Strategy for the Development of Basic Education and the National Strategy for the Development of Secondary Education also comprise programmes embodying the principle of equality and non-discrimination, particularly with respect to enrolment and quality improvement. Special programmes are additionally in place for children with special needs and children from poor households in rural and urban areas alike. The Ministry of Education similarly plays its part in implementing a number of special educational programmes for refugee children in Yemen, in cooperation with relevant organizations and bodies.

69. Concerning the promotion of girls’ education, the net admission rates for females in the 2008/09 school year stood at 61.4 per cent, as against 77.7 per cent for males. Statistics show that there were 79 females to every 100 males among the six-year-olds admitted to the first grade of basic education, as against 74 females to every 100 males in 2001/02. Educational survey results point to an increase in girls’ enrolment in the basic and secondary stages during the years 2001/02–2008/09; in 2008/09, the number of female students in the basic and secondary stages amounted to 2,035,287, as against 1,444,216 in 2001/02, which is an increase of 59,071, or 41 per cent. As to the different levels of education, the number of female students in the basic stage stood at 1,828,775 in 2008/09, as against 1,314,387 in 2001/02, which is a difference of 514,071 and an increase of 42.3 per cent. The number of female students in the secondary stage amounted to 206,512 in 2008/09, as against 129,829 in 2001/02, which is a difference of 76,683 and an increase of 35.6 per cent. This indicates the progress achieved in favour of girls and reflects the impact of the interventions aimed at encouraging girls to enrol in education.

Children with disabilities and marginalized children

70. The problems of children in difficult circumstances and children at risk, such as children with disabilities, marginalized children and rural children, have received special attention from the Government, NGOs and international organizations in that numerous projects have been implemented with the aim of caring for and protecting these children. Various departments, institutions and centres have also recently been established to provide protection and care for these groups and prevent discrimination. The Strategy for Children and Youth includes components for integrating these groups into society and ensuring that children and young persons with disabilities are not discriminated against.

71. In order to raise awareness of disability and change attitudes towards it, training was delivered to a number of teachers, educators and media personnel. A media information campaign was also run and mosque imams and religious instructors and counsellors were enlisted to help in the efforts. The aim of these activities was to enable the public to deal with these groups and change its attitude towards disability, as well as its (condescending) attitude towards marginalized children and street children, and to work for the rehabilitation and social reintegration of such groups. Various projects targeting these groups are run by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, NGOs and international organizations.

B. The right to life, survival and development

72. Notwithstanding the challenges faced by Yemen in connection with reducing the under-5 and under-1 morbidity and mortality rates, the Ministry of Health has achieved remarkable success in its efforts to bring down child mortality, as shown by the multi-indicator cluster survey conducted in 2006. Published in 2007, the final report of the survey showed a fall in the under-5 mortality rate from 102 to 78.2 deaths per 1,000 live births between 2003 and 2007. The infant mortality rate also fell from 75 to 68.5 deaths per 1,000 live births over the same period.

73. Despite the different sample sizes of the household health survey conducted in 2003 and the cluster survey conducted in 2007, the figure is a sign that more in-depth research is warranted. Indeed, the Ministry of Public Health and Population is now planning to carry out a new household health survey at the end of 2008. Communicable disease surveillance reports additionally show that child deaths from measles have largely declined, which is consistent with the findings of the cluster survey. Measles was previously among the top five causes of child mortality in Yemen. The MDG attainment gap between the base year of 1990 and the target year of 2015 has therefore narrowed, although the challenge of achieving the child mortality indicator of not more than 45 deaths per 1,000 live births still remains.

74. Furthermore, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour adopted an initiative that plays an important role in ensuring safe childbirth, namely the safe home delivery kit project. In 2006 and 2007, 10,000 clean home delivery kits were produced and distributed.

75. Yemen — in accordance with the applicable laws — does not impose the death penalty on anyone under 18 years of age. Nor have any death sentences been handed down against juveniles.

76. The draft amendment to the Children’s Rights Act includes the addition of a new article providing for the appointment of a child protection officer, the aim being to intervene in a preventive manner in all cases where a child’s safety is threatened or where a child is at risk on account of his living environment, the activities in which he engages or any type of harm to which he may be exposed. Children’s complaints about any kind of violation of their rights are also to be received by the bodies responsible for protecting those rights (art. 150 bis). This provision fosters attention to children who are at risk and involves the bodies concerned in taking care of children and protecting their interests.

77. Based on an integrated approach to child rights, the early child development programme implemented by the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour and the Ministry of Public Health represents a key new trend that brings together the early child development efforts under way in the different areas of development and care, including preschool education programmes. Established at the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood with support from UNICEF, the World Bank and the Social Development Fund (SFD), the Early Child Development Resources Centre was Yemen’s first-ever quality initiative for children in the early twenty-first century. The Centre’s aims are, inter alia, to raise awareness of the importance of early child development and care at the local and community levels; establish a database on early child development; provide training for personnel in early child development and care; and assist and support early child development policies, plans and programmes. The Centre has recently sought in particular to:

• Mobilize funding in order to implement the Ministry of Education’s preschool policy and education plan on the basis of a comprehensive curriculum for early child development, for which partnership agreements have been signed with a number of donor organizations and bodies, such as UNICEF, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Arab Gulf Programme for United Nations Development Organizations;

• Develop draft rules of procedure governing the operation of child nurseries in order to promote unified standards and create a safe interactive nursery environment for children.

C. Best interests of the child

78. A number of essential measures have been taken to achieve the best interests of the child through integrating this principle into proposals, laws and administrative decisions[3] or through reinforcing the methodology founded on the principle of the human-rights-based approach, which affirms the centrality of the child and his status as a right-holder. In all child-related measures, therefore, the best interests of the child are taken into consideration by government authorities making decisions that have an impact on children, by institutions providing protection and social welfare services, and by the administrative and judicial courts. This principle has been upheld in all policies and programmes, as well as in awareness-raising and training.

79. Yemen’s economic and financial situation notwithstanding, both the Ministry of Education and the Government are immensely concerned to secure the best interests of the child. This conclusion can be drawn from the increase in the annual budget allocations to education, which, during the period 2003–2007, rose from 15 per cent to 20 per cent of the State’s total general budget. The same conclusion is also evident from the annual proportion of posts in the State’s administrative machinery that were allocated to teachers during the period 2003-2007, amounting as they did to 33,927 out of a total of 61,957 posts, or 54.8 per cent. Furthermore, an expert team at the Ministry of Education is currently looking into integrating the Convention on the Rights of the Child into the school curriculum.

80. This principle is likewise taken into consideration in the sentencing of children in conflict with the law insofar as decisions are made with the best interests of the child in mind, strengthening the trend in the juvenile justice system for taking non-custodial measures and ensuring that children are placed in an appropriate and safe environment.

D. Respect for the views of the child

81. The right of children to express their views on all matters and measures relating to them has been upheld in the current legislation and laws on the premise that it is their right as human beings to do so and that it promotes their self-confidence, develops their sense of responsibility and teaches them independence of character.

82. Chapter II of the Constitution, which covers the fundamental rights and duties of citizens, states in article 41 that: “Every citizen has the right to participate in political, economic, social and cultural life.” Article 42 provides that: “The State shall guarantee freedom of thought and freedom to express opinions orally, in writing or pictorially, within the limits of the law.” Article 58 stipulates that: “Citizens throughout the Republic have the right, insofar as it does not conflict with the provisions of the Constitution, to organize themselves in the political, professional and trade-union fields and to form scientific, cultural and social organizations and national federations in such a way as to further the aims of the Constitution. The State shall guarantee this right and provide all the necessary means for enabling citizens to exercise it. It shall also guarantee all freedoms for political, trade-union, cultural, scientific and social institutions and organizations.”

83. As stated in article 3 of the Children’s Rights Act No. 45 of 2002, one of the aims of the Act is to engage children appropriately in all matters of benefit to them and to ensure respect for and promotion of their rights, these being in their best interests. Article 8 also affirms the right of all children to form associations and clubs through which they can pursue their social and cultural activities, as befits their age and maturity, in accordance with the laws in force.

84. A number of programmes and activities have been generally designed to promote the child’s right of expression, access to information and freedom to form associations. In particular:

• Children and teenagers were actively involved throughout the preparatory stages in the process of formulating and shaping the National Strategy for Children and Youth and also in the preparations for the National Conference for Children and Youth, held in February 2006, at which the draft strategy was approved and the broad outlines of its implementing plan were drawn;

• The Children’s Parliament continued its activities and held its election meeting for 2006. The Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, which provides support for developing the Parliament’s activities, issued a press release on the Democracy School. We should like to mention here that the Children’s Parliament grew out of the initiative of a civil society organization, namely the Democracy School, and that it is not attached to the Government. Nonetheless, the Government has spared no effort in lending its support to this initiative and in helping to overcome any difficulties that the Parliament might encounter in its work. Ministers and decision-makers take part in the question-and-answer sessions organized by the Children’s Parliament on a number of issues relating to children’s rights. In April 2008, the Children’s Parliament was re-elected to include a large number of children from different segments of the community and from all governorates;

• During the first quarter of 2008, a local children’s council was established in San`a City as an initial pilot for further empowering children to participate in the decision-making activities of the City’s local authorities. This initiative is the product of efforts under the City’s child protection scheme, which is being implemented with joint support from the Arab Urban Development Institute and the City itself;

• Workshops were organized for educators, teachers, judges and lawyers in order to raise their awareness of the importance of shifting away from the rote method of teaching and providing pupils with opportunities for critical thinking, which develops their spirit of inventiveness;

• An expert team at the Ministry of Education is currently looking into incorporating the Convention on the Rights of the Child into the school curriculum;

• In the context of preparing the National Strategy for Human Rights, the Ministry of Human Rights is also currently taking on board an initiative for integrating human rights principles into the basic education curricula;

• Training courses on child participation have been held and group of national staff were sent to Jordan, in June 2005, to attend one of UNICEF’s regional instructor training courses on child participation;

• The media, especially radio and television, highlight the participation and involvement of children in various radio and television programmes;

• School competitions and intellectual activities, together with children’s cultural activities and summer camps, serve as valuable opportunities for further empowering children to enjoy their right to participate and to interact with their social surroundings.

V. Civil rights and freedoms

A. Name and nationality

Birth registration

85. The previous report touched on a number of legal principles and rules guaranteeing this right, as provided for under the Convention. With reference to section D.4, paragraph 39, of the Committee’s concluding observations, the Government has taken significant steps since 2006 to develop the birth registration system and apply it throughout the Republic of Yemen, as outlined below, in that births were registered and certificates issued in 15 per cent of cases at most.

Measures taken

The legislative aspect

86. As part of the comprehensive revision of national laws and the review of parts relating to children’s rights, article 21 of the Civil Status and Civil Registration Act No. 23 of 1991 was amended by Act No. 23 of 2003, pursuant to which articles were either modified or added. These included article 6 bis, which provides that: “A national serial numbering system shall be introduced and a number shall be given to all citizens.” Article 6 bis 1 also provides that: “As soon as any citizen is entered in the civil register, he shall be given a national number to accompany his name on all certificates, documents and vital records pertaining to him, including his identity card. This identity number shall remain associated with him throughout his life and after his death. It shall not be replaced or assigned to another person and must not be duplicated under any circumstances.”

87. Article 21 of the Civil Status and Civil Registration Act was also amended to include both parents of the child among those qualified to give information concerning the birth, whereas only the child’s father, if present, was previously qualified to do so. The article, as amended, now reads: “Persons qualified to give information concerning a child’s birth are: (1) either of the child’s parents; (2) the child’s adult male relatives and thereafter the closest female relative; (3) directors of hospitals, maternity clinics, prisons, quarantine facilities and other places where births take place. The responsibility for giving information shall fall to the above categories only if there is no recourse to the preceding category. In all cases, the attending physician or midwife must notify the birth to the civil registrar within the 60-day time limit provided for in article 20. This notification, however, shall not suffice for the event to be recorded in the register of births.” Article 22 of the Civil Status and Civil Registration Act No. 23 of 1991 provides that:

“The information given must include the following particulars:

(1) The day, date, time and place of birth;

(2) The child’s sex, first name and family name;

(3) The name, family name, nationality, religion, place of residence and occupation of the parents;

(4) The place of registration of the parents and any other particulars set out in the implementing regulation.”

88. Pursuant to article 24, the civil registrar is required to notify information given concerning births to the competent health office, using the designated forms, within one week of the date of registration of the birth.

89. In the case of foundlings, article 27 provides that: “Police stations and departments, together with institutions and shelters which take in newborn children (foundlings), are required to notify the administrative department of the relevant authority of any newborn found or delivered into the care of an institution or shelter. The notification must include: the date and time when the child was found or delivered into care; the first and family names and age of the person who made the discovery or delivery and the time and place of the discovery or the delivery, unless the person refuses to give these details; and the child’s sex and estimated age as determined by a qualified physician. The civil registrar must give newborns a full name and record it in the register of births. No reference may be made in the register to the fact that the child is a foundling, and the space for the parents’ names must be left blank, unless one of the parents comes forward to acknowledge parentage, in which case the space will be filled in.”

90. In the case of an illegitimate child, article 28 provides that: “Subject to the provisions of the final paragraph of the preceding article, an illegitimate child shall be registered on the basis of the particulars provided by the informant and at his responsibility. Neither the entry in the register nor copies thereof shall bestow any right that conflicts with the prescribed rules concerning personal status.” Article 29 also provides that: “In exception to the provision of article 28, the civil registrar shall not be required to state the name of either or both the father or the mother, if requested not to do so, in the following instances:

1. If the parents are within the degrees of consanguinity that preclude marriage, their names shall not be mentioned;

2. If the mother is married and her legal spouse is not the father of the child, her name shall not be mentioned;

3. If the father is married and his legal spouse is not the mother of his child, his name is not mentioned, unless the child was born before the marriage or after its annulment in the case of adherents of a religion that permits polygamy.”

91. Article 30 likewise provides: “(1) If the legal period expires and no information has been given concerning the birth, the child shall be entered in a register for persons of whom there is no previous record; (2) if the child’s entry in the register is found to be complete in accordance with the particulars set forth in article 22, the registration shall be approved and the child shall be given a birth certificate.”

Nationality

92. Article 44 of the Constitution provides that: “The law shall regulate Yemeni nationality, which shall not be denied to any Yemeni. Nor may it be withdrawn from any person who has acquired it, except in accordance with the law.” Article 3 of the Yemeni Nationality Act No. 6 of 1990 also provides as follows:

“Yemeni nationality shall be enjoyed by:

(a) Anyone born to a father holding Yemeni nationality;

(b) Anyone born in Yemen to a mother holding Yemeni nationality and a father who is of unknown nationality or stateless;

(c) Anyone born in Yemen to a mother holding Yemeni nationality and a father whose paternity of the child has not been legally established;

(d) Anyone born in Yemen to unknown parents, any foundling discovered in Yemen being deemed to have been born there in the absence of evidence to the contrary;

(e) Any expatriate holding Yemeni nationality on his departure from the national territory who has not renounced that nationality in accordance with the law and at his explicit written request, even if he has acquired the nationality of the country of his residence under its laws.”

93. Article 4 sets out the cases in which Yemeni nationality is granted by republican decree after consultation with the Minister. These cases are as follows:

(a) Anyone born abroad to a mother holding Yemeni nationality and a father who is of unknown nationality or stateless, provided that he has made Yemen his normal place of residence by legitimate means for a minimum period of 10 consecutive years before he attained majority and that his application for Yemeni nationality was submitted within one year of the date of his attainment of majority;

(b) Anyone born in Yemen to alien parents who resided in Yemen until he attained majority, who is conversant in Arabic, sound of mind, free of any impairment rendering him a burden on society and of good conduct and reputation, and who, unless he has been reinstated, has no previous criminal convictions and received no custodial sentences for a public order or public decency offence, provided that he applies for Yemeni nationality within one year of the date of his attainment of majority;

(c) Anyone born in Yemen to an alien father who was also born in Yemen.

Progress achieved

94. Government institutions and NGOs have taken various steps to develop the birth registration system and apply it throughout the Republic of Yemen, as follows:

(a) Pursuant to Decision of the Prime Minister No. 120 of 2006, birth registration was made free of charge, following which a total of 276,716 birth certificates were issued in the governorates of the Republic (see table 8 showing the percentage increase in registration in the year of the Decision and birth registration figures from the Department of Civil Status for 2003 to March 2008);

(b) In 2007, a UNICEF-supported field survey of all civil status and civil registration activities and departments (offices) was conducted across the governorates of the Republic of Yemen in order to analyse the current status of civil registration. It relied on statistics and information for 2006 concerning birth and civil registration (births, deaths, marriage and divorce). The results of the survey showed the level of birth registration in the governorates and revealed the difficulties, the standard of training, the type of service and the educational attainment of the personnel;

(c) In 2007, the competent authorities were involved in a UNICEF-supported fact-finding mission to our sister country, the Sultanate of Oman, with the aim of drawing on its ground-breaking experience in this field;

(d) The National Strategy for Modernization and Development of the Department of Civil Status and Civil Registration (2008–2010) was approved, based on the outputs of the analysis of the current status of civil registration and the findings drawn from the Omani experience and from national pilot schemes in this sphere;

(e) With support from Save the Children Sweden, the Democracy School and members of the Children’s Parliament conducted a field visit to all governorates in the Republic of Yemen in order to determine the level of implementation of Decision No. 120 of 2006 concerning the issuance of free birth certificates;

(f) With support from UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden, two pilots were run in poor neighbourhoods of Aden governorate, in 2005 and 2007, with a view to a permanent strategy for registering births and issuing birth certificates to newborn infants and children under 13 years of age. In the target districts, a total of 5,980 birth certificates were issued to children in the first pilot and 720 children benefited from the second pilot.

Awareness campaigns

95. Organized by the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood and the Department of Civil Status and Civil Registration, a consultative meeting on birth registration was held on 6 October 2006 and attended by some 120 participants from relevant governmental bodies, civil society organizations and the supporting organizations UNICEF, Save the Children Sweden and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

96. As a result of a campaign carried out in 2006 with support from UNICEF and the French organization Triangle Génération Humanitaire, birth certificates were issued to 2,330 children from the Sharqiyah and Gharbiyah neighbourhoods in the Shaykh Uthman area.

97. In 2007, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour organized a consultative meeting for relevant governmental bodies and civil society organizations on an awareness campaign concerning the importance of birth registration, the aim being to develop an integrated perspective with respect to raising awareness of birth registration in the target areas, with support from Save the Children Sweden.

98. In 2007, the Comprehensive Social Services Centre attached to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour (Aden governorate) ran a 15-day poster and radio information campaign, involving youngsters, children, families and parents in the neighbourhoods of the Shaykh Uthman district, to publicize the opening of two birth registration centres at the Wahdah Teaching Hospital and the Shaykh Uthman health complex. Local district leaders also organized several neighbourhood meetings with parents in order to raise parental and family awareness of the importance of obtaining birth certificates.

99. With the support of UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden, another awareness campaign was conducted in the same year with the aim of issuing 1,300 birth certificates to children from poor neighbourhoods (Abdul Qawi, Mimdarah, Sisban and Sharqiyah) in Shaykh Uthman and Dar Sa`d (Aden governorate).

100. The geographical reach of awareness campaigns was extended in order to target poor neighbourhoods in the Lahij and Abyan governorates. As the result of an awareness campaign mounted in 2007, birth certificates were issued to 944 children in Lahij governorate and 1,802 children in Abyan governorate.

101. Also in 2007, the Comprehensive Social Services Centre organized a meeting of 20 mosque preachers and imams in the Shaykh Uthman district to sensitize them to the importance of birth registration. It likewise organized an outreach meeting for female gynaecologists, obstetricians and midwives working at the Wahdah Hospital and in the Shaykh Uthman health district.

102. In 2007, the Shawthab Foundation for Childhood and Development — an NGO — printed awareness messages about the right of children to birth registration on 100,000 notebooks, which were handed out in school bags by women in the community and by the Foundation in all governorates in the Republic of Yemen. With UNICEF backing, the Foundation also sent out text messages (SMS) to raise awareness of the importance of birth registration. It likewise made a number of privately subsidized visits to schools and families in Ibb, Hudaydah and Ta`izz governorates to raise awareness of the same issue and of the need for children to obtain their full rights.

103. In 2007, the Democracy School — an NGO — conducted an awareness campaign in association with the Children’s Parliament in a number of schools in the country’s governorates, where it distributed leaflets explaining the right of children to a birth certificate.

Capacity-building

104. A training centre attached to the Department of Civil Status and Civil Registration was established in 2007 and has since run several training courses for personnel working in different fields in civil registry offices. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour also ran a training course on communication and influence for 30 such personnel in the governorates of San`a, Hajjah and Hudaydah.

105. In 2007, with support from UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden, the Social Services Centre in Aden governorate ran training courses to highlight the importance of birth registration, which were attended by a total of 234 midwives, female health supervisors, traditional birth attendants, mosque preachers, head teachers, school social workers, civil registry personnel, local council members, community figures and representatives of interested associations.

Difficulties and challenges

106. The difficulties and challenges are as follows:

• The geographical nature of the Republic of Yemen;

• Poverty, high living costs, inadequate family planning and high illiteracy;

• Lack of financial resources approved for the competent authority;

• Lack of trained human resources;

• Use of the manual system for issuing birth certificates;

• The public’s lack of legal awareness concerning the importance of birth certificates;

• The constant internal migration from rural to urban areas;

• Poor coordination and integration among direct stakeholders;

• The lack of any UNFPA role in this area.

Proposed future measures

107. Proposed future measures include the following:

• The establishment of a project for the automation of birth certificates;

• The establishment of civil registry offices in hospitals and health centres in all governorates;

• The development of an integrated work mechanism for stakeholders;

• The establishment of an awareness unit in the civil registry and the development of planned awareness programmes;

• The development and operationalization of mobile birth registration teams in all of Yemen’s governorates;

• The elaboration of criteria for the recruitment of personnel to civil registry offices.

B. Preservation of identity

108. In addition to the information already mentioned in the previous report, pursuant to Act No. 24 of 2003, an article 10 bis was added to the provisions of the Nationality Act No. 6 of 1990. The article states: “If a Yemeni woman married to an alien divorces and is left with or becomes responsible for dependent children as a result of the spouse’s death, insanity, absence or his ceasing to live with them for a period of not less than one year, such children shall in every way be treated as Yemenis, provided that they remain under the care of their mother until they attain the age of majority. On attaining this age, they shall have the right to choose between Yemeni nationality and the nationality of their father.”

C. Freedom of expression

109. As already emphasized, the law explicitly provides for the child’s right to express his or her views freely, these views being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. In pursuit of this principle, the Ministry of Education established a new tradition, in 2003, of engaging a cross section of basic and secondary school pupils in annual and other conferences and seminars on education in order to encourage their participation and accustom them to expressing their views on matters of interest to them. The Ministry also canvasses the views of pupils concerning the content of school textbooks in order to learn about their opinions and their problems. Moreover, the school curricula and humanities subjects in particular include information, facts and activities designed to raise children’s awareness of areas for participation.

110. The Children’s Parliament experiment is one of the most obvious ways of giving children the opportunity to express their views freely and discuss all manner of children’s issues with decision-makers and stakeholders, whether in the Government or in donor agencies.

D. Freedom of association and of peaceful assembly

111. As already underlined in the previous report, the law accords to all children the right to form associations and clubs through which they can pursue their social and cultural activities, as befits their age and maturity, in accordance with the laws in force. Pursuant to article 151 of the Children’s Act, children’s clubs are social, educational, cultural and sports institutions for ensuring the social well-being of children aged between 6 and 18 years by occupying their leisure time, using sound educational techniques for doing so. Article 152 identifies a set of goals to be achieved by these clubs, as follows:

• Ensuring children’s spiritual, physical, social and educational well-being during their leisure time and holidays;

• Complementing the mission of the family and school to care for and protect children from physical and psychological neglect and the risk of delinquency;

• Constructing the opportunity for children to develop holistically in all aspects, acquire new experiences and skills, and build their aptitudes as much as possible;

• Assisting children to increase their academic attainment and their absorption of knowledge and culture;

• Strengthening ties between the club and the child’s family and integrating their role of sensitizing and raising the child on the basis of sound educational methods.

112. Under the terms of article 153, the State is required to establish and license children’s recreational parks and gardens, which may charge a small entrance fee.

E. Protection of privacy

113. The national legislation emphasizes the inviolability of privacy and the fact that no one must be deprived of his liberty. The following provisions describe the punitive measures set out in the Penal Code. Article 246 stipulates: “A term of up to three years’ imprisonment hall be imposed on anyone who arrests, detains or deprives a person of his liberty by any unlawful means. The penalty shall be a term of up to five years’ imprisonment if the act is committed by a public official, a person acting in that capacity, a person carrying a weapon, or two or more persons, or if the purpose is to insult the victim, or if the victim is a minor, a person suffering from insanity or mental incapacity, or if the deprivation of liberty endangered the victim’s life or health.” Article 247 provides that: “A term of up to three years’ imprisonment or a fine shall be imposed on anyone who prepares, lends, leases or offers premises for use as an illegal prison or place of detention, without participating in the arrest, imprisonment or detention process.”

114. Article 252 provides that: “Anyone who abducts, conceals or swaps a newborn child for another or makes a false claim concerning its parentage shall be liable to a term of up to five years’ imprisonment.” Article 253 states: “A term of up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine shall be imposed on anyone who, against the wishes of the owner and in circumstances other than those provided for by law, enters a place that is inhabited or intended for habitation or an annex thereof or any place intended for keeping money or property, and similarly on anyone who remains there against the wishes of a person who has the right to remove him. The penalty shall be a term of up to five years’ imprisonment or a fine if the offence was committed at night, or by using violence against persons or objects or by using a weapon, or by two or more persons, a public official or a person acting in that capacity.”

115. Article 255 also provides: “A term of up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine shall be imposed on anyone who unlawfully opens a letter addressed to a third party or who withholds a telegram or telephone message. The same penalty shall be imposed on anyone who misappropriates or destroys any such communications or reveals their contents to a third party, even if the communication was open when transmitted or opened in error or inadvertently. A term of up to two years’ imprisonment or a fine shall be imposed if the offence is committed by a public official in breach of the duties of his office.” Article 256 states: “A term of up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine shall be imposed on anyone who violates privacy by committing one of the following acts in circumstances other than those permitted by law or without the victim’s consent: (a) Bugging, recording or transmitting via any type of equipment conversations conducted in a private setting or by telephone; (b) Capturing or transmitting with any type of equipment an image of a person in a public place. If the acts mentioned in the two preceding paragraphs take place during a meeting within the hearing or sight of persons present at that meeting, the consent of those persons shall be presumed. A term of up to three years’ imprisonment or a fine shall be imposed on a public official who uses the authority of his office to commit any of the acts enumerated in this article. In all cases, the equipment and any other items that may have been used in the offence shall be confiscated. Similarly, any recordings obtained as a result of that offence shall be erased or destroyed.”

116. Article 257 further provides: “A term of up to two years’ imprisonment or a fine shall be imposed on anyone who broadcasts, facilitates the broadcasting of or uses, even if not in public, a recording or a document obtained by any of the means stated in the preceding article or without the owner’s consent. A term of up to three years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on anyone who threatens to disclose material obtained by any of the means referred to in order to induce a person to perform or refrain from an act. A term of up to five years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on a public official who uses the authority of his office to commit any of the acts stated in this article. In all cases, the equipment and any other items that may have been used in or obtained as a result of the offence shall be confiscated. Similarly, any recordings obtained as a result of the offence shall be erased or destroyed.”

117. Article 258 also stipulates: “A term of up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine shall be imposed on anyone who, by virtue of his occupation, trade or position, holds confidential information that he discloses in circumstances other than those permitted by law or that he uses to benefit himself or another person, unless he was authorized to disclose or use that information by its owner. The penalty shall be a term of up to three years’ imprisonment if the offender is a public official who held confidential information during, on account of or in connection with the performance of his office.”

F. Access to appropriate information

118. During the period 2003–2007, the media channels were committed to: shaping positive outlooks and attitudes; establishing the media mission to strengthen essential cooperation and the responsibility of the State and society to protect children’s rights and children; reinvigorating themselves constantly in order to enrich the thematic and technical content of programmes and treat them as priorities in the context of the media mission; raising awareness of the concepts underlying Universal Children’s Day and the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child; enhancing understanding of the media approach to developing human rights awareness; informing children and the Yemeni public about human rights through a diverse range of models for radio and television programmes focused on the upbringing, care and education of children and on means to social well-being and health, covering such issues as nutrition, inoculation against childhood diseases and the role of the family in programmes dedicated to children and the family; and enabling children and families to communicate their ideas and views via the media on trends in support of a firmly established rule of law, equal rights for all segments of society, without discrimination, in particular public, private and personal freedoms, and the efforts of official and civil institutions to protect against human rights abuses.

119. Overall, the steps and measures implemented were typically significant and monitored through plans for specific programmes with the aim of strengthening the foundations of the satellite media channels (Yemen, Yamaniyah, Al-Iman and the youth-, education- and tourism-oriented Sheba), Channel One (San`a) and Channel Two (Aden), and local radio stations. This was reflected in the media’s mission to promote the positive aspects of our Yemeni society, foster social change and join effectively with stakeholders in creating enabling processes. UNICEF documents and literature on child welfare, child rights protection and children’s issues and aspirations have benefited the radio and television media by helping them to chime with these groups and address their concerns without overstating them in a manner divorced from the reality of their lives and circumstances. On the contrary, the audiovisual media are attuned to that reality as it stands and take into account the fact that linkage of the appointed tasks and objectives of developing the media mission with the enrichment of information awareness material for children and families will enable them to captivate and attract the largest possible child audience.

120. In this context, care has been taken to ensure that the programme material for children and families meets their knowledge needs by developing indicators in which the broadcasting hours for those programmes are broken down into daily, weekly and annual figures in line with the needs of all audience groups and in order to cater to their gender, age and cultural specificities and geographical distribution. Focus was placed on raising awareness, playing an effective role in family protection and assistance, changing social biases against women, and shaping attitudes to encourage a fall in the reproduction rate, in accordance with the following objectives:

(1) Promoting the well-being of the family as the nucleus embodying the natural and fundamental unit of society; advocating protection of the child’s right to development; and controlling the causes that force youngsters into the labour market;

(2) Changing the pejorative attitude towards women so that they can be effective partners in comprehensive development;

(3) Highlighting the consequences of the population problem for extending the poverty cycle so as to help in persuading citizens to take on board the idea of having small families;

(4) Keeping up with the State’s concerns to improve living standards for the population, fight poverty and broaden the scope of social security;

(5) In the context of devoting attention to the family’s enjoyment of physical and psychological health, protecting the health of the environment; stepping up awareness efforts to prevent epidemic, endemic and transmissible diseases, in particular AIDS and hepatitis; instilling religious, moral and cultural values that promote protection of our country’s environmental health; and instilling in individuals the duty and responsibility to avoid extremism and terrorism in all of its forms and manifestations.

121. The types of programmes do not cater for the volume and kind of tasks to be addressed in accordance with the annual media plans, and the need to increase the indicators for these programmes dealing with family- and child-related issues was often brought home to stakeholders in the two channels. A breakdown of the annual broadcasting hours for these items is shown in table 9.

122. In this context, table 10 categorizes the kind of themes and topics addressed in children’s programmes, the correlation with issues addressed in a sample of children’s programmes and the programmes on each media channel since 2003. Although the names of the programmes may have changed, the programmes themselves and their content remained clear-cut as at 2007 (see table 10).

123. The development of cultural awareness and information lies at the forefront of children’s programmes. A diverse range of information is presented on the country and on children’s games, for instance. The programmes also take on board children’s issues and views and bring out children’s personalities and aptitudes (see tables 11, 12 and 13).

124. The categorization of topics in programmes for women, children, mothers and families shows that most of the air time in the sample programmes was devoted to providing advice to raise awareness of the benefits of a complete and healthy diet for mothers and children during pregnancy and childbirth; raising prevention awareness; interacting with national campaigns offering guidance on issues and problems; promoting girls’ education and literacy; delivering health, dietary and environmental advice; discussing the issues of high bridal prices, revenge and carrying weapons; and developing religious instruction and guidance aimed at enhancing religious virtues in transactions and behaviour. The media channels have sought to address these problems in programming cycles within the framework of drama programmes and materials.

125. With respect to the mission of the audiovisual media, a careful examination of the amount of air time devoted to such programmes by the two television and two radio channels conveys the sense that social issues and problems are a high priority (see table 14, which shows themes by radio and television station).

126. Concerning air time indicators for programmes aimed at raising awareness of children’s rights, it is obvious from a comparison of 2003 with 2007 that more of these programmes were broadcast, particularly in 2007. Indeed, the audiovisual media have devoted extensive air time to them (see table 15, which shows the air time devoted to family and children’s programmes on local television and radio channels).

G. The right not to be subjected to torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment

127. Yemen ratified the two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography) in 2004.

128. Concerning draft amendments to national laws relevant to child rights, existing clauses were amended or deleted and new clauses and entire sections were added as a result of the review process, as in the case of the Penal Code, to which a section was added to cover offences relating to child smuggling and the exploitation of children for begging or sexual purposes.

129. The penal provisions generally protect the right to physical integrity and prescribe stringent penalties for anyone who violates or diminishes that right, as follows:

• Article 243 of the Yemeni Penal Code provides for the punishment of physical assault, stating that: “A retaliatory punishment (qisas) identical to the crime itself shall be imposed on anyone who subjects another person to any kind of assault that causes a physical disability”;

• Article 166 of the Penal Code also provides for the imposition of a strict penalty of 10 years’ imprisonment on anyone who tortures another person, forces him to make a confession or uses cruelty or violence in dealing with him;

• These and other provisions in the same chapter set out the penalties for an attack on a person’s life and for physical assault, regardless of whether the person is a minor or an adult and of whether the attack was deliberate or accidental. A retaliatory punishment (qisas), payment of blood money (diyah), indemnity for bodily injury (arsh) or imprisonment is mandatory in the case of anyone who perpetrates an act that damages a person’s life or his physical or mental integrity;

• The Penal Code contains the following provisions: Article 238: “Anyone who accidentally causes the death of another person shall be liable to payment of blood money (diyah). The offender may furthermore be liable to a discretionary penalty (ta`zir) of imprisonment for a term of up to three years or a fine. If the offence occurred as a result of the offender’s breach of the rules of his office, profession or vocation or his violation of laws and regulations, or if he was under the influence of alcohol or narcotic drugs when the incident occurred, the discretionary penalty (ta`zir) shall be imprisonment for a term of up to five years.”;

• Article 239: “Anyone who deliberately performs an abortion without the woman’s consent shall be liable to payment of an indemnity for the death of a foetus (ghurrah), amounting to one tenth of the blood money (diyah), if the foetus was aborted fully formed or if it died in her womb. If the foetus is aborted alive and dies, the offender shall be liable to payment of full blood money (diyah). In either of these cases, the offender shall be liable, in addition to the above, to a discretionary penalty (ta`zir) of imprisonment for a term of up to five years. If the performance of the abortion results in the mother’s death, or if the person performing the abortion is a physician or midwife, the discretionary penalty (ta`zir) shall be a term of up to 10 years’ imprisonment.”;

• Article 240: “If an abortion is performed with the woman’s consent, the perpetrator shall be liable to payment of an indemnity for the death of a foetus (ghurrah) or of full blood money (diyah), as the case may be. In this instance, the women shall not be entitled to any part of the indemnity (ghurrah) or blood money (diyah). If the mother dies, the perpetrator shall be liable to the payment of blood money (diyah) for accidental death. If the woman performs the abortion herself, she is liable for the blood money (diyah) or indemnity (ghurrah), as the case may be. There shall be no punishment if a competent physician decides that the abortion is necessary to preserve the life of the mother.”;

• Article 241: “Anyone who subjects a person to any kind of physical assault that unintentionally causes the person’s death shall be liable to payment of blood money for quasi-intentional killing (diyah mughallazah) and a term of up to five years’ imprisonment.”;

• Article 242: “A permanent disability is one where the injury results in the permanent severance, separation, partial amputation or loss of function of a limb or the total or partial impairment of a sense. Any serious deformity that cannot normally be remedied shall be deemed a disability.”;

• Article 243: “A retaliatory punishment (qisas) identical to the crime itself shall be imposed on anyone who subjects another person to any kind of physical assault, deliberately inflicting a permanent physical disability by breaking one of that person’s joints, plucking out an eye, amputating an ear or inflicting a quantifiable bodily injury. If the offending act is confined to impairment of the functioning of a limb or sense, but the form thereof remains intact, or if retaliatory punishment is prohibited or abated, without the assailant having been given a free pardon, the penalty shall be payment of blood money (diyah) or indemnity for bodily injury (arsh) and a term of up to seven years’ imprisonment. If, however, the assault results in a permanent disability which the offender had no intention of causing, the penalty shall be a term of up to three years’ imprisonment in addition to payment of blood money (diyah) and an indemnity for bodily injury (arsh), as the case may be.”;

• Article 244: “A penalty of indemnity for bodily injury (arsh) and up to one year’s imprisonment, or the indemnity plus a fine, shall be imposed on anyone who subjects another person to a physical assault of any kind, inflicting an injury that cannot be quantified or damaging that person’s health. If the assault gives rise to an illness or state of incapacity lasting up to 20 days, the penalty shall be a maximum of three years’ imprisonment or a fine, in addition to the penalty of indemnity for bodily injury (arsh) if the assault gives rise to an illness or state of incapacity lasting more than 20 days.”;

• Article 245: “Anyone who injures another person accidentally shall be liable to payment of blood money (diyah) or indemnity for bodily injury (arsh), as the case may be, and a term of up to one year’s imprisonment or a fine, if the offence gives rise to a permanent disability. If the offence occurred as a result of the offender’s breach of the rules of his office, profession or vocation or his violation of laws and regulations, or if he was under the influence of alcohol or narcotic drugs when the incident occurred, the penalty shall be a term of up to two years’ imprisonment or a fine.”

130. Concerning torture and child discipline, article 146 (c) of the Children’s Rights Act provides that the State, acting through the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, “shall protect children from ill-treatment and exposure to physical torture and bring to justice anyone who subjects children to such acts, taking into account the legitimate and legal right of parents to discipline their children”.

131. The draft amendments included the addition of an article entitled “Restriction of the right to impose discipline”, which provides as follows:

“(a) The right to impose discipline shall in no way justify the following acts:

• The infliction of a severe beating which causes a disability or wounds;

• Disfigurement or the amputation of a limb;

• Burning or the use of materials that damage or affect the body;

• Denial of food or drink;

• Expulsion from the home;

(b) A term of up to five years’ imprisonment and a fine of up to 50,000 Yemeni riyals (YRI) shall be imposed on any person entitled to discipline a child who commits any of the offences listed in paragraph (a), without prejudice to the victim’s right to claim payment of blood money (diyah) or an indemnity for bodily injury (arsh), as the case may be.”

VI. Family environment and alternative care

A. Parental guidance

132. The Constitution and Yemeni law affirm that the family is the natural place and the fertile setting for the child’s healthy development. It is the fundamental unit for building society and it falls to the State to guarantee a decent family life by creating conditions conducive to family cohesion and by providing access to essential services and to education and health facilities. The State seeks to develop parental guidance programmes through:

• Literacy and adult education programmes, from which over 124,080 persons benefited during the reporting period, 91 per cent of them female;

• Family counselling programmes offered by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour on the issues of early marriage, the harms of discrimination against children, and safe maternity, from which 1,200 families benefited. A total of 50,000 leaflets on those same issues were also published and circulated, together with 2,500 leaflets on health and breastfeeding rights, and advice on legal, family and social matters was provided to 1,300 families.

133. In addition, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour ran a training programme for female instructors on raising awareness of children’s rights within the family, with over 6,000 families reaping the benefit during the reporting period.

134. The Ministry’s Comprehensive Social Service Centres in San`a and Aden also play a part in delivering health and education advice and awareness-raising to families and children. Approximately 4,000 households, comprising 14,029 individual parents and children, used these services during the period 2003–2007.

B. Parental responsibilities

135. The law affirms the role of mothers and fathers (parents) in shouldering the responsibility for the child’s protection, care, survival and development. The law also guarantees to every child the enjoyment of his or her legitimate rights, in particular the right to establish his or her parentage, to be breastfed, nurtured and maintained, and to see his or her parents in order to promote the idea that the father and mother are jointly responsible for the child’s care and upbringing. The State seeks to support parents in fulfilling their role through a number of programmes and activities.

136. Concerning the impact of polygamy on a child’s upbringing and development, an academic researcher worked in collaboration with the Women’s Centre at the University of Aden to produce a scientific study, which was presented at an international women’s conference held at the University in February 2006. The study dealt with the psychological and social effects of polygamy on women and children, concluding with suggestions for ensuring that children receive attention from their fathers and mothers and for creating a loving and affectionate relationship among siblings from different mothers.

C. Separation from parents

137. The national legislation asserts the importance of catering to the best interests of the child when it comes to determining his or her situation in the event that the parents separate. The draft legal amendments include an important modification, adopting the principle of equality and non-discrimination and affirming the interest of the child in determining his fate by extending the period of custody to 13 years instead of 9 for both males and females, unless the child’s interests require otherwise. The reason for so doing is to prolong the right to custody in the interest of the child (proposal for the amendment of article 28 of the Children’s Rights Act).

138. The personal status courts adjudicate family disputes in accordance with the Personal Status Act, following a number of procedures when taking decisions on cases, in particular:

• Hearing witnesses concerning the social circumstances and identifying the most appropriate guardian or carer so as to ensure that the best interests of the child are taken into consideration;

• Listening to the child’s views before taking a decision on the case and, in so doing, taking steps to guarantee the child’s safe and age-appropriate participation.

D. Family reunification

E. Recovery of maintenance for the child

139. The measures taken in this regard were mentioned in the previous report.

F. Children deprived of a family environment

140. The Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour are working with SFD, UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden to set up an alternative family care system and establish its referential, legislative and executive frameworks.

Measures taken

141. Children deprived of a family environment have access to temporary or permanent care services provided by social protection homes and centres, which is to say:

• Orphanages;

• Social guidance homes;

• Centres for street children;

• Comprehensive social services centres;

• Centres for the protection of child victims of smuggling.

142. Work is under way to develop a unified regulation for government- and NGO-run orphanages that includes quality standards and procedures for alternative care and the programmes and services delivered by these institutions, building on general child rights principles (in accordance with the Committee’s recommendation contained in paragraph 50 (b) of its concluding observations).

143. The situation of children in orphanages is monitored and evaluated through inspection and supervisory visits by the concerned authorities, human rights organizations and the Children’s Parliament. Assessments are also carried out and awareness and training programmes are organized for the benefit of persons working with orphans in order to assist monitoring of the situation of children in these institutions.

144. In recent years, orphan care services have been expanded through the establishment of new government-run orphanages and through enhanced cooperation with civil society organizations in that they have been entrusted with the management and operation of some of these orphanages. The Government also provides facilities and support for NGOs engaged in setting up new orphanages. A comparison of the number of government- and NGO-run orphanages between 2005 and 2007 shows a clear increase of 200 per cent; there were 12 of these institutions in 2005 and 31 in 2008.

Direct social care services for orphans placed in orphanages

145. Social care services for orphans (accommodation, clothing, education and activities) are delivered directly and in an integrated manner in both government- and NGO-run orphanages. In the Republic of Yemen, there are 31 homes and centres for orphans run by the Government, NGOs or in partnership between the two.

(a) Government-run orphanages

• Eight orphanages under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour;

• Two orphanages under the Ministry of Education.

(Table 17 shows government-run orphanages, their capacity, the governorates where they are located, the oversight entities and the support entities).

(b) NGO-run homes and centres for orphans, of which there are 21.

146. These homes belong to NGOs and civil society organizations and some of them are supported by the Government, as follows:

• 3 homes run jointly by the Government and NGOs;

• 18 homes and centres run fully by NGOs.

147. Some of these homes provide full (permanent live-in) education and rehabilitation care services and some are day centres offering care, education and rehabilitation services and other activities, after which the orphans return to spend the night with their families.

148. Tables 16 and 17 show the number of orphanages run by the Government, NGOs or in partnership between the two in the Republic of Yemen, offering either full care services, including permanent accommodation, or day services and activities only. They also show homes run jointly by the Government and NGOs and homes supported by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour and the Social Welfare Fund.

149. An important future approach to the care and rehabilitation of orphans is to implement the activities set out in the electoral programme of the President of the Republic and falling within the remit of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, together with the activities included under the National Strategy and Plan of Action for Children and Youth. The key activities in this sphere involve, inter alia, expanding orphan care, encouraging families to foster orphans, enrolling orphans in education, vocational rehabilitation and training, and building the capacities of persons working with orphans so that they are well placed to deliver proper care and psychosocial recovery services.

G. Family foster care (kafalah) for orphans

150. Family foster care (kafalah) is provided for orphans and is the ideal system in cases where the orphan has relatives or a family with whom he or she lives. Social services and assistance are delivered to children living in single-parent households and children in the poorest groups, as follows:

(1) Social security assistance (Social Welfare Fund): The Fund provides social security assistance in accordance with the Social Welfare Act to a number of social groups and segments (see table 18, which shows the number of users of the services of the Social Welfare Fund as at the end of 2007);

(2) Food assistance is provided for orphans by the Ministry of Education: Meals are provided for orphans attending regular schools or boarding schools. An estimated 5,000 orphans benefit annually from the Ministry of Education’s school meals programme;

(3) NGO-sponsored orphans in family foster care: Under this system, NGOs provide a monthly allowance to cover the living costs of orphans being cared for in foster families, including food, health and education expenses. There are no accurate official statistics, however, on the number of NGO-sponsored orphans in family foster care, although the available information indicates that they number about 40,000;

(4) Comprehensive social services (Comprehensive Social Services Centres): The Comprehensive Social Services Centres provide a diverse range of health, educational, social and awareness services for various groups of children and their families. These groups include street children, school dropouts, child workers, orphans, children from marginalized groups (the Akhdam) and children with disabilities, in addition to the families of these groups of children.

Since their establishment in 2002, the two centres have successfully delivered health, educational and social services and assistance to at least 3,764 children.

H. Transfer of children abroad

151. The measures taken in this regard were mentioned in the previous report.

I. Ill-treatment and neglect

152. The Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood addresses the matter of ill-treatment and neglect as a priority in its plans and programmes via the networks established under its auspices. Numerous activities are currently in progress, including a comprehensive study on ill-treatment and neglect of children in the family, school and workplace settings. The Government has also developed programmes to assist child beggars and street children and has set up special accommodation centres for them. Steps are under way to follow up on the institution of an effective system for ultimately increasing the penalties for ill-treatment and neglect, which are designed to serve as a deterrent and are included in the draft legal amendments.

153. Periodic surveys of child workers are also conducted in order to determine whether they are subjected to any ill-treatment and children are protected in the workplace if the fundamental rights set out in the Labour Code and the Children’s Rights Act are denied to them. Social protection institutions, the Ministry of Health and NGOs work in coordination to deliver mental health services to victims of ill-treatment and neglect.

154. The key measures taken by the Government to protect children from violence, ill-treatment and neglect are described below.

Plans and strategies

155. Approved in 2006, the National Strategy for Children and Youth takes on board the issue of violence against children, setting out a key intervention for tackling such violence, as reflected in the implementation plan for children and youth, which has a core focus on combating violence against children in the 6-14 age group. The plan’s other core areas of focus also take into account the ingredients for a child-protective environment (the National Strategy for Children and Youth is annexed hereto, together with the implementation plan for children and youth).

156. A draft national action plan for combating violence against children has been prepared on the basis of the National Strategy for Children and Youth and the recommendations of the World Report on Violence against Children. A draft national action plan for ending FGM has also been prepared and is in the course of being approved. A national action plan to combat child smuggling was likewise discussed and the plan’s activities are now being implemented.

Studies and research

157. In order to obtain information on violence against children, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood has conducted a number of studies, including, for example:

• Violence against women: a social study of selected rural and urban areas;

• Street children in Yemen;

• Child abuse.

158. Various governmental bodies and NGOs have also conducted a number of other studies, including, for example:

• Early marriage;

• Behavioural problems among children in basic education;

• “No to discrimination and no to punishment”;

• Violence in Yemeni schools;

• Violence and its impact on educational attainment;

• Child smuggling: a study of the situation in Mahwit and Hajjah governorates;

• Child smuggling: a study of services for child victims of smuggling;

• An analytical study of FGM;

• Violence against girls.

159. Two studies assessing the problem of child smuggling in Yemen and a study on child poverty are currently being prepared. Yemen additionally responded to a questionnaire for a United Nations study on violence against children, providing ample information on all of the matters covered in the questionnaire.

Capacity-building

160. In addition to introductory human rights courses and workshops, several capacity-building training courses have been organized for those in governmental bodies and various NGOs who deal with children, namely:

• Ministry of Education mentors in the Peace Ambassadors Programme (on the subject of alternatives to corporal punishment);

• Administration of justice personnel (Ministries of the Interior and Justice)

• Personnel in the print and audiovisual media;

• Hands-on educators in health centres and civil society organizations that are in direct and ongoing contact with families;

• Social workers in social welfare institutions;

• Personnel at the temporary protection centre (on the subject of psychological support for and social reintegration of victims of smuggling).

161. A three-day workshop was also held in March 2005 for 70 head teachers, social workers, instructors and first-grade teachers at the central and local levels. Violence against school students and its relationship with the role of the family and school was discussed and a number of field studies were presented on violence against children in schools, its relationship with children’s psychological and behavioural problems and ways of combating school violence.

162. Between 2005 and 2007, the Ministry of Education ran a number of training courses, attended by a total of 357 educators from the different governorates,[4] on combating violence in schools and raising awareness of alternatives to such violence.

Awareness-raising

163. Awareness-raising activities were focused on the following:

• The production of television and radio programmes on violence against children and its impact on them;

• Direct education through talks on the impact of domestic violence against children;

• The preparation of a handbook for mosque preachers on awareness-raising of children’s rights in general, the impact of violence on children, child delinquency and child homelessness;

• The publication of materials (posters, desk and pocket calendars, and leaflets) to raise awareness about combating violence against children;

• A documentary film on the problem of child smuggling, the effects of violence and the exploitation of child victims of smuggling;

• An animated film (“Ahmad’s return”) to raise awareness of child smuggling;

• An animated film on the sexual harassment of children;

• Direct awareness-raising in five governorates on the adverse effects of early marriage;

• The publication of a counselling guide for police officers on the best ways of interacting with the juveniles with whom they come into contact;

• Commemorations marking the World Day for Prevention of Child Abuse.

164. The Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood is also working to establish a protective school environment for children. In that context, five government-run and private schools were targeted for raising awareness of children’s rights among the children and teachers in those schools, where suggestion boxes were installed as a way of giving children the opportunity to express their views.

165. The Second Arab Regional Conference of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect was held in San`a from 18 to 20 June 2007 under the auspices of the Prime Minister and brought together some 400 national and international bodies and experts. This Conference is regarded as one of the successes of the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, working in partnership with stakeholders in Yemen, and affirms the State’s concern and advocacy for the protection of children against all forms of violence, ill-treatment and neglect.

Monitoring and reporting

166. Monitoring and reporting are carried out through a confidential hotline service dedicated to providing psychological, social and legal assistance for children. Leaflets have been produced to publicize the two hotlines set up at the Yemeni Mental Health Association in Aden governorate and the Arab Human Rights Foundation in San`a governorate. A centre for monitoring and reporting child smuggling has also been established and a publicity leaflet has been produced for it. A training course for hotline staff was additionally organized by Child Helpline International, in conjunction with UNICEF.

Children’s participation

167. The following activities were undertaken:

• Children’s workshops on violence and smuggling;

• Children’s meetings;

• Publication of children’s illustrations depicting their views and ideas on violence;

• Preparation of a travelling mural of children’s drawings for the governorates, under the banner “No to violence and no to smuggling”;

• Field visits by members of the Children’s Parliament to police stations and to border districts and governorates in order to monitor the problem of child smuggling;

• NGO training on promoting children’s participation;

• Publication of a children’s magazine with an editorial board composed of children;

• Media training for children and adolescents in the governorates.

Physical and psychological recovery

168. Protection services, such as medical treatment and psychological and social recovery, are essentially provided by governmental bodies, in cooperation with civil society organizations, including: the Social Reform Association for Development; the Saleh Foundation for Social Development; the Coordinating Authority for Child Rights NGOs; the Shawthab Foundation for Childhood and Development; the Abu Musa al-Ash`ari Society; the Anti-poverty Society; and the Arab Human Rights Foundation.

169. To give an example, the Saleh Foundation for Social Development plays an instrumental part in the delivery of psychological, physical and health care programmes to children’s social care homes and centres, the aim being to achieve the social reintegration of victims of ill-treatment, neglect, abuse, violence and exploitation by:

• Performing full medical examinations on children who are subjected to abuse and exploitation and giving them physical treatment and regular check-ups;

• Helping victims of abuse to recover their physical and psychological health, reintegrate into society and access opportunities for demonstrating their aptitudes and abilities, achieving their potential and regaining their self-confidence;

• Building the capacities of those who work with child abuse victims and providing them with information and facts on ways of dealing with, protecting and helping such children to overcome the effects of exploitation;

• Raising parental awareness of methods for dealing with child victims of all types of exploitation and working to implement and translate into practice the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its two Optional Protocols;

• NGOs (the Yemeni Mental Health Association and the Arab Human Rights Foundation) are also seeking to establish a mental health clinic for those benefiting from the assistance plan established by the Arab Human Rights Foundation.

VII. Basic health and welfare

A. Children with disabilities

Care and rehabilitation measures for children with disabilities

170. The State’s concern for children with disabilities is given practical expression within its development plans, specifically through the following measures:

• Expanding rehabilitation and training programmes for children with disabilities;

• Strengthening health care and literacy training for persons with disabilities;

• Elaborating a comprehensive policy for children with disabilities and reviewing their situation with respect to job opportunities, housing and health care;

• Establishing more social care centres for persons with disabilities and ensuring their needs and requirements in order to improve the services available to them;

• Providing training and further training for social care centre personnel and preparing the qualified personnel needed to carry out such training;

• Developing further training programmes for personnel working in care and rehabilitation centres for children with disabilities and providing full services for their integration into society;

• Extending soft-loan programmes to poor households for establishing income-generating enterprises.

Services provided to children with disabilities by the Disability Fund for Care and Rehabilitation during the period 2003–2007

171. The establishment of the Disability Fund for Care and Rehabilitation has served to improve the quality of the care and rehabilitation provided for these groups, guaranteeing their full access to all their rights and thereby enabling them to enjoy a life of dignity and humanity as citizens with rights and duties on the same footing as other members of society. Included in this guarantee are children with disabilities, for whom the Fund provides care and rehabilitation services.

The individual level

172. These services are broken down into the main areas below.

Health services

173. These include minor and major surgical procedures in all areas of specialization, such as assessment and correction of bone deformities, spinal operations, correction of vision defects, cornea transplants, cataract removal and cosmetic surgery, medication, physiotherapy, care for children with cerebral palsy, dental care, neurology, and various kinds of diagnostic tests.

Material and financial services and assistance

174. These include assistive devices and essential medical products, such as wheelchairs of various types, hearing aids, prescription glasses and white canes for the visually impaired, talking clocks and Braille watches for the blind, crutches, walkers, medical cushions and pillows, medical belts, orthopaedic shoes, prosthetic limbs and cerebrospinal fluid shunts, in addition to assistance for treatment abroad.

Educational and rehabilitation services

175. The Fund helps with the tuition fees payable at all stages of education (kindergarten, basic, secondary, under- and post-graduate) and for short-, medium- and long-term training courses, contributes to curriculum development, and supplies teaching aids, such as registers, talking books, Braille books, Perkins braillers, blackboards, pens, Braille paper, curricula recorded on cassette tapes, talking software, intellectual learning and rehabilitation, printing of curricula, and speech training for the hearing-impaired.

The institutional level

176. The Fund provides financing for applications relating to educational, vocational, social and cultural rehabilitation projects at centres run by the Government or by civil society organizations involved in the care and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. These applications pertain to such matters as:

• Basic and secondary education costs;

• Education costs associated with integration programmes in government-run schools;

• Education costs for persons with mental disabilities;

• The supply of teaching aids and curricula for the blind and persons with mental disabilities;

• Funding to establish camps and special weeks for extracurricular activities (cultural, social, recreational, sports, etc.);

• Funding to organize festivities at the end of the school year;

• Funding for early intervention programmes;

• The supply of sports equipment for various groups of children with disabilities;

• The supply of musical instruments and equipment;

• The supply of vocational training tools and equipment;

• Monthly stipends and support services for vocational skills teachers and trainers;

• Transport for students from their homes to the rehabilitation centre and back;

• The supply of fuel and industrial oil for rehabilitation centres with their own means of transport;

• The payment of maintenance costs for tools, machinery and equipment;

• The supply of stationery and cleaning implements;

• The supply of school furniture and educational materials for rehabilitation centres;

• Payment of the monthly rental costs for rehabilitation centres.

(See table 19, which shows the number of children with disabilities who benefited from services, programmes and activities during the period 2003–2007.)

Social rehabilitation programmes in the local community setting

177. Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) programmes are being implemented in six governorates for persons with various types of disability, including mental disabilities, cerebral palsy, motor disabilities, hearing impairment, deafness, low vision, epileptic seizures, and other health problems (see tables 20 and 21).

178. CBR programme activities focus on the following:

• Providing rehabilitation and training in the home for children with disabilities in order to teach them how to perform daily activities for themselves and develop their capacities, and visiting families of children with disabilities in order to provide them with guidance on how to cope with such children;

• Integrating children with disabilities into schools and monitoring them through CBR programmes;

• Transferring those over 18 years of age to training centres for rehabilitation and vocational skills acquisition;

• Enabling children with disabilities or special needs to obtain insurance coverage (social insurance) from the Disability Care and Rehabilitation Fund;

• Galvanizing the local community role by organizing motivational seminars to ensure the active involvement of community leaders and stakeholders in matters relating to children with disabilities;

• Transferring a number of disabled children to health centres and hospitals and paying for the necessary treatment;

• Distributing mobility aids, such as wheelchairs, in collaboration with the Fund (in Abyan governorate);

• Organizing activities for children, such as drawing, singing, handicrafts, as well as cultural competitions in which they can participate.

Care and rehabilitation centres for children with disabilities

The Aden Centre for Persons with Disabilities

179. The Centre plays a part in the rehabilitation and training of persons with disabilities for occupations that match their mental and physical abilities. The Centre comprises the following sections:

The Vocational Section

180. The Section runs a number of training workshops for children with disabilities (see table 22, which shows the vocational training available at the Centre, the number of beneficiaries and the types of disability).

The Social Section

181. The Social Section carried out the following activities:

• It catered to 50 persons with deafness, motor disabilities or mild learning difficulties;

• It started two literacy classes, which were attended by 35 students of both sexes;

• It met parents to discuss their children’s situation and academic achievement problems;

• It worked in collaboration with the Social Service Section at the College of Humanities in order to cater to students from the Section.

The Psychology Section

182. The functions performed by this Section include meeting with parents of students who suffer psychological problems; monitoring students who attend special education classes; and referring students suffering from health conditions to receive the necessary medication, with the assistance of the Disability Fund.

The Early Intervention Section

183. This Section carries out preventive treatment aimed at developing children’s abilities in various areas through training and rehabilitation for the children themselves and training for their mothers in how to cope with the children. The Section has 60 children on its books (see table 23).

The Nur Centre for the Blind, Aden

184. This Centre is concerned with education and has carried out a number of activities, including:

• Providing students with various curricula printed in Braille and supplying hearing aids;

• Training four blind teachers at the Institute of Higher Studies for Teachers;

• Monitoring students who were integrated into mainstream schools;

• Enabling four blind students to participate in the summer camp organized in San`a.

The psychosocial aspect

185. The Centre carried out a number of activities, including:

• Taking in new students and creating individual files for them;

• Contacting parents in order to create an avenue of communication between the Centre and the family;

• Sitting with the director of the Private Comprehensive Education Department to discuss issues relating to students who have integrated into schools for sighted children.

The Nur Centre, San`a

The Education Section

186. The Section’s activities include the following:

• Circulating curricula to students at the Centre and to students integrated into mainstream schools, whom it also monitors. There are 28 students and 11 who have integrated into governorate schools;

• Compiling a list of visually impaired students;

• Making 40 copies of the students’ summer activity programme for the third camp.

The social aspect

187. The Section carried out a number of activities for blind persons, inter alia:

• Completing sponsorship forms for 40 blind students who were either orphaned or in poor economic circumstances;

• Completing 50 social research forms;

• Delivering assistance and other requirements to students’ parents;

• Compiling a list of students with social security and preparing statements for them;

• Compiling a list of gifted students.

The health aspect

188. The Centre created a health file for each student and monitored their state of health by conducting the necessary tests, seeing them at the clinic and referring some of them to hospital for examination. It also endeavoured to find a school doctor for examining students on a weekly basis.

The Centre for the Blind, Hadramawt

189. The Centre is concerned with education and rehabilitation and follows the Ministry of Education curriculum (see table 24, which shows the number of males and females in the Education Section, and table 25, which shows the number of persons who used the services of the Centre for the Blind during 2007).

The Centre for Persons with Special Needs

The educational field

190. A total of 236 male and female students were enrolled in the Education Section, including 171 in the Hearing Disability Section and 65 in the Mental Disability Section, and the number of teachers amounted to 29.

The vocational field

191. The number of vocational trainers amounted to 73, of whom 56 were male and 17 female.

Activities

192. The Centre organized a cultural week, an excursion to Aden and a motivational course for teachers in the Education and Vocational Sections.

Services provided by the Prosthetics and Physiotherapy Centre

193. According to statistics provided by the Prosthetics and Physiotherapy Centre attached to the Ministry of Public Health and Population, a total of 152,158 persons were treated in physiotherapy departments in 2006. In 2007, the figure for persons of all ages who received treatment (free of charge) rose to 184,340. Prosthetic devices and items of physiotherapy equipment were also distributed to users of the Centre’s services: 14,659 devices were handed out in 2006 and this figure rose to 18,695 in 2007.

SFD efforts aimed at special needs groups

194. The interventions in this sector are aimed at improving living conditions and promoting the rights of special needs groups, which, according to the Fund’s own definition, include persons with disabilities, children at risk (orphans, delinquents, street children, children of imprisoned women and child workers), women at risk (women prisoners and women ex-prisoners) and the socially marginalized (institutionalized psychiatric patients, institutionalized elderly persons and slum dwellers).

195. Efforts have been concentrated on protecting these groups and integrating them into society through inclusive education programmes, CBR, projects for the protection, integration and education of persons with special needs, and institutional support for governmental organs and NGOs working with such persons. Working in conjunction with local and international partners, the Fund also supports the development of national policies and strategies relating to these groups.

196. The Fund helps to support persons with special needs by providing equipment and services, including furniture, computers, educational materials and physiotherapy equipment. It also trains teachers and officials, and provides buses for transport. Thanks to NGO capacities, this support has been significantly augmented, enabling the Fund to provide higher-quality services. One outcome has been to improve the psychological and physical conditions of children and adults with disabilities, whose families have also acquired a better understanding of their situations and of how to care for them. They have been taught new skills (such as reading and writing, sign language and sewing), enrolled in schools and found jobs, and are accepted by the community. These benefits extend from the region concerned to include other regions, either directly (where the services there are delivered by the same entity) or indirectly (where the delivery of services is assigned to similar entities/organizations in the governorates).

Supporting policies and strategies

197. The Fund, in cooperation with the World Bank, has concentrated on supporting efforts by the Government, specifically the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour and the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, to prepare a national strategy for disability and a social protection strategy. Two projects have been developed in this connection: one features support for a national workshop aimed at defining an operational framework for the national strategy for disability and lining up the technical team; and the other features support for the preparation of preliminary studies, the findings and recommendations of which will be instrumental to the drafting of a report on the first phase of the national social protection strategy. These studies have focused on official social safety net and poverty alleviation programmes, the Islamic charitable tax (zakat) and other informal social protection mechanisms, labour market developments, and agricultural development policies and their role in social protection and job creation in rural areas.

Inclusive education

198. The Fund has continued to support the programme for inclusive education, which is an education policy embraced by the Ministry of Education in 1997 with a view to meeting the educational needs of all children, young persons and adults and creating adequate means for integrating them into the school system, with an emphasis on children with special needs, including children with disabilities, street children and socially marginalized children.

199. First started in 2001, the Fund’s support for this programme initially consisted in refurbishing schools offering inclusive education, adding facilities in some schools, establishing education resource units in others, and sending 11 of the programme’s teachers abroad for an intensive diploma course in special education. In this context, the Fund developed five projects aimed at training teachers in inclusive education and promoting awareness of inclusive education concepts in a number of governorates.

200. During 2006 and 2007, as part of its efforts to integrate the target children with disabilities into the mainstream education system, the Fund continued to support the inclusive education policy adopted by the Ministry of Education, qualitatively and quantitatively expanding the programme, building the institutional and technical capacities of those working in the programme, renovating, refurbishing and constructing schools, equipping and furnishing classrooms and administrative offices, and setting up education resource units.[5]

201. The various programmes developed in this area have reflected numerous objectives relating to the nature of the activity and the anticipated outcomes. The target population consists of approximately 1,160 children, including 400 girls.

202. The main activities fall into the infrastructure category; 21 new classrooms were built, 1 classroom was refurbished, and 7 resource rooms and 7 new bathrooms were constructed. A further 29 bathrooms were also renovated for use by students with disabilities and 96 access facilities were installed in a number of schools in order to facilitate children’s mobility.

203. Another area of the Fund’s activity has been capacity-building for organizations working with special needs groups. To that end, it has supported inclusive education administrations in San`a City and the governorates of Ma’rib, Abyan and Lahij with projects aimed at integrating 202 boys and 157 girls into 8 schools, training 160 male and female teachers at schools offering inclusive education, and organizing awareness campaigns in 64 local communities. The Fund has also supported 7 associations in various governorates with projects aimed at integrating 470 boys and 331 girls into mainstream public schools.

Improving services to pupils with disabilities

204. The Fund has targeted this group with 33 projects focused on rehabilitation and integration, including training in a number of fields, such as management, means of communication, money management and accounting, integration of pupils with disabilities, education for blind pupils, sign language, pre-integration rehabilitation, rehabilitation for pupils with mental disabilities, early intervention, speech correction and therapy for the hearing-impaired, mobility for the blind, and training skills and techniques.

205. Phase II of the national trainer training programme in the field of speech correction and therapy for the hearing-impaired has also been fully implemented. Phase I was implemented last year, with the theoretical and practical training of 30 workers in kindergartens and the first three basic levels in governmental and non-governmental institutions working with the hearing-impaired in San`a City and the governorates of Ta‘izz, Hadramawt, Aden, Hudaydah, Dhamar and Ibb. On-site observations of trainers performing their job have also been carried out and the top six trainers were subsequently sent to a specialist institution for the hearing-impaired in Jordan to take part in a two-week practical training course in the classroom.

206. Training and further training in training techniques and skills was also provided for 18 trainers from San`a City and the governorates of Aden, Hadramawt, Ta`izz, Ibb, Dhamar and Hudaydah, thereby enabling them to acquire knowledge and skills in training techniques and preparing them to implement the training programme skilfully and effectively.

207. One of the key recommendations contained in the report evaluating the Fund’s disability programme was to implement a CBR programme for persons with disabilities in rural areas. Implementation of this programme began in 2005 and is continuing in the rural areas of four governorates, namely Hudaydah, Dhamar, Lahij and Abyan.

208. In this connection and as part of the early intervention programme adopted by the Fund as one of its policies, an early intervention centre has been opened in Aden. Its work is primarily CBR-focused and it will operate through existing kindergartens in the public system in Aden governorate.

209. In the context of its backing for institutions working with or supporting persons with disabilities, the Fund has approved a project aimed at preparing a strategic plan and restructuring the work of the Disability Care and Rehabilitation Fund.

210. Projects have also been implemented to create institutions providing activities for persons with disabilities or renovate existing buildings that are structurally unsuitable. In addition, a number of centres and associations have been provided with administrative facilities, which has enabled them to improve their performance.

211. A project has also been developed with the aim of sensitizing decision-makers in governmental institutions and local donor agencies to global trends in working with special needs persons (such as alternative care, after-care, inclusive education and CBR).

Efforts of civil society organizations (from the report of the National Federation of Persons with Disabilities, 2008)

The Aman Society

212. The Aman Society is the only private association for the blind in the Republic of Yemen. It has no governorate branches and delivers numerous services to blind children, including those described below.

213. In the field of health care, it follows up surgical procedures, medication and periodic check-ups.

214. With respect to social matters, the Society has a social research department offering several services to blind children, including:

• Children’s social security;

• Child fostering;

• Financial assistance for those with limited incomes;

• Distribution of clothing for the Eid festival;

• Distribution of food.

215. Concerning education, the Society prints the educational curricula in Braille for distribution to all blind pupils of both sexes. The Society is the only association to provide this service and to supply teaching materials for the blind. It also rehabilitates blind children at the Martyr (Fadl al-Halali) Institute, where they receive preschool education at the Diya’ kindergarten. This kindergarten was the first in Yemen to open for blind children, who are taught there until the fifth basic grade. They are then enrolled in (i.e., integrated into) mainstream schools alongside children without disabilities. The Society follows up and supervises the integration process, supplies teaching materials and textbooks, and provides all of the children’s educational needs.

216. In the area of culture, the Society encourages the engagement of blind children by:

(a) Organizing cultural competitions for them;

(b) Organizing summer activities for 80 blind girls in its care, consisting of Koran memorization classes, Braille for improvers, English language courses and excursions.

217. Some of the blind girls are multitalented singers, poets and story-tellers and cultural competitions are organized between blind boys and girls. The girls showcase their talents by taking part in various singing, poetry and story-telling events, including an international story-telling festival staged in Syria, in cooperation with Yemen’s Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood.

218. With respect to housing, the Society accommodates blind girls from all governorates and remote areas in San`a City, where they are provided with facilities for meals, health care, education, cultural activities and social care. The accommodation also has a hall where Koran memorization sessions, educational seminars and workshops for informing blind children of their rights are held.

219. Numerous associations are involved in delivering services to children with disabilities, including:

(1) The Tahadi Care and Rehabilitation Association for Women with Motor Disabilities: Has a branch in Ta`izz and accommodation in San`a City for girls with disabilities from the governorates and remote areas, for whom it provides various social, health and cultural facilities;

(2) The Yemeni Care and Rehabilitation Association for Persons with Motor Disabilities: Has branches in all governorates and provides services for boys and girls with motor disabilities;

(3) The Care and Rehabilitation Association for the Blind: Has 12 branches in the governorates and provides cultural, health and social services for blind boys;

(4) The Yemeni Care and Rehabilitation Association for the Deaf and Mute: Has 15 branches in the governorates and provides services for deaf and mute girls and boys;

(5) The Yemen Association for Landmine Survivors: Provides services and activities for boys and girls injured by landmines and has no branches;

(6) The Association for the Development of Persons with Special Needs: Provides services for boys and girls with mental disabilities, focusing mostly on the psychosocial aspect owing to the nature of those disabilities, and also includes boys and girls from other groups without special needs.

B. Health and health services

220. Despite the substantial challenges to public health in Yemen particularly with respect to the health, development and survival of the child in view of the high morbidity and mortality rates, a considerable degree of success has been achieved during the past three years. This is especially true as far as bridging the gap between the current situation and the prospect of attaining MDG 3 is concerned.

221. Accordingly, whereas the results of the family health survey, conducted in 2003, indicated a rise in the under-5 mortality rate to 102 deaths per 1,000 live births, the results of the multi-indicator cluster survey conducted in 2006 showed a significant fall in the rate indicator to 78.2 deaths per 1,000 live births.

222. This improvement cannot be taken as a basis for appreciating the impact of interventions, however, insofar as it denotes the suffering of children. The Ministry of Public Health and Population is therefore continuing its efforts to draw on responsible partnerships with official institutions, in particular the Ministries of Awqaf and Guidance, Education, Information, Environment, Social Services, Electricity, and Roads. Indeed, the gains for development are proportional to the arrangements made among these entities, as the delivery of quality services, including a clean drinking water supply and sanitation, is a prerequisite for health, to which inhabitants in the governorates and districts must also effectively contribute by spreading health awareness, particularly among mothers and individuals in the community.

223. The interaction of civil society organizations with child health issues raises the bar of professional responsibility to live up to an important humanitarian role in improving the standard of health, as many children die annually from various illnesses, in particular respiratory disease, diarrhoea, malaria and malnutrition, which are preventable, just as the deaths that they cause are avoidable. As will be explained in detail, preventive health efforts have successfully reduced the incidence of measles, which was a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Yemen.

224. The capacity-building element has played a role in improving the standard of child health services and in bringing health services within the reach of all members of society through training for health professionals in preventive interventions, accurate diagnosis and full treatment; efforts to improve advice, guidance and the responsiveness of health professionals to the public; and action to expand the delivery of primary health care services, particularly in the area of reproductive health and immunization, through permanent facilities, outreach activities and mobile teams.

225. The Ministry is currently seeking to develop principles of functional integration in the performance of health programmes in the interest of strengthening the health system. The key decisions taken in this respect include:

• Act No. 26 of 2005 concerning smoking control and the treatment of smoking damage;

• Republican Decree No. 210 of 2004 concerning the establishment of a national centre for main public health laboratories;

• Act No. 4 of 2006 concerning approval of the loan agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Yemen and the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development;

• Act No. 5 of 2006 concerning approval of the loan agreement concluded between the Government of the Republic of Yemen and the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development;

• Act No. 29 of 2006 concerning approval of the accession of the Republic of Yemen to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control;

• Republican Decree No. 169 of 2006 concerning the establishment of the National Oncology Centre;

• Decision of the Prime Minister No. 274 of 2006 concerning the establishment of the National Drug Supply Programme;

• Decision of the Prime Minister No. 211 of 2006 concerning the reorganization of the Centre for Prosthetics and Physiotherapy;

• Republican Decree No. 85 of 2005 concerning the establishment of the National Blood Transfusion and Research Centre;

• Republican Decree No. 101 of 2005 concerning the establishment of the Public Authority for Environment Protection.

Status of child health in the light of national indicators

226. Notwithstanding the challenges facing Yemen in connection with reducing the under-5 and under-1 morbidity and mortality rates, remarkable success has been achieved, as shown by the multi-indicator cluster survey conducted in 2006, the final report of which was published in 2007. The findings were that, between 2003 and 2007, the under-5 mortality rate fell from 102 to 78.2 deaths per 1,000 live births and the infant mortality rate from 75 to 68.5 deaths per 1,000 live births.

227. Despite the different sample sizes of the household health survey conducted in 2003 and the cluster survey conducted in 2007, the figure is a sign that more in-depth research is warranted. Indeed, the Ministry of Public Health and Population is now planning to carry out a new household health survey at the end of 2008. Communicable disease surveillance reports additionally show that child deaths from measles have largely declined, which is consistent with the findings of the cluster survey. Measles was previously among the top five causes of child mortality in Yemen.

228. The MDG attainment gap between the base year of 1990 and the target year of 2015 has therefore narrowed, although the challenge of achieving a child mortality indicator of not more than 45 deaths per 1,000 live births still remains.

Causes of under-5 mortality in Yemen in 1998

Malnutrition

25%

Measles 12%

Malaria

17%

Diarrhoea 22%

Pneumonia

29%

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Causes of under-5 mortality in Yemen in 2006

Malnutrition 25 %

Pregnancy- and childbirth-related causes 33%

Other causes 17%

Injuries 4%

Respiratory infection 20%

Malaria 8%

Measles 2%

Diarrhoeal diseases 16%

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Measures for children’s access to health services of the highest standard

229. Given the awareness of the integrated efforts needed among different sectors in order to improve services for children, action was taken to provide adequate access for children to integrated primary health care services by focusing on two aspects of the existing interventions:

• Delivery of quality services by permanent facilities;

• Expansion of outreach activities and mobile teams.

230. Through affirmation of the de facto partnership with other relevant institutions, primarily local councils, the uptake of services in many health facilities rose and the performance of mobile teams was enhanced by outreach activities. In addition, civil society organizations felt encouraged to work towards bringing their performance into line with approved health policies.

231. The Ministry of Public Health and Population also adopted community-focused health initiatives, specifically nutrition initiatives involving the community and community-based communicators, and integrated child health care initiatives involving the community. The efficacy of these interventions, which are undertaken by local women volunteers trained to perform key roles in ensuring children’s health and survival, has been borne out by field work. The Ministry is now adopting integrated primary health care with community involvement as a wider multi-intervention community-based initiative. It will consequently have an impact on the current challenges in the local environment.

232. In order to improve children’s health services, the Ministry of Health is endeavouring to train child health professionals and build on their skills through the integrated child health care programme, which was first implemented and expanded between 2002 and 2003.

233. The integrated child health care programme, which targets those aged under five, has achieved a number of successes, as follows:

• Training of over 1,884 health workers;

• Training of 463 doctors working at 1,037 centres applying the Strategy for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI);

• Supply of essential medicines (free of charge) under the Strategy for Integrated Child Health Care at a total cost of $1 million;

• Distribution of oral rehydration solution to all governorates and districts throughout the country, free of charge;

• Preparation of a list of the drug requirement for health units and centres allocated a budget within the annual requirement of the primary health care sector.

Number of health professionals trained in the Integrated Care Strategy for Sick Children (2002-2007)

ء التغذية 25٪

Number of physicians trained in the Integrated Care Strategy for Sick Children (2002-2007)

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G124651805.wmf

Measures to reduce child mortality

234. In order to combat preventable diseases, the Ministry of Health adopted a new strategy for accessing all inhabitants, particularly in remote areas. The outreach activities rolled out in 2005 included, as a first stage, the coverage of immunization services by health workers in the population catchment areas for health facilities (units or centres). The catchment area is calculated at five kilometres in all directions from the health facility or one hour’s walk away. Mobile teams are also provided with vehicles in order to access areas outside the boundaries of any population catchment area.

235. This activity has been carefully planned through demarcation of the catchment area for each health facility in every district and governorate. As a result, routine immunization coverage rose to 85 per cent in the start year of 2005. These efforts and successes also continued during the years and the figure reached 87.4 per cent in 2007.

Percentage of coverage with three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT3) and three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV3), 2000–2007

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Poliomyelitis eradication

236. After the new outbreak of the poliomyelitis virus in Nigeria in 2004 and its transmission to neighbouring States and to as far away as the Sudan, Yemen and Saudi Arabia, the first cases of infection with the virus appeared in Hudaydah governorate, causing an epidemic in 2005. Although the immunization status of the affected children differed and over 40 per cent of them were vaccinated, the poor immunity for nutritional reasons in particular meant that routine immunization to contain the spread of the virus was impossible. A total of 489 children under five therefore contracted the virus, especially as routine immunization coverage in 2003 and 2004 was low and poliomyelitis immunization campaigns, which played the biggest part in bringing the virus under control during the 1970s, were ended in 2001.

237. In response to this situation, the Ministry ran 11 national poliomyelitis eradication campaigns in 2005 and 2006 as part of the home-to-home immunization strategy, during which some 3.9 million children were vaccinated in each campaign. According to reports by neutral observers, the coverage was at least 95 per cent in each campaign. The spread of the virus was consequently halted in record time and cases stopped appearing. The last case of infection in Yemen was recorded on 2 February 2006. With the benefit of the harsh lesson learned in 2005, a national campaign was conducted in 2007 in order to increase children’s immunity and prevent the virus from returning and spreading once more.

Measles control

238. A comprehensive national measles campaign was run during 2006, targeting over 9.4 million children between the ages of 9 months and 15 years and achieving a coverage of 98 per cent. The number of measles cases consequently fell from between 6,000 and 20,000, according to WHO estimates, to 14 laboratory-confirmed cases in 2007.

239. In 2007, a supplementary campaign was also run in five governorates where cases of measles were still being recorded. It targeted children between the ages of 9 months and 15 years, achieving a coverage of 92 per cent.

240. Whereas measles used to be among the most serious causes of child mortality in Yemen, the implementation of the two above campaigns and the increased immunization coverage helped to prevent the occurrence of a single measles death in 2007, according to the records of the National Epidemiological Surveillance Centre and the National Expanded Immunization Programme. Case-based surveillance has been adopted and laboratory testing is carried out in every suspected case in all governorates across the Republic.

Neonatal tetanus control

241. During the period 12-17 April 2008, an immunization campaign was targeted at women in the 15-45 age group in 60 districts in the governorates of Hudaydah, Ibb, Dali` and Lahij. Thanks to this campaign, which will also run in the remainder of the target governorates during the current year, some 680,000 women in the target districts were immunized.

Malaria control

242. In view of the increased resistance to and ineffectiveness of chloroquine treatment, the National Malaria Control and Rollback Programme carried out three studies in three different regions. As a result, the Anti-malarial Drug Strategy was modified in 2006. As at 2005, the annual number of malaria cases was estimated at about 1.5 to 2 million. Annual deaths from malaria and its complications during the same period were estimated at 1 per cent of those cases, i.e., between 15,000 and 20,000, which is a significant indicator of the epidemiology of malaria. At the time of writing this report, the number of cases was estimated by the Programme and WHO to stand at between 700,000 and 900,000, signalling the substantial progress achieved by the Programme.

Vector control

243. Vector control is one of the primary malaria control methods employed and adopted by the Programme as a strategic option. Indoor residual spraying is carried out in infested areas and insecticide-treated mosquito nets are distributed. The biological control of mosquito larvae was discontinued last May, however, owing to the prohibitive cost, the poor supervision and monitoring of the process and the growing opinion within the Programme and the Ministry that it should be more selectively and efficiently utilized. The Programme has expanded the use of other control methods, carrying out up to three times the amount of indoor residual spraying than was previously the case.

244. In 2007, indoor residual spraying was carried out in 104,020 homes in 17 districts in the Sa`dah, Hajjah and Hudaydah governorates, in addition to indoor space-spraying as a back-up in chosen areas of the target districts. A total of 244,560 long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets were also distributed.

Mosquito nets distributed during the period 2002-2007

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Tuberculosis control

245. The Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) Strategy has been extended to all districts of the Republic and training has been provided at all health centres in early tuberculosis detection and the routine testing of cases receiving treatment. The Strategy is also applied in 1,224 health units and the regionally acceptable detection rate of 43 cases per 100,000 population has been reached.

246. During 2007, a tuberculosis survey of school pupils was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of infection and the annual notification rates. The survey findings showed a fall in prevalence from 8.02 per cent in 1991 to 5.5 per cent in 2007 and a fall in the annual notification rate from 0.9 per cent in 1991 to 0.05 per cent in 2007. The prevalence of tuberculin infection also stood at 5.5 per cent, whereas an estimated 30 per cent of the population had been carriers of tuberculosis bacilli in 1991. These figures reflect the major improvement in case detection and the reduction of tuberculosis mortality at the national level.

Control of bilharzia and soil-transmitted worms

247. The Bilharzia Programme operates by providing collective treatment for children in the 6-18 age group at schools in the target districts. In 2005, collective treatment was implemented in 62 districts and water sources were sprayed. Treatment was carried out in 51 districts in 2006 and in 50 districts in 2007. In 2008, 107 target districts were covered and phase I was implemented in 36 districts and phase II in 24 districts during March and April 2008. The remaining target districts will also be covered as planned.

Measures to combat malnutrition

248. The Department of Nutrition seeks to play a part in reducing malnutrition in Yemeni society, particularly among children and mothers, and to work with stakeholder sectors for a safe and healthy food supply in view of the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition in Yemen. Through the community-based role and with community involvement, the Nutrition Programme serves as a formula for active field work, promoting as it does the local role in interventions. Once community leaders have been sensitized to the nutritional issues for the community groups in the target districts, local women volunteers are deployed to raise basic awareness concerning maternal and child nutrition. The Department of Nutrition also fortifies staple foods, such as flour, oil and salt, with micronutrients and vitamins.

249. Since mid-2005, flour has been fortified with iron pursuant to a Cabinet decision. At the present time, 80 per cent of white flour in Yemen is fortified with iron and folic acid and 82 per cent of oil is fortified with vitamins A and D. Concerning the fortification of salt with iodine, all salt-producing plants and factories add iodine to salt and salt refineries are opened only on condition that they add iodine.

250. In 2007, the possibility of treatment for severe malnutrition became available in the main hospitals in major towns. A total of 89 health workers were also trained in how to treat moderate and severe malnutrition in children aged under five.

Coverage of health services and preventive health services

251. In 2005, health facility coverage rose overall by an estimated 17.2 per cent, from 3,317 to 3,888 facilities covering 58.7 per cent of the population. This coverage increased to 69 per cent by the end of 2007. A total of 600 new health facilities were also equipped and brought into operation in 2007.

252. In 2005, there were some 24,000 health professionals in total, compared with 21,500 in 2000, which is an increase of 12.7 per cent.

253. By order of the President of the Republic, 2,400 health professionals were exceptionally recruited in addition to the auxiliary health professionals hired as part of the continuing recruitment exercise in 2007.

254. Approval was also given for implementation of the DOTS Strategy and its expansion to all districts in the Republic, in addition to its implementation in 1,224 health units. The regionally acceptable detection rate of 43 cases per 100,000 population was reached and the DOTS Strategy coverage increased to 93 per cent.

Reproductive health services and adolescent care

255. Reproductive health services are provided in 84 per cent of hospitals, 47 per cent of health centres and 45 per cent of health units. The expansion of integrated health services in health facilities stands at 82 per cent.

256. Several health facilities have been equipped to deliver basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric services in various governorates of the Republic. The uptake rates for family planning methods have increased, as has the amount of spending on these methods, especially after it was decided to provide them free of charge.

(See tables 26 and 27 showing the family planning methods distributed in all governorates and comparing family planning methods used in recent years).

School health and adolescent health

257. The School Health Programme at the Ministry of Public Health and Population is run jointly with the Ministry of Education and provides health services for school students in order to reduce morbidity rates among their age group. With WHO collaboration, practical school curriculum training was initiated with the aim of training teachers in techniques for introducing preventive health concepts to students and encouraging good health practices. The School Health Programme also endeavours to refurbish selected schools as an initial stage in promoting health as part of public health standards that include health and safety of the school environment.

258. With respect to adolescent health, a group of health professionals received training in 2006 on gender issues and reproductive health for adolescents and young persons in the governorates of Amran, Mahwit and Lahij.

259. In April 2006, a training course was run in conjunction with the School Health Department on first aid, the development of school health services and integration of the concept of the reproductive health of adolescents and young persons into school health services.

AIDS control programmes and measures

260. Facilities offering primary health care and treatment for AIDS patients have been opened at two locations in the Republic (the Republican Hospital in San`a City and Wahdah Hospital in Aden). Persons living with AIDS are tested for immunity and receive treatment free of charge. Three other care and treatment facilities are currently due to open in the governorates of coastal Hadramawt (Mukalla) and Hudaydah.

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)

261. Six facilities were initially selected to provide pre- and post-test counselling for pregnant women and persuade them to undergo voluntary AIDS testing during their pregnancy: the Ulfi Centre, the Republican Hospital and Saba`in Hospital in San`a City; Wahdah Hospital and the Basatin Charitable Medical Centre in Aden; and Ibn Khaldun Hospital in Lahij. Women shown to be HIV-infected are given preventive treatment during their pregnancy and the child is given preventive treatment after birth (free of charge). Table 28 shows the number of cases registered in the National AIDS Control Programme in Yemen between 1987 and December 2007 (see table 28, which shows the number of persons living with AIDS by gender in the Republic of Yemen).

262. With respect to raising awareness of AIDS and STIs, the following was carried out between January and September 2006:

(1) A total of 14 awareness talks were organized for 2,555 preparatory and secondary school students in San`a City (Thawrah area), in conjunction with the district education bureau and the Department of Health and Environmental Awareness, during the period 20-21 March 2006;

(2) A total of 37,105 AIDS brochures and leaflets were distributed to students during field visits, as well as to stakeholders and coordinators in the governorates;

(3) A number of AIDS awareness programmes have been implemented for children placed in institutional care (juveniles, street children, orphans and juveniles in prison). Approximately 900 institutionalized children benefited from these programmes. Some 2,000 leaflets were also distributed to children (see tables 29 and 30).

Counselling and voluntary testing

263. Under the National HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Programme, 14 counselling and voluntary testing centres have been opened in 7 governorates, namely: San`a City, Ta`izz, Ibb, Dhamar, Aden, Hudaydah and Mukalla. These centres provide services to those who voluntarily wish to receive them, with no questions asked about the identity of anyone who comes forward for confidential testing.

Health information, communication and education

264. The National Centre for Health and Population Education and Information organized a number of awareness talks for students in all levels of education.

265. Awareness meetings and discussions have been organized for the groups most vulnerable to AIDS, such as long-distance lorry drivers, sea fishers, prostitutes, prison inmates, marginalized groups, young persons, beggars and health workers.

266. Awareness training courses and workshops have been held for teachers, mosque imams, civil society leaders, volunteers, female religious instructors, young AIDS prevention advocates, and members of the youth volunteer network.

Harmful traditional practices

267. Traditional practices (FGM) are immensely harmful to the physical and psychological health of girls. Indeed, the International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in 1994, saw FGM as an abuse of women’s health and reproductive rights.

268. Surveys show that the problem is rife in a number of governorates, including Hudaydah, Aden, Ta`izz, Hadramawt, Mahrah, Ibb and Sa`dah. Yemen has taken a number of measures to deal with FGM, including the issuance of a Ministry of Health decision prohibiting the practice in clinics, health centres and hospitals.

269. In 2008, the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, in conjunction with relevant actors and supported by UNICEF, developed a national plan for abandoning the practice of FGM. The plan was designed by drawing on national and international expertise and involving various segments of society and community groups from the target areas, including imams, mosque preachers, religious instructors and spiritual counsellors. The draft amendments to the Children’s Rights Act also covered the prohibition of FGM.

270. A great many training seminars and courses to raise awareness of the problem have also been organized by the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, the Women’s National Committee, the Ministry of Health and the Yemen Women’s Union, which have likewise worked with NGOs to mount awareness campaigns in the governorates of Aden, Hudaydah, Hadramawt, Mahrah and in San`a City. The Women’s National Committee visited the governorate of Sa`dah (districts of Haydan and Saqin) and there has been some response to the awareness campaigns.

Promotion of reproductive health and newborn care

271. This programme aims to contribute to increasing the number of births attended by health personnel and to reducing maternal and child deaths by preparing strategies for reproductive health and newborns and for pre- and post-service training; providing internal bursaries for girls to study midwifery and health counselling; strengthening services at reproductive health centres; constructing and equipping mother and child centres; increasing the use of reproductive health services; building basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric centres; providing and expanding services for newborn and premature infants; and renovating and equipping newborn wards.

Safe drinking water

273. Given the relative scarcity of Yemen’s water resources, the management of those resources is a particularly important priority in the plans for socioeconomic development and poverty alleviation. The growing water deficit is closely connected with the increased demand for water, random well-digging and water mismanagement. Intensified efforts are therefore needed in order to balance the limited resources with the mounting needs for domestic use and for the agricultural and industrial sectors, while also bearing in mind that these resources must be sustained for the next generations.

274. Yemen is classified as an arid and semi-arid zone. Rainfall is the main source of water and varies from year to year, ranging from 50 to 250 mm per annum in the eastern and coastal areas and 400 to 800 mm in mountain areas. The quantity of renewable water sources is estimated at around 2,500 million m3 per annum, meaning that the shortfall of 900 million m3 is taken from groundwater. Domestic use accounts for some 238 million m3 (7 per cent), industrial use for about 68 million m3 (2 per cent) and agricultural use for around 3,094 million m3 (91 per cent), of which roughly 30 per cent is consumed by qat production. Per capita water consumption is not more than 150 m3 annually, compared with an average of around 1,000 m3 in the Middle East and North Africa and 2,500 m3 globally.

275. Taking a long-term strategy approach to water resources, the Third Development Plan aims to achieve integrated water resources management, strengthen legislation and improve the efficiency of rainwater harvesting.

Objectives

276. The objectives of the Plan are as follows:

• To increase the share of domestic usage to 15 per cent and industrial usage to 4 per cent of total water resources;

• To reduce water depletion by 25 per cent and achieve the highest sustainable levels of use;

• To develop water resources by an annual average of 50 per cent.

Policies and measures

277. The policies and measures adopted are exemplified in the following:

• Strengthening the institutional infrastructure of the Ministry of Water and Environment and of the authorities and institutions attached to it, and developing the laws and regulations relating to them and dividing tasks among them in order to guarantee integration and achievement of the objectives;

• Developing water resources management and bringing in modern integrated management;

• Implementing the national water strategy, the Water Act, water regulations and other measures with the aim of safeguarding water resources;

• Rationalizing the use of water resources; improving water allocation to the different sectors; changing water utilization and cost recovery patterns; safeguarding water from pollution, wastage and depletion; identifying and developing investment priorities; and providing new sources of supply in order to guarantee water sustainability;

• Stepping up the construction of dams, barriers and canals and developing water monitoring stations;

• Strengthening the integration of water policies and overall policies for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, and affirming intersectoral coordination at all levels

• Promoting techniques for water harvesting, for brackish groundwater and seawater desalination and for the treatment of wastewater for irrigation and groundwater recharge;

• Improving water basin capacity and water demand assessment, and implementing measures to protect groundwater from depletion;

• Fostering the role of local communities in water basin management, in the choice as to project management and operation, and in monitoring water usage and water resources protection;

• Defining clearly the principles and standards for water use, making a plain distinction between water resources management and water supply services, and directing use towards lucrative economic sectors so as to achieve the maximum return for each unit of water used;

• Defining water rights, linking them to specific uses, making them tradable and transferable from rural to urban users, and preparing a water rights system project;

• Shaping a clear policy concerning the responsibility of each actor with respect to raising water awareness and the suitability of water for different uses;

• Reviewing trade and agricultural policies and the use of the necessary regulatory tools and procedures, including the establishment of a cost-recovery tariff for irrigation water and urban water distribution, taking into account the circumstances of the poor;

• Earmarking the water resources needed to achieve the objectives and channelling larger allocations from the Agricultural and Fisheries Promotion Fund into water management and public awareness and water efficiency programmes.

Water and sanitation supplies

278. The provision of safe drinking water and sanitation supplies is an essential social service that promotes human development and poverty alleviation efforts.

279. Urban water production rose from 98 million m3 in 2000 to 130 million m3 in 2005, which is an average growth of 5.8 per cent, whereas the amount of water consumed rose from 66 million m3 to 88 million m3, which is an average growth of only 3.9 per cent during the same period. The average growth in rural water consumption was estimated at about 4.7 per cent during the same period, having increased from 89.3 m3 to 112.5 m3.

280. Yemen suffers from an acute lack of sanitation services and networks, which has adverse repercussions for health and environment at the individual and public levels. In 2004, the coverage by community, private and individual networks stood at about 30 per cent and, in the case of public water and sanitation utilities, at 9.2 per cent. To be more precise, there were 1.8 million end-users accounted for through 219,000 subscribed customers. These utility services are concentrated in the main towns and to a lesser degree in a few governorate capitals. They are non-existent in a number of governorates and districts, such as Tarim, Shibam, Manakhah, Qa`idah, Zabid, Mukha, Bayt al-Faqih, Mansurah, Bajil, Khamr, Sa`dah, Ghaydah, Ataq, Harib and Dali`.

281. The total number of water connections registered in the Performance Indicators Information System (PIIS) at the end of 2006 amounted to 435,878, of which 399,357 were to domestic premises. In order to determine the H.4 indicator (water supply coverage), the number of connections must be multiplied by the average number of persons per household (M34). According to this calculation, the total number of persons supplied with water amounted to 2,795,499. The total population in the 33 towns stood at 4,111,825 at the end of 2006, according to PIIS, giving an overall coverage of 67 per cent, which is higher than the national average of 61.5 per cent reported in the Joint Annual Review conducted in 2006.

Challenges

282. A number of constraints and difficulties are encountered in expanding the coverage of water and sanitation services. First among them is the low coverage ratio, essentially in rural areas, to which can be added the rising demand on account of high population growth and internal migration, the scarcity of water resources, and the prohibitive cost of supplies owing to the fragmented nature of the population centres in rural and remote areas. Difficulties are likewise encountered in expanding and developing safe water services, including in particular the retreating level of the water serving as the main source of safe water and the high cost of desalination and of connection to mountain areas especially. Furthermore, water loss from the public network has risen substantially to 32 per cent because the network is so antiquated and poorly maintained and operated.

C. Social security and an adequate standard of living

283. Poverty is one of Yemen’s main problems and indeed the poverty rate has risen. According to the national poverty survey conducted in 1999, 27.1 per cent of the total population are in food poverty and 34.9 per cent are in absolute poverty. These percentages reflect the living conditions of some 6.9 million inhabitants who suffer from poverty, which is more widespread in rural areas. Yemeni society is still predominantly rural and, as indicated in the National Strategy for Children and Youth (2006), Yemen remains one of world’s the poorest countries; the gross national per capita income is $460 annually, 48.8 per cent of Yemeni households live below the poverty line, 17.6 per cent live below the food poverty line, and 29 per cent of the population live on less than $2 a day. Poverty is concentrated in the youngest age groups and affects children. Children under five years of age account for 53 per cent of the poor.

Macroeconomic goals and policies

284. The macroeconomic policies of the Third Development Plan are intended to alleviate poverty and boost economic growth in all sectors by mobilizing resources; channelling them into investment; enhancing the investment environment in order to promote local and foreign private investment; maintaining financial and monetary stability; and reducing domestic and external imbalances in the economy.

285. Given the average economic growth of 7.1 per cent during the period 2006-2010, the expectation is that the poverty rate will gradually fall to 19.8 per cent in 2010 and that the urban-rural gap will be narrower than in 2006. This fall is in line with the MDGs and shows the potential for attaining MDG 1 by halving the proportion of the population who suffer from poverty (food poverty) by 2015 (see table 31).

Poverty reduction measures

286. The State is taking measures to reduce poverty, which include job creation for young persons in order to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable growth through supporting the national economy and building an environment conducive to economic growth by increasing investment and creating new jobs. The poverty reduction efforts also aim to provide children’s needs, as part of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy, by expanding the social safety net through which various programmes and projects are implemented by specialized funds, such as the Social Welfare Fund, SFD, the Disability Care Fund, the Public Works Project, the Agriculture and Fisheries Promotion Fund, and programmes for family development, persons with disabilities and community development. Particular attention is devoted to children in the programmes of these funds.

The Productive Families and Community Development Programme

288. The Productive Families and Community Development Programme implemented a number of activities in 2007 and in its annual plan, as follows:

• Preparation and printing of four feasibility studies for future projects under the Programme;

• Leatherwork training for 20 trainers from social development centres in Hudaydah;

• Setting up and furnishing the Shar`ab al-Salam, Bani Wahban, Bani Sha`b and Bani Muhammad Centres in Ta`izz governorate, the Sayyani Centre in Ibb governorate, and the Miftah Centre in Hajjah governorate;

• Training and further training for 7,000 trainers from community development centres;

• Staging of an exhibition of products from the productive family centres in Ibb governorate.

(See table 32).

SFD efforts to reduce poverty

The Fund’s Small and Micro-enterprise Development (SMED) Programme

289. The findings of the Fund’s evaluation study, carried out in 2006, showed that the number of savers and borrowers had increased, as had the average amount of savings and borrowings, and that women made up a substantial proportion of this number. Indeed, they accounted for 89 per cent of 25,588 borrowers in 2005, amounting to an annual growth rate of 98 per cent since 2002.

290. Microfinance projects likewise show an increase in the number of savers and borrowers and in the average amount of savings and borrowings, with women making up a substantial proportion of this number. Ninety-six per cent of beneficiaries stated that their experience of these programmes was good (compared with 82 per cent in 2003), while 88 per cent of households included in the 2006 survey said that the microfinance programme had helped to change their lives in a positive direction (compared with 69 per cent in 2003).

291. Between the time of its establishment in 1997 and 2007, the Fund managed to achieve great success in providing the requisite funding to small and micro-enterprise institutions and programmes and in driving them forward to high levels of performance and accomplishment, enabled as they were by this funding to serve increasingly large numbers of clients.

292. The Fund monitors the settlement of loans made to microfinance institutions and programmes. All loan and grant agreements concluded with these institutions and programmes were therefore checked, the details were entered into the SMED Unit’s internal system, and a special system was designed for tracking the payment of instalments due under those agreements. As a result, the Fund was able to track the settlement of loans made to microfinance institutions and programmes, accomplishing a repayment success rate of 100 per cent (as at the end of December 2007).

293. In 2007, the Fund developed 20 new projects in which the total investment amounted to approximately $2.8 million, bringing the total SMED investment (estimated cost of projects completed or under way) between the time of the Fund’s establishment and the end of 2007 to roughly $16.4 million. Added to the phased projects from previous years, the number of projects aimed at developing the country’s small and micro-enterprise industry stands at 155.

294. Support for small and microfinance programmes and institutions constitutes the Unit’s main activity and the financial and technical capacities of microfinance programmes have been strengthened in order to help them spread and expand. The performance of these programmes has improved remarkably and the number of those benefiting from their services rose substantially during 2007; as at the end of December of that year, they amounted to approximately 30,000 active borrowers (77 per cent of them female) and over 23,000 savers (see table 33).

Inauguration of the Aden Microfinance Foundation

295. Officially inaugurated in June 2005, the Aden Microfinance Foundation grew out of a union of three microfinance programmes, namely Ma`alla, Shaykh Uthman and Dar Sa`d. Procedures for constructing the Foundation’s accounting system were completed and work on putting it together was begun. In the second half of 2005, the Foundation’s operation developed significantly and it opened a branch in Lahij governorate. In December 2005, the number of active borrowers stood at 5,710.

Signing of agreements on new support projects for microfinance programmes

296. In 2005, the Unit signed several agreements aimed at providing financial support to a number of microfinance programmes, i.e., the Family Development Association (Hays/Hudaydah), the Yemen Women’s Union (Abyan and Hudaydah branches), the National Microfinance Foundation, the Aden Microfinance Foundation and the Society for the Development of Women and Children (SOUL) in San`a.

Project for the establishment of Al-Amal Microfinance Bank

297. A feasibility study of the Bank was carried out by the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP), producing a number of recommendations for establishing the Bank in accordance with global best practices for microfinance. The Fund has purchased a number of shares in the Bank’s capital and procedures for the incorporation and licensing of the Bank are now being followed up.

The National Microfinance Foundation

298. The National Microfinance Foundation received funding to the tune of YRI 20 million, which represents the final payment under the finance agreement concluded with the Foundation for a total loan of YRI 49.5 million. The total sum cumulatively paid to the Foundation as loans thus amounts to approximately YRI 132 million.

The San`a Microfinance Programme (Azal)

299. The San`a Microfinance Programme (Azal) was funded to the tune of YRI 50 million. The funding was agreed and approved after the SMED Unit had thoroughly examined the Programme’s strategic plan and plan of action. The conclusion drawn was that the Programme needed funding to meet the cost of its expansion with the opening of new branches in several areas of San`a City. The cumulative loans extended to the Programme by the Fund amounted to a total of YRI 110 million (as at the end of 2007).

The Income-generating Activities Programme/Hudaydah

300. The Income-generating Activities Programme in Hudaydah received funding worth YRI 13.5 million as the third and final payment under the loan agreement signed with the Programme in June 2006. The payment was disbursed on the basis of the Programme’s strategic plan and plan of action, which show the Programme’s financial requirements for the next stage. The total loans cumulatively paid to the Programme amounted to YRI 51.5 million.

The Wadi Hadramawt Programme

301. The Fund financed the Wadi Hadramawt Programme to the tune of YRI 30 million, which was the first payment under the finance agreement signed with the Programme at the end of 2007. The cumulative loans extended to the Programme by the Fund amounted to a total of YRI 107.7 million (as at the end of 2007). The Programme is now operating in Seiyun, Tarim, Qatan and Sawm.

The Abyan Programme, the Microfinance Development Programme and the Small Enterprises Fund

302. The Abyan Savings and Loans Programme was also funded to the tune of YRI 50 million, bringing the total loans extended to the Programme by the Fund, as at the end of 2007, to YRI 94 million. The Microfinance Development Programme was also funded to the tune of YRI 30 million, bringing the Fund’s loans to the Programme to a total of YRI 48 million. Support was additionally provided to the Small Enterprises Fund in the form of a grant worth $700,000 (to cover expansion of the Fund’s services to small entrepreneurs in new governorates). The loans financed by the Fund (from 2003 to the end of 2007) amounted to a total of YRI 350.4 million.

The SFD Integrated Intervention Programme

303. The Integrated Intervention Programme is a multi-intervention development programme aimed at mobilizing the community in order to ascertain its potential for development success (economically and socially), build its capacities and empower it to perform development tasks on its own initiative. The Programme is also designed to play a part in engaging and empowering local authorities with respect to the planning, implementation and management of development projects aimed at improving socioeconomic conditions in the poorest areas.

304. Phase I of the pilot programme (2001–2010) was started up in four geographically and socially different regions. The findings of an assessment conducted in 2004 having confirmed the success of the pilot, implementation of phase II, covering eight governorates and targeting 56,000 persons, began.

305. A further 30 projects were also agreed, costing an estimated $2 million and involving either the education infrastructure (12 projects), capacity-building in the education, water, environment and health sectors (11 projects), or economic and agricultural activities (7 projects) (see table 34).

Support for marginalized groups and for women prisoners and their children

306. The Fund continued its prison interventions with five projects in Aden, Ibb, Dhamar, and Ta`izz aimed at improving services for women prisoners and their children, as well as for mentally ill prisoners, by adding new service facilities. To that end, health units and mental health clinics were constructed and equipped, and women’s wards were renovated, fitted out and furnished.

307. Interventions also included six other projects to improve conditions for marginalized persons and support from the NGOs representing them and looking after their concerns.

VIII. Education, leisure and cultural activities

A. Education

Legislation

308. In addition to the explanation provided in the previous report, the Public Education Act No. 45 of 1992 sets out a number of principles and provisions guaranteeing the child’s right to education. Article 6 affirms that basic education is a fundamental human right guaranteed and facilitated by the State for all individuals. Article 7 provides for the establishment of schools in the Republic that are adequate to fulfil the educational requirements at all stages of education and considers that a school is adequate to take in all students if it is equipped with libraries and supplied with all other educational inputs. Article 8 also provides that education is free at all stages and is guaranteed by the State, which is progressively realizing this principle in accordance with a Cabinet-approved plan. Under article 9, it is incumbent on the State to achieve social justice and equal education opportunities, taking into account the socioeconomic circumstances that might stand in the way of some families when it comes to enrolling their children in education. Article 14 states that the educational policy must focus on striking a balance in the education system and achieving fairness in the distribution of education services and resources among governorates and districts, in addition to achieving decentralized education management.

309. Pursuant to article 18 of the Act, basic education is “a unified general education for all pupils in the Republic of Yemen. It lasts nine years, is compulsory and admits pupils from the age of six.”

General policies for spreading and developing education

310. With reference to paragraphs 63 and 64 of the Committee’s concluding observations, as part of Yemen’s commitment to the Arabic Dakar Framework for Action of 2000 on education for all, the Government undertook to achieve equal access to education and to improve the quality of education for all children by 2015. Faced with the major challenge of providing access to basic education, the Government has adopted a number of policies and measures designed to expand basic education and enhance its effectiveness. These policies include in particular the Third Five-Year Plan for Development and Poverty Reduction (2006–2010), the National Strategy for Basic Education (2003–2015), the National Strategy for the Development of Secondary Education, the Strategy for Girls’ Education, the National Strategy for Literacy and Adult Education, launched in 1998, and the Yemen Strategic Vision 2025.

311. These strategies are aimed at universalizing basic education; improving the quality of education; developing the internal effectiveness of basic education; increasing school enrolment rates at the primary and secondary levels, including preschool education; closing the enrolment gaps between boys and girls and between urban and rural areas; affording greater attention to children from low-income families in an effort to achieve justice and equality; building institutional capacity at all levels within the Ministry of Education; and restructuring the educational system to enable it to keep pace with scientific and technical changes and cater for future development requirements. Other objectives include guaranteeing education for girls, particularly in rural areas, eliminating the gender gap in education, and improving the general standard of education.

Implementation measures to attain strategic objectives and progress achieved

312. In pursuit of the objectives contained in the above-mentioned strategies, the Ministry of Education has adopted an array of policies and implementation measures structured around several core areas of concern, as outlined below.

Increasing the enrolment rate

313. In an effort to increase enrolment in both formal and informal education, the Ministry has put into effect a number of targeted policies with inputs that are having an upward impact on enrolment levels. These include:

• Expanding school construction (new buildings, extensions, renovations), with a particular focus on regions with the greatest need, selecting sites nearest to pupils’ homes, equipping schools with essential educational materials, and ensuring ongoing maintenance;

• Recruiting male and female teachers;

• Linking staff grades with schools in order to ensure continuity and retention of teachers at the schools to which they are assigned;

• Prioritizing the enrolment of girls in governorates where enrolment rates are lowest;

• Hiring female teachers in rural areas;[6]

• Adopting a comprehensive school improvement system;[7]

• Adopting a system of incentives and assistance for disadvantaged families;

• Supplying curricula and other classroom essentials such as chairs and teaching aids;

• Exempting pupils in the first cycle of basic education (grades 1 to 3) from community participation;

• Exempting pupils in the first and second cycles of basic education (grades 1 to 3 and grades 4 to 6) from community participation;

• Devoting attention to children with special needs;

• Devoting attention to literacy programmes.

314. Developments in basic educational inputs and progress achieved between the 2001/02 and 2006/07 school years are outlined below.

School buildings

315. Efforts in this area have materialized in the form of new buildings, extensions and renovations to existing buildings. In the 2008/09 school year, the number of functioning basic, secondary and combined (basic and secondary) schools amounted to a total of 15,661, which is 2,184 more schools than in the 2001/02 school year. The average annual increase in schools therefore amounted to 273.

316. Between 2001/02 and 2008/09, the number of basic schools in Yemen grew markedly with the construction of 1,901 new ones, which accounted for 87 per cent of the total number of schools built during that period (2,184). Also built were 57 secondary schools, accounting for 3 per cent of the total number of new schools, and 266 combined schools, which represented 10.3 per cent of the total.

317. With respect to the urban-rural distribution of schools, annual reports on the results of education surveys conducted in 2001/02 and 2008/09 show that, during those two years, the proportion of basic schools ranged from 8.4 to 10.5 per cent in urban areas and from 90 to 91.6 per cent in rural areas. In the case of secondary schools, it ranged from 50.2 to 51.5 per cent in urban areas and from 48.5 to 49.8 per cent in rural areas, while in the case of combined schools, it ranged from 18.1 to 19.5 per cent in urban areas and from 80.5 to 81.9 per cent in rural areas.

318. As to the distribution of schools by supervisory authority, there were 15,143 government schools in 2008/09, accounting for 96.7 per cent of all government and community schools, compared with 98.6 per cent in 2001/02. In 2008/9, there were 518 community schools, representing 3.3 per cent of all government and community schools, compared with 1.3 per cent in 2001/02.

319. With respect to kindergartens, there were 503 in 2008/09, compared with 172 in 2001/02, which is an increase of 331, or 65.8 per cent of all kindergartens. Of these, 414 were community-run and 89 were government-run. Most were concentrated in urban areas (see table 35).

Teachers

320. The number of male and female classroom teachers amounted to 196,807 in 2008/09, compared with 165,282 in 2001/02, an increase of 31,525, or 16.1 per cent, and an average of 3,941 posts annually. The proportion of female teachers in 2008/09 amounted to 20.6 per cent of the total, compared with 20 per cent in 2001/02.

321. During the period 2001/02-2008/09, post allocations for public education accounted for 54 per cent of the total number of 61,957 post allocations within the administrative apparatus of the State. The high annual proportion designated for public education is indicative of the Government’s concern for education and its awareness of the teacher’s role and influence in increasing school enrolment levels on the one hand and its regard for the best interests of children on the other.

322. The urban-rural distribution of teachers for all years was as follows:

• The proportion of teachers in basic schools ranged from 30 to 33.1 per cent in urban areas and from 67.6 to 70 per cent in rural areas;

• The proportion of teachers in secondary schools ranged from 53 to 57.6 per cent in urban areas and from 42.4 to 47 per cent in rural areas;

• The proportion of teachers in combined (basic and secondary) schools ranged from 18 to 20.6 per cent in urban areas and from 79.4 to 82 per cent in rural areas.

323. In kindergartens, the number of male and female teachers amounted to a total of 1,781 in 2008/09, compared with 886 in 2001/02, an increase of 101 per cent. Of these, female teachers accounted for 96.2 per cent in 2008/09, compared with 97.4 per cent in 2001/02 (see table 36).

Progress achieved in increasing enrolment rates

Preschool education

324. The enrolment of boys and girls in kindergartens rose from 12,505 in 2001/02 to 25,892 in 2008/09, an increase of 13,387 children, or 107.5 per cent.

325. The activities of the SFD Preschool Education Programme included school construction and furnishing, in addition to capacity-building. In 2007, the Fund received support for the Programme under an agreement with the Ministry of Education providing for the construction of two kindergartens, one in Hadramawt governorate and the other in Lahij governorate, in addition to training for kindergarten teachers and officials working in the Ministry’s Preschool Education Department.

326. During the year, SFD also provided training for 21 senior kindergarten administrators from six governorates. The training covered a number of areas, including recent trends in children’s education and excellence in preschool education (standards and assessment), with the aim of improving the administrative and educational skills of the trainees.

Public education (basic and secondary)

327. The total number of boy and girl pupils enrolled in basic and secondary education rose from 4,093,703 in 2001/02 to 4,908,279 in 2008/09, an increase of 814,576, or 19.9 per cent. With respect to each level of education, the total number of pupils of both sexes in basic education rose from 3,572,265 in 2001/02 to 432,450 in 2008/09, an increase of 755,185, or 21.1 per cent.

328. At the secondary level, the number of enrolled pupils of both sexes rose from 521,438 in 2001/02 to 580,829 in 2008/09, an increase of 59,391, or 11.4 per cent.

Children with special needs

329. The Public Education Act No. 45 of 1992 provides that special education is a type of education provided for a specific reason and aimed at persons with disabilities, persons with learning difficulties, gifted persons and high achievers. The National Strategy for the Development of Basic Education therefore devotes particular attention to these groups in the belief that they are entitled to equal education opportunities.

330. In 2008/09, there were 50,440 boys and girls with special needs enrolled in the basic and secondary levels of education.

331. Various measures targeting this category of children have been taken, including in particular the creation of a general department within the Ministry in 2003, with branch offices in the other governorates, to provide support for these children and pave the way for appropriate interventions, such as the introduction of flexible education programmes that can be tailored to their situations, the integration of such children into the school environment, and the provision of treatment and rehabilitation for children with disabilities, children in difficult circumstances and children at risk.

332. The following are examples of the key measures taken in this sphere during the period 2003-2008:[8]

• Planning school buildings with due regard for the needs of children with motor disabilities;

• Establishing a database on schools working with children in this group, the personnel in such schools and the target children in 15 governorates;

• Conducting comprehensive studies and surveys on children with special needs (dropouts, working children, children with disabilities, orphans, street children, etc.);

• Analysing data in order to determine the causes of dropout;

• Integrating children with disabilities (motor, intellectual, hearing and visual), marginalized children, children deprived of education, working children and orphans into 98 schools in 15 governorates;

• Preparing readers, activity books and writing books for the preparatory stage (ages 4 to 6) and the first grade of basic education for hearing-impaired children, which were approved by the Higher Committee for Curricula (2003/04);

• Coordinating with a number of the civil society associations and organizations working in this field in order to adapt curricula to the needs and capacities of children in this group and thus attain the objectives of education;

• Developing mechanisms for partnership and coordination with civil society organizations working in the field of disability;

• Training 55 male and female teachers, in 2007, in Braille teaching for the benefit of visually-impaired pupils in 20 governorates;

• Training and skills development for 72 social workers dealing with special needs children in 15 governorates, and preparing a guide on that area of work;

• Training 35 experts to produce teaching aids from locally available materials for children with special needs;

• Organizing a training workshop for 660 educators in order to provide an introduction to inclusive education and its objectives;

• Training 348 teachers on pre-integration rehabilitation for certain children;

• Sending four trainers on external training courses on the rehabilitation of street children;

• Preparing an open-day guide on children with special needs;

• Organizing two open-day seminars in 2006 and 2007, attended by 400 boys and girls, to promote awareness of the problems of working children, the role of the community in dealing with those problems and means of resolving them;

• Supplying technical equipment as part of the learning resources in four governorates;

• Supplying the Ministry office and 15 governorate branch offices with furniture and library equipment;

• Encouraging private sector investment in this field through the issuance of building permits for centres for special needs children, and evaluating and accrediting special curricula for such centres;

• Designing flexible education systems that can be tailored to the situations of children in this group.

333. Private institutions and NGOs are also engaged in efforts to provide education and training for children in this group. A total of 707 children with special needs, including 267 girls (37.8 per cent of the total), are enrolled at five special needs centres in San`a, Aden and Hadramawt[9] (see table 37).

Difficulties

334. A series of difficulties are nonetheless encountered in attending to this type of education, in particular:

• The slow-moving nature of efforts in the field of education in that they remain inadequate and imprecise, and the lack of systems and policies of the kind espoused by most countries of the world in catering for this segment of the population;

• The dearth of special technical and vocational education activities, even though the primary strategic focus of the Strategy for Technical Education and Vocational Training is to accommodate all comers and prepare training and rehabilitation programmes for this group;

• The lack of programmes that fulfil the requirements of this group and are tailored to their disabilities;

• The poor social awareness in some families that effectively prevents them from enrolling girls with disabilities in training because they regard it as shameful or as conflicting with the prevailing social values and traditions;

• The small number of specialist centres run by governmental institutions concerned with education; they amount to no more than five and are also short of equipment, qualified personnel and experts. Moreover, the only faculties of education covering these areas of specialization are those at the Universities of Ta’izz and Ibb.

Gifted and high-achieving children

335. In 2006/07, the Ministry of Education began to implement a special programme in three governorates for students in this category. Classrooms in some schools were set aside for this purpose and equipped with the necessary teaching aids, curricula matched to the students’ aptitudes and interests were selected, and teachers were supplied and trained. Implementation of the programme is supervised by a department created specially to cater for gifted children and an expert working group was also established (see table 38).

Literacy and adult education

336. Among Yemenis aged 10 years and over, the illiteracy rate is 45.3 per cent, according to the results of the general census conducted in 2004. Among persons in the 10-20 age group, 1,457,185 are illiterate and 65 per cent of these are female.

337. In view of Yemen’s high illiteracy rate, literacy programmes receive special attention from the State. An agency dedicated exclusively to the eradication of illiteracy has been established and the National Strategy for Literacy was launched in 1998. Programmes delivered as part of the Strategy were subsequently incorporated into the National Strategy for the Development of Basic Education. Literacy centres have now been opened in all governorates and personnel training and professional development courses have been organized. A total of 1,328 participants of both sexes attended these courses during the period 2005-2007.[10]

338. In 2007/08, Yemen had 3,356 literacy centres, compared with 1,889 in 2001/02, which is an increase of 1,467, or 77.7 per cent. In 2007/08, a total of 9,579 staff were employed in those centres, compared with 6,801 in 2002/03, and 70.79 per cent of them were female.

339. In 2007/08, 166,910 persons from all age groups, 94.3 per cent of them female, were enrolled in literacy classes, compared with 84,441 in 2001/02, which is an increase of 82,469.

340. As to persons of both sexes in the 10-20 age group who were enrolled in 2007/08 in the two types of literacy programmes, i.e., alphabetic (reading and writing) or basic training (vocational and occupational), their numbers amounted to 51,628, representing 30 per cent of persons of all ages who were enrolled and 3.5 per cent of all illiterate persons in the same age group country-wide.[11]

(See tables 39 and 40, which show the number of persons in the 10–20 age group enrolled in literacy programmes and the number of literacy centre personnel by gender.)

Reducing the gender gap in school enrolment

341. The Government of Yemen attaches special importance to girls’ education in view of the high illiteracy rate (65 per cent) among Yemeni females over 10 years of age. The Government is seeking to raise the school enrolment rate for girls, reduce the gender gap in school enrolment, and change the generally negative situation in the area of girls’ education. In pursuit of these objectives, the Government has adopted a number of measures, including policies and implementation actions, in particular:

• Establishing a special section for girls’ education at the Ministry of Education;

• Exempting girls from grades 1 to 6 of basic education from community participation;

• Increasing the number of girl-only school buildings and locating them as close as possible to the pupils’ homes;

• Adding to existing schools, and as fundamental components of all new school buildings, facilities to make them more welcoming to girls, such as washrooms and screens, and constructing new girl-only school buildings away from markets and crowded public places;

• Introducing an incentives system (school bags, school uniforms and luncheon vouchers);

• Introducing a system whereby disadvantaged families in certain governorates receive financial support of between $35 and $40 per month, subject to the school enrolment and attendance of the girls in the family;

• Diversifying educational programmes and introducing occupational and vocational programmes for girls;

• Introducing a girl-friendly school system aimed at comprehensively upgrading schools in terms of equipment and quality;

• Supplying women teachers from the region where the school is located, in which connection priority of recruitment in 2006/07 was given to women teachers in regions with the lowest enrolment rates. During the same period, the Ministry, in collaboration with donors and a number of organizations, including UNICEF, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Oxfam, engaged 1,221 women teachers at a monthly salary of $100 in order to cover girls’ education needs in rural areas of the most disadvantaged governorates;[12]

• Adopting policies and programmes offering incentives for women teaching in urban areas to work in rural areas, such as providing accommodation in some of those areas;

• Establishing fathers’ and mothers’ councils;

• Promoting women’s literacy programmes in order to encourage women to enrol;

• Organizing several training courses, seminars and awareness programmes to explain the importance of girls’ education and its impact on the girls, their families and society, which attracted 8,592 participants in 2007 and which were supported by various donor agencies, in particular UNICEF, JICA, the Education for All Fast Track Initiative (EFA FTI) and SFD (see table 41).[13]

342. As a result of these policies, average school enrolment rates for girls rose between 2001/02 and 2008/09 at both the basic and secondary levels. The number of girls enrolled in both those levels in 2008/09 amounted to 2,035,287, compared with 1,444,216 in 2001/02, an increase of 591,071, or 41 per cent. At the basic level, a total of 1,828,775 girls were enrolled in 2008/09, compared with 1,314,387 in 2001/02, which is an increase of 514,071, or 42.3 per cent.

343. At the secondary level, 206.512 girls were enrolled in 2008/09, compared with 129,829 in 2001/02, which is an increase of 86,683, or 35.6 per cent (see table 42).

344. In 2008/09, 84 girls for every 100 boys were admitted to grade 1 at the basic level of education, compared with 74 girls for every 100 boys in 2001/02, reflecting the rise in girls’ enrolment and the narrowing of the gender gap from 26 per cent to 16 per cent as a result of the array of interventions targeting girls’ education (see tables 43 and 44).

The SFD programme for rural girls’ education and community participation

345. Between the time of its establishment and the end of 2005, SFD contributed through its education-related projects to the construction of 12,227 classrooms, which accounted for 34 per cent of all new classrooms built throughout the country between 1999 and 2004. It is fair to say that the Fund’s investments remained an important factor contributing to the higher enrolment rates (and girls’ enrolment especially) in basic education. The age-appropriate enrolment of girls in the various levels of education also improved considerably.

346. The overall number of pupils enrolled at schools built with SFD investment rose by 38 per cent. Even more significant was the rise in the number of pupils enrolled in basic education in rural areas, amounting to 91 per cent for boys and 122 per cent for girls.

347. The proportion of qualified teachers (particularly in rural areas) also rose from 77 per cent in 2003 to 86 per cent in 2006. The higher proportion of male teachers is also striking; they accounted for 63 per cent of teachers, averaging 44 per cent in urban schools and 89 per cent in rural schools. Similarly striking, however, is the higher student-teacher ratio, which rose from 29:1 in 2003 to 50:1 in 2006.

348. Twenty-four projects in support of activities under the programme were implemented, including 16 awareness and capacity-building projects and 8 infrastructure projects comprising the construction of 47 new classrooms, the renovation of 12 classrooms and the supply of 864 double chairs and 350 single chairs. A total of 3,869 pupils, 56 per cent of them girls, are expected to benefit from these services.

349. A programme to promote rural girls’ education and community participation is currently being piloted in five subdistricts (in five governorates: Amran, Sa`dah, Hudaydah, Dali` and Ta`izz) where the gender gap in enrolment exceeds 90 per cent. The programme was designed to play a part in increasing enrolment among girls of basic education age by some 20 per cent during the period 2004–2008 by appropriately resolving the fundamental issues behind the low enrolment of rural girls in basic education.

350. Examples of the components of this programme are community structures, construction, water harvesting, capacity-building, and community awareness and mobilization, as follows:

Programme components
Activities
Community participation
SFD supports and assists local communities in establishing community structures in all the target subdistricts:
• 31 fathers’ and mothers’ councils and one mixed council have been established in 16 schools;
• A life-skills development project for women’s groups in the five target subdistricts has been prepared;
• Support in the form of sports equipment has been provided to the school club at each of 16 schools;
• Under an agreement and partnership contract with the Saleh Foundation for Social Development, quantities of dates have been distributed to pupils and teachers of both sexes at the intervention schools, fathers’ and mothers’ councils, pupils at life-skills development centres for rural girls, and girls and women attending literacy classes (4,500 persons in all have benefited from this initiative). School uniforms, school bags and holiday clothing have also been distributed to pupils of both sexes at the intervention schools, with approximately 700 persons in all benefiting from this activity.
Student organizations
A total of 104 student organizations have been set up at 16 schools, involving 947 boys and 569 girls in all the intervention subdistricts.
Women’s associations
A total of 12 women’s groups with 296 members have been established in 9 villages in the subdistricts targeted under the programme (Walad Ayyash, Bani Atifah, Ramya al-Ulya, Mihrabi and Maja`ishah). The groups focus on literacy, sewing and embroidery, handicrafts, health and first aid, food preparation and household management, and making fragrances and perfumes at home.
Student clubs
A student club has been set up in each of the programme’s 14 intervention schools in the five subdistricts. Sports equipment and educational and cultural materials have also been distributed to these clubs.
Capacity-building
Numerous training courses and workshops have been held for fathers’ and mothers’ councils, education advisers, teachers of both sexes in basic education, facilitators of both sexes, class supervisors in community education, and student organizations. The subjects covered included planning, follow-up and assessment; communication skills and dispute resolution; team-building and collective and cooperative action; linkage of schools with school management; plan preparation, implementation and oversight; preparation of educational environments; training methods and skills; problem-solving in schools; gender and childhood; learning and working in partnership; effective communication methods and containment and persuasion skills; empowerment and participation; life skills; and school activities (such as handicrafts, drawing and first aid).
Community mobilization and awareness
Awareness campaigns were organized in the five subdistricts targeted under the programme before the start of the 2006/07 school year. Taking part in these campaigns were the Ministry of Education offices in the governorates concerned, fathers’ and mothers’ councils at the intervention schools, boy and girl pupils, local volunteer education support teams, school administrations, and local and international organizations working in the field of education in the five governorates. Other participants included the private sector, mosque imams, influential community figures, and local councils. The campaigns featured a number of activities. Leaflets designed to provide information and raise awareness about the programme were also produced and circulated to pupils.

351. During 2007, 12 projects were developed in support of the programme activities. Of these, 7 were devoted to capacity-building and 5 to infrastructure involving the addition of 26 new classrooms, the renovation of 12 existing classrooms, and the supply of 324 double chairs. A total of 972 pupils (45 per cent of them girls) are expected to benefit from these projects. Examples of programme components other than infrastructure are community structures, capacity-building, community awareness and mobilization, and community education.

352. Under the agreement and partnership contract with the Saleh Foundation for Social Development, school uniforms and school bags were also distributed to 1,500 pupils of both sexes in the governorates of Dali`, Hudaydah and Sa`dah.

Community education classes (SFD initiative)

353. During 2007, a study on community education classes was conducted in three governorates (Sa`dah, Hudaydah and Ta`izz) where a high number of girls in the 9–15 age group have no access to basic education.

354. In addition, 500 copies of performance assessments were printed and handed out to the pupils at girls’ development centres in order to encourage them to study, assess their own educational and behavioural levels and measure the positive change resulting from education. An examination to determine the attainment level of the girls studying at these centres was also developed, in coordination and cooperation with the Literacy Department in Ta`izz governorate, with a view to ensuring that those who pass the examination are enrolled in basic schools.

Improving the quality of education

355. During the period 2002/03–2006/07, the Ministry of Education adopted a number of policies and took implementation measures aimed at improving the quality of education and developing its internal efficiency. The most important of these measures are as follows:

• Curriculum development;

• Reviewing the function of the school from the perspective of developing education in accordance with the skills input;

• Reviewing the function of educational guidance;

• Developing a measurement and evaluation system;

• Establishing specialized administrative sectors and structures;

• Devoting attention to the training of teachers in general and educational personnel in particular;

• Improving the living conditions of education personnel in general and teachers in particular;

• Introducing the requirement of a university degree as the basic qualification for employment.

356. Programmes implemented in this core area are outlined below.

Programmes
Activities
Kindergartens
The Ministry has implemented a series of programmes, particularly in the areas of:
• Developing kindergarten curricula (three integrated experience guides) during the period 2004–2005;
• Piloting kindergarten curricula in a number of governorates in 2006/07;
• Organizing training courses for female teachers on teaching the curriculum; courses on teacher-child interaction techniques and methods and on puppet-making from locally available materials; and training courses for senior kindergarten administrators at the central and local levels aimed at strengthening their administrative skills and capacities;
• Organizing a workshop on early childhood awareness for local communities and families in a number of governorates;
• Encouraging the private sector to set up kindergartens;
• Bringing in foreign and Arab experts to evaluate efforts to date in the field of early childhood education;
• Working with the Universities of San`a, Ibb, Hudaydah and Hadramawt to open a division dedicated to early childhood education in their respective faculties of education;
• Organizing several fact-finding missions by experts from various sections of the Ministry to a number of Arab and foreign States in order to benefit from their experience in the field of early childhood education;

Following adaptation of the relevant curricula and teacher training, a child-to-child programme is currently being piloted in Ta`izz governorate whereby children in the 4-6 age group are taught by children enrolled in grades 5 and 6 of basic education.
General education
(basic and secondary):
The Ministry has been working since 2003 to scale up the quality of education through inclusiveness, integration, balance among all factors and practical teaching inputs, to which end it has carried out a number of activities, as outlined below:
1. Curricula:
• Final development and piloting of secondary-level curricula during the period 2002–2005;
• Preparation of a computer science curriculum for the secondary level;
• Piloting of curricula for grades 7 to 9 and evaluation of curricula for grades 1 to 6 during 2002/03;
• Periodic revision of textbooks;
• Preparation of teachers’ manuals for training in technical subjects and mathematics at the primary and secondary levels;
• Development of vocational education curricula for basic grades 5 to 9;
• Evaluation of a science curriculum for grades 1 to 12;
• Cooperation with the States of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) with respect to the implementation of various joint programmes;
• Implementation of a number of preparatory activities aimed at ensuring the inclusion in curricula of such contemporary issues as human rights, the rights of the child, awareness of the risks of smoking, introduction to the world of work, how to start and run a small business, and development of pupils’ awareness of job market needs.
2. Educational guidance:
The Ministry has pursued its efforts to overhaul educational guidance since 2004 with the aim of developing the role of such guidance through a review of the conditions and criteria governing the work of educational guidance personnel at the central and local levels. It has also sought to bring the role of educational guidance into play with respect to monitoring and evaluation of the educational process by conducting field visits to schools in various governorates.
3. Measurement and evaluation:
Establishment of a measurement and evaluation centre as a professional scientific mechanism for monitoring and directing the qualitative development of education by conducting evaluation studies of education structures with a view to enhancing their efficiency and effectiveness, improving the quality of the measurement of learning (attainment) at the school and national levels (“general examinations”), creating question banks, participating in international measurement research, conducting analytic studies of students’ results, disseminating a culture of evaluation among educators, and participating in global evaluations of pupil attainment levels in science and mathematics. The Ministry is currently participating in the Teacher Information Management System (TIMS) project.[14]
4. Educational resources:
During the period 2001/02–2007/08, with multistakeholder support (governmental and non-governmental), the Ministry supplied schools with workshops, laboratories and other learning resources that promote improvement of the quality of education.
5. Electronic teaching:
The National Strategy for the Development of Basic Education aims to introduce computing as a subject, starting from grade 4 of basic education, to which end the following programmes have been executed:
• The national programme for integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into education, currently being implemented in collaboration with a specialist centre, which involves the establishment of an electronic archive of the textbooks and teachers’ manuals used in general education;
• A programme for supplying schools with computer equipment, in cooperation with various education-focused organizations;
• A programme for encouraging the private sector to produce curriculum software by coordinating with and considering offers submitted by centres and firms specializing in the production of educational software programmes;
• A programme for implementing and evaluating a number of shared educational software programmes in conjunction with the Arab Education Office.
6. The education channel:
A dedicated education channel was established in 2000 and technically equipped to fulfil its mission of distance learning. The channel is specifically involved in developing, producing, directing and broadcasting all educational, training, professional development, teaching and cultural programmes for all levels and accordingly transmits the following educational programmes:
• Our children today;
• The open school;
• We and the computer;
• Top students;
• The knowledge knight;
• Educational guidance;
• Say and don’t say;
• Letter;
• Educational issues;
• An idea under the microscope;
• The teacher in class;
• Teaching skills;
• The computer in our lives;
• Women teachers in rural areas;
• Teachers in the early grades;
• School administration;
• Teaching methodologies;
• A tale of silence (aimed at persons with special needs);
• Let’s learn! (aimed at eradicating illiteracy).
7. Training and
further training:
Training:
During the period 2001/02 and 2007/08, the Ministry organized numerous programmes at the central and local levels for training in all stages of education, which were attended by 529,459 participants from every governorate in the country. Given the importance of training and its impact on improving the quality of education, a special training and further training section was established at the Ministry in order to plan and implement training and further training programmes for teachers.
Further training:
In 2006, 2,253 male and female teachers with a general secondary school qualification underwent further training to receive an intermediate diploma. In 2007, 3,621 teachers of both sexes also received further training and 156 educational personnel were enrolled in masters and doctoral programmes in Yemen and abroad.[15]
8. Equipment:
As part of the State’s commitment to free education for all citizens, the Ministry of Education supplies schools, on an ongoing basis, with the necessary requirements, including chairs, tables, workstations, chalk, curricula and such other essential items as administrative office equipment. Every year, the Ministry prints and distributes free of charge an average of approximately 50 million textbooks and teachers’ manuals.

(See table 46, which shows the school personnel training programmes implemented during the period 2001/02–2007/08 and the number of beneficiaries).

Progress achieved in the area of quality

357. Insofar as pupils’ attainment results are the key indicator of any improvement in quality, the Educational Research and Development Centre made a comparative study of pupils’ test results in four subjects, namely life skills, science, mathematics and Arabic, in 2002 and 2005, in order to gauge that improvement.[16] The studies were designed to measure the basic proficiency level in those subjects among a sample of 6,202 pupils of both sexes in grades 4 and 6 at over 100 schools in 11 governorates.

358. The study conducted by the Centre, which consisted in analysing questionnaires on the environment, teachers and administration in the sample schools, showed a link between the improvement in pupil attainment in 2005 and the improvement of inputs with a bearing on quality, such as school buildings, a high proportion of separate primary schools, schools that hold classes in the morning, qualification of teachers to university degree level, in-service teacher training, and highly qualified administrators. The study found that administrators with general secondary-level qualifications or below were declining in numbers, while social specialists were increasing. Improvement also correlated with availability of classrooms, administrative offices and other spaces for various uses.

Expenditure on education

359. The Ministry of Education has made strenuous efforts to procure the financial resources needed to fill the large gap in funding for the education sector resulting from the adoption of the National Strategy for the Development of Basic Education. It successfully increased Government funding and persuaded a number of international donor agencies to support its education programmes. During the period 2004–2007, it was able to join a number of international education-related projects, including EFA FTI.

360. The Ministry managed to obtain over $146 million from donors, including the World Bank, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the German KfW Bankengruppe, JICA, the United States Agency for International Development and the World Food Programme (WFP).[17] It has also obtained funding for an array of educational programmes from several other organizations, notably UNICEF. Thanks to these efforts, the public education budget grew from YRI 107 billion in 2003, representing 13.8 per cent of all public spending and 5.1 per cent of GDP[18] in that year, to YRI 201.6 billion in 2008[19], representing 11.1 per cent of public spending and 5.9 per cent of GDP[20] (see table 47).

Education goals

361. The substance of article 29 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child is embodied in the Public Education Act No. 45 of 1992 and in the document General Premises of the School Curricula, which sets out the goals of education overall and at the various levels and also covers the subjects studied. Article 15 of the Act states that: “The education system aims to deliver a comprehensive and streamlined education conducive to the spiritual, moral, intellectual and physical development that produces upright citizens with rounded personalities.”

362. The General Premises document emphasizes that the education philosophy in the Republic of Yemen is based on Arab, Islamic and human ideals founded on high moral values; respect for human rights, freedom and dignity; equal rights and duties; respect for individual freedom and dignity; and love for the country and respect for its rules and laws. It is also based on social justice; equal access to rights; informed openness to global cultures and civilizations; recognition and understanding among peoples; concern for international issues and the principles of justice, equality, world peace and mutual respect among peoples, States and civilizations; and other educational principles aimed at building all aspects of the personality and developing the ability for scientific, analytical and critical thinking, as well as for resourcefulness, innovation, creativity and participation.

363. The education system also comprises a number of general objectives for the delivery of a comprehensive and streamlined education conducive to the spiritual, moral, emotional, social, intellectual, physical and aesthetic development of Yemeni citizens so that they become healthy, sound and productive human beings who practice democracy, fulfil their duties, uphold private and public rights, assume responsibility, respect and defend the rights of others, and are concerned with issues affecting the life of the individual and the community, such as population, the environment, health, water, human rights and girls’ education.

364. As part of the concern to advance the objectives of the education system, final arrangements are currently being made for a review that should bring them into line with recent local, regional and international developments in various fields. One of the programmes in the joint plan of the GCC States is also dedicated to the development of those objectives.

Best interests of the child

365. The Yemeni Government, represented by the Ministry of Education, affords particular priority to education curricula. This has been especially true of late, notwithstanding Yemen’s economic and financial difficulties, as evidenced by a number of indications, primarily:

• A higher proportion of the annual financial budgets is allocated to education than to bodies in the administrative apparatus of the State, that proportion having averaged between 15 and 20 per cent of the general budget of the State during the period 2003-2007;

• A higher proportion of annual posts are allocated to education, with 33,927 of the 61,957 posts in all bodies in the administrative apparatus of the State, or 54.8 per cent of the total, going to teachers and administrators at the Ministry of Education during the period 2003–2007 (see table 48);

• Teachers had a salary rise and their living conditions were improved.

366. The table data show that, every year, over half as many more posts were allocated to education alone than to all other of the State’s administrative units combined. The exception was in 2007, when the proportion of posts allocated to education amounted to 38 per cent, which was due to the allocation of 2,800 posts to the Ministry of Health.

Respect for the human dignity of the child

367. Activities and measures guaranteeing this right are as follows:

• Ministerial Decision No. 10 of 2002 prohibiting corporal and psychological punishment in schools was promulgated;

• In March 2005, a three-day workshop was organized for 70 educators, specifically head teachers, social workers, instructors and primary teachers at the central and local levels, on violence against school children and the role of the family and school in that connection, at which a number of field studies were considered on violence against school children and its relationship with children’s psychological and behavioural problems, and on how to combat school violence;

• Several training workshops on the theme of combating violence in schools and raising awareness of alternative methods of discipline were held during the period 2005–2007 and attended by 357 educators from different governorates;[21]

• The issues of violence and raising awareness of its risks were explored on the margins of fathers’ and mothers’ council meetings held to discuss education, particularly in rural areas;

• A study on violence in secondary schools was conducted in 2000.

Integration of a human/child rights culture into the school curricula

368. One of the activities undertaken by the Ministry of Education in the Republic of Yemen has been to integrate human rights into the school curricula. In that regard, it has carried out a number of preliminary actions, as follows:

• A survey and analysis of child rights concepts in the content of school curricula was carried out in 2007, with UNICEF support;

• A survey and analysis of human rights concepts in the content of school curricula at both the primary and secondary levels is currently under way, the aim being to determine the extent to which these rights are incorporated and to identify ways and means of dividing them among the subjects studied at both levels, and then to review their integration to ensure that it typically in keeping with the student’s development, age, needs and experiences, and with the nature of the subjects being studied.

369. The Ministry has also implemented a series of programmes along similar lines. In particular:

• It took part in preparing the Arab Plan for Human Rights Education, under the auspices of the League of Arab States, which was approved by Arab leaders at the Arab Summit held in Damascus in March 2008;

• A committee on human rights education, comprising competent stakeholders from the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Human Rights, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and civil society organizations, was established in 2005;

• Since 2003, an introductory programme on international human rights law has been run in conjunction with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and a number of governmental bodies, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Yemen Red Crescent Society. In 2008, its activities were expanded to include 48 schools in 16 governorates;

• Yemen hosted the fifth regional meeting of the programme “Exploring international humanitarian law”, on the theme of “Five years of practical experience”, which was held in San`a in November 2007 and attended by 13 Arab States;

• In 2008, international humanitarian law was introduced as a school subject for grades 7 to 11 and a teacher’s manual was prepared;

• Final arrangements are currently being made for the conduct of a survey on gender concepts in school curricula, in line with the Committee’s recommendation, in its concluding observations on Yemen’s third periodic report, to the effect that the image of girls in school textbooks should be improved;

• Final arrangements are currently being made for the conduct of a survey on concepts relating to the development of awareness of democratic values and elections in school curricula with the aim of reinforcing those concepts.

370. With respect to disseminating awareness of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in accordance with article 42 of the Convention, the Ministry has implemented a series of activities aimed at making the Convention widely known in education circles. In particular, it has:

• Provided human rights training for three educational leaders from the Curricula and Guidance Section and the Office of Education in San`a governorate;

• Trained 50 textbook writers in analysing the substance of the Convention on the Rights of the Child;

• Carried out five training courses in a number of schools to raise awareness of human rights among both teachers and students;

• Encouraged students to practice democratic values by devoting School Democracy Day to the election of class prefects and student committee chairpersons, with the President of the Republic and various ministers inaugurating the Day’s activities in a number of schools.

Studies and research

371. During the period 2002–2007, the Ministry of Education produced a series of studies and research papers on education and its development, amounting in all to 29, as outlined below:


Study
Year
1
Kindergartens and the outlook for their development
2002
2
Developing a skills standard for teachers
2002
3
Evaluation of teacher performance skills at the basic education stage in the Republic of Yemen
2002
4
A suggested proposal for restructuring the education and training system in line with future needs
2002
5
Specialist skills of English language teachers and the extent to which they are practised at the basic education stage
2002
6
Educational research priorities as viewed by leading educators in the Republic of Yemen
2003
7
Teaching English: the current situation and the potential for it to be taught as a subject from basic grade 4
2003
8
Aims and objectives of basic education in the Republic of Yemen and requirements for their achievement
2003
9
Level of essential skills proficiency in basic education
2003
10
Performance skills of mathematics teachers and tutors at the basic education level
2003
11
Professional job satisfaction among teachers at the basic education level in the Republic of Yemen
2003
12
Cost and financing of the education system
2004
13
Training needs of basic education teachers
2004
14
Evaluation of the optional question model in general secondary examinations
2004
15
The role of secondary education in developing vocational awareness among secondary grade 3 students in the Republic of Yemen
2004
16
Introduction of vocational education as a subject at the basic stage of education in the Republic of Yemen
2005
17
The information flow mechanism
2005
18
General secondary examinations and ways of developing them
2005
19
Class assessment of pupils in grades 1 to 3 of basic education and the requirements for its development among teachers in the Republic of Yemen
2005
20
Community participation in education (concept, means and development methods)
2005
21
School laboratories in science training for the secondary stage
2005
22
The role of the media in promoting the public interest in education
2005
23
The role of the primary teacher in developing citizenship values among pupils in basic education
2005
24
Training needs of administrative leaderships in governorate education offices
2005
25
Administrative guidance in general education in the Republic of Yemen
2005
26
Causes of dropout among girls in public education in the Republic of Yemen
2005
27
Time management in school departments at the basic stage of education in the Republic of Yemen
2006
28
Skills standard for education mentors
_
29
Class assessment in grades 4 to 9 of basic education
2006

Future trends

Increasing the enrolment rate

372. The aims are to increase the enrolment rate in basic education, including preschool education, to 95 per cent by the end of 2015. Programmes must therefore be implemented in order to deliver the essential inputs to the education process, in particular constructing more schools, increasing the supply of teachers and equipment, narrowing the gender gap in enrolment by the end of 2015, and devoting attention to persons with special needs, girls’ education and literacy.

Improving the quality of education

373. The quality of education is being improved through the following:

• Developing education in accordance with the skills input;

• Reviewing and developing the objectives of education;

• Integrating the child and human rights culture and the gender perspective into school curricula;

• Ensuring that all schools are supplied with educational tools;

• Dividing secondary education into branches and offering a variety of specialist subjects in order to meet the needs of society and learning in accordance with labour market requirements;

• Implementing the national programme for integrating ICT into education and producing electronic curricula;

• Continuing the efforts to reform educational guidance;

• Operationalizing the role of the Measurement and Assessment Centre;

• Providing training and further training for teachers;

• Preparing curricula for children with special needs in line with their abilities, aptitudes and likes;

• Building the institutional capacities of the Ministry of Education.

Kindergartens

374. A strategy for early childhood development has been developed and a special early childhood development centre has also been established under the Ministry of Education, with the support of the United Nations in association with the Arab Gulf Programme for Development (AGFUND).

General education

375. The following has been undertaken in this area:

• Arrangements were completed for implementation of the programme to review comprehensively, fine-tune and make corrections to all school textbooks and curricula for the basic and secondary stages of education and merge the two parts into one, starting in the second half of 2008;

• School curricula were developed in accordance with the skills input and presented to the Islamic Development Bank after the preparatory stage of the project, consisting of initial project studies, had been completed with UNICEF support;

• The objectives of education were developed in line with new advances at the national, regional and international levels in all fields and taking in modern-day issues;

• The basic school curricula for persons with hearing impairment were adapted in 2007, in collaboration with the Deaf Society, to take into account the needs of this group of persons.

Technical education and vocational training programmes

376. Technical education and vocational training programmes grew at a substantial rate during the period 2002/02–2006/07.

Governmental institutions

377. Data from the Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training for 2006/07 indicate that the total number of governmental education and training institutions amounted to 88, divided by entity to which they were attached, as follows:

Institutions attached to the Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training

378. There are 64 of these institutions in all, including 57 public institutions, broken down as follows:

• 24 vocational institutions, 12 of them under the two-year system and 12 under the three-year system;

• 33 technical institutions and community colleges, broken down into 29 institutions under the two-year system and 4 community colleges under the three-year system, in San`a, Aden, Abs and Seiyun.

Institutions attached to other ministries

379. The number of institutions attached to other ministries and governmental departments amounted to 31, including 2 health institutes with 19 branches divided among the governorates and attached to the Ministry of Health; 6 representing the National Institute of Administrative Sciences, which has 6 governorate branches and is attached to the Ministry of Civil Service and Insurance; 5 centres for persons with special needs and blind persons, which are attached to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour; and the Institute of Fine Arts, which is attached to the Ministry of Culture.

Private institutions

380. As at 2005, private educational and training institutions licensed by the Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training numbered 209 in all, in addition to 51 health institutes licensed by the Ministry of Public Health and Population. We were not provided with the latest figures for these institutions by the competent authorities and the Secretariat General of the Supreme Council for Education Planning managed to produce data for 14 institutions only, 11 of them health institutes and 3 of them community colleges. This was due to lack of cooperation on the part of these institutions, which were fearful of being monitored and evaluated by the competent authorities with a view to altering their educational and training status.

381. A comparison of the data on all governmental and private institutions for 2002/03 and 2006/07 shows that the total number of institutions attached to the Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training rose from 54 in 2002/03 to 64 in 2006/07. This increase came about because various other educational institutions were transferred to the remit of the Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training. The number of private institutions licensed by the Ministry also rose from 48 in 2002/03 to 209 in 2006/07.

Centres for persons with special needs and the blind

382. The number of students enrolled in centres for persons with special needs, of which there are five, fell from 1,000 in 2002/03 to 597 in 2006/07, with females accounting for 22.4 per cent of the total, which is low in comparison with the number of males enrolled. This fall in numbers is attributable to the flawed and narrow-minded views about persons with disabilities, to poor social awareness concerning the importance of the rehabilitation, training and social integration of those persons, particularly females, and to the lack of centres catering to special needs persons in the various governorates.

383. The Nur Centre for the Blind in Hadramawt is the largest of its kind; 292 persons with special needs are enrolled there, accounting for 38.4 per cent of the total. The Centre has two sections, one vocational and one educational, with 134 students enrolled in the former and 95 in the latter. The next largest is the Nur Centre for the Blind in San`a, which is educational and has 151 students, or 25.3 per cent of the total, followed by the Aden Centre for Persons with Special Needs, which has 99 students, or 16.6 per cent of the total. Last of all is the Nur Centre for the Blind in Aden, which has 44 students, or 7.4 per cent of the total number enrolled in the country’s centres for persons with special needs.

Registration and admission

384. The interest in technical education and vocational training institutes and community colleges is obvious from the figures for applicants. Although afternoon classes were laid on in addition to morning classes because of the limited intake capacity, technical institutes and community colleges were still unable to admit more than 58 per cent of applicants from training institutions attached to the Ministry. A breakdown of the applicants is as follows:

• Secondary vocational level: out of 1,522 applicants, 877 (58 per cent) were admitted;

• Vocational training diploma: out of 6,867 applicants, 3,828 (56 per cent) were admitted (see table 49, which shows the enrolment rates for two- and three-year technical education courses and for university).

Registered students

385. The total number of students registered at the secondary vocational level in the academic year 2007/08 amounted to 3,192, including 943 in the first grade, 658 in the second grade and 1,591 in the third grade.

382. The total number of students registered for the vocational training diploma amounted to 3,927 in the first grade and 2,422 in the second grade.

Graduates

387. As to the numbers graduated from technical education and vocational training during the school year 2006/07, 1,700 students at the secondary vocational level sat the examination and 1,196 of them, or 70.4 per cent of the total, passed. A total of 504 students failed.

388. In the case of the vocational training diploma, 2,269 students sat the examination and 1,590, or 70.1 per cent of the total, passed. A total of 679 students failed (see table 50, which shows the number of those enrolled in and graduated from intermediate institutions in years 2002/03 and 2006/07).

Spending on technical education and vocational training

389. Spending on technical education and vocational training grew steadily during the period 2003-2007, increasing from YRI 4.2 billion, representing 0.5 per cent of the State’s public expenditures and 0.2 per cent of GDP in 2003, to YRI 23.2 billion in 2007, which is an average growth rate of 62.4 per cent, constituting 1.4 per cent of the State’s public expenditures and 0.6 per cent of GDP. This growth in expenditures was due to the fact that, in 2004, community colleges were added to the technical and vocational institutions falling under the remit of the Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training. Furthermore, technical education had expanded substantially in terms of the number of technical and vocational institutions and the variety of programmes and areas of specialization offered by these institutions.

390. Current expenditures on technical education and vocational training amounted to YRI 4 billion, accounting for 0.3 per cent of the State’s total current expenditures in 2007, compared with YRI 2 billion, or 0.4 per cent of those expenditures in 2003 (see table 51, which shows the breakdown of expenditures on technical education and vocational training during the period 2003-2007 in YRI millions).

391. Investment expenditures increased to YRI 19.2 billion, constituting 4.8 per cent of the State’s total investment expenditures in 2007, compared with YRI 2.3 billion, equivalent to 1 per cent of the State’s total investment expenditures, in 2000.

392. Current expenditures on technical education and vocational training accounted for 17 per cent of total current expenditures in 2007, against 83 per cent of investment expenditures. By comparison, the proportion in 2003 stood at 46.1 per cent and 53.9 per cent of all current and investment expenditures, respectively. Investment expenditures on technical education are larger than the current expenditures on technical education in among other education systems because technical education is currently undergoing such massive expansion in terms of both the number of facilities and the amount of equipment and materials needed for modern facilities of that kind, to say nothing of the costliness of such equipment, materials and tools.

393. For further information on education indicators, see tables 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 and 58.

B. Leisure, recreation and cultural activities

394. The Ministry of Education is concerned with cultural activities, including theatre, cultural trips and competitions, and sports activities. It organizes a number of these activities on a yearly basis, both at home and abroad (see table 59, which shows the sports activities performed during the period 2001-2007 by type of activity and gender, and table 60, which shows participation in sports events abroad and rankings achieved by Yemen during the period 2000–2007).

395. The General Department of Children’s Culture was established at the Ministry of Culture in 1997 and its programmes were framed as part of the Ministry’s central programme and plan. The Department seeks to implement various provisions of the Convention relating to cultural matters and to build a specific culture for our children and revitalize the national heritage, with its culturally enriching multitude and diversity of sources. The aim is for children to absorb cognitive, visual and linguistic knowledge and messages and to communicate and innovate, enabling them to cope with the changing realities of everyday life. From 2004 to 2010, the General Department of Children’s Culture worked with families, schools, peer groups, cultural clubs and centres, Internet cafes and clubs, mosques and a number of civil society institutions.

369. In addition to giving children the opportunity to participate very actively in those programmes and activities, the Department provides them with free access to libraries, which play an important role in teaching children how to work alone, educate themselves and acquire a friendship with books. The Department also arranges visits to museums, archaeological and tourist sites, as well as exhibitions of children’s creative works and art, and it indeed organized numerous cultural activities during the period 2005–2007. In the same vein, the San`a Summer Tourism Festival was first launched in 2006 to 2007 as a collaborative enterprise between the Ministry of Tourism and the Ministry of Culture (Popular Arts and Theatre Section/General Department of Children’s Culture), the idea being for it to provide an ideal leisure space for children during the summer holidays.

397. Of these activities, the most prominent are as follows:

Activity
Details
Children’s drawing workshops
This activity has been instrumental to the implementation of article 31 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, placing emphasis as it does on the need to devote attention to children’s leisure, rest and access to worthwhile activities and programmes and to seeking out talented children in order to give them encouragement and attention and cater to their needs.
Participation in Arab and international exhibitions
Children with creative talents and skills took part in a number of Arab and international exhibitions on a variety of imaginative themes, some based on competition titles and entries;
These forums were designed to build links among a country’s children, strengthen the relationship and dialogue among them, impart to them essential knowledge and skills, motivate them to take on tasks and responsibilities in their home countries, teach them how to overcome challenges and changing realities, introduce them to each country’s popular customs, traditions, styles of dress and heritage, and honour the creative and cultural success of participants in the activities of the forum.
The General Department of Children’s Culture at the Ministry of Children’s Culture also took part in organizing the following activities with governmental and non-governmental stakeholder institutions and bodies:
• Approximately 50 charitable exhibitions each year in the schools of San`a governorate and San`a City;
• Some 50 school open-day activities;
• A total of 30 private school bazaars;
• Around 30 charity meals in schools;
• Roughly 120 different cultural activities each year;
• About 8 festivals;
• Some 20 puppet shows;
• Approximately 50 handicraft exhibitions.
Simple popular Yemeni games of various types were documented and a number of entities emerged onto the scene in Yemen to carry out studies and research and to revive and develop games still played by Yemeni children in addition to modern and sophisticated games geared to the changing environment and reality. A total of 120 popular games played by large numbers of children were identified in various governorates. Every year, over five million boys and girls also play games virtually identical to these in their local neighbourhoods, in their gardens at home and in public parks throughout all governorates.
Children’s plays
Seven children’s plays were staged, each attended by an audience of 200 boys and girls. Based on themes around religion, values, customs and traditions, the plays dealt with adverse social phenomena, education, love of one’s profession, obedience to parents, respect for others, and relationships between children and the persons surrounding them.
Participation in Arab forums abroad
Each Yemeni delegation comprises four members and a female supervisor. This year, the total number of participants amounted to 32 boys and girls aged between 8 and 14 years.
The creative areas in which work was submitted by Yemeni children participating in international events and forums were:
• Story-writing;
• Poetry;
• Essay-writing;
• Music and song;
• Religious song;
• Theatre;
• Invention and innovation.
Children’s books (free libraries)
The Yemeni Foundation for the Dissemination of Culture and Knowledge has 36 libraries located in various governments. A total of 25,000 children use these libraries, where they pursue such activities as reading, attending clubs and talks, and using the computer and Internet. Four children’s magazines and about 20 children’s book titles have also emerged.
The General Department of Children’s Culture has additionally published children’s books, opened young readers’ areas in public libraries and organized children’s book exhibitions.
Through the printed materials, magazines and books also published for children, the Department has sought to disseminate useful information and to raise awareness of matters that are harmful to children’s interests. The Department has devoted attention to programmes for constantly monitoring Internet sites and computer clubs accessed by children, some of which it closed down because they failed to comply with the law and breached the conditions attached to that type of activity. It has also endeavoured to monitor printed materials coming into the country through various points of entry, including airports, in order to prevent them from being circulated to children. Laws are furthermore in place to stop children from entering cinemas to watch adult films involving horror, violence, crime, terrorism and so on.
Children’s songs
A number of songs have been produced, some containing messages to strengthen belonging to and love of the homeland, and others covering religion, children’s rights, obedience to mothers, family cohesion, friendship, health, serious childhood diseases, the value of teachers, and customs and traditions.
Participation of children with disabilities
The General Department of Children’s Culture organized the first festival for persons with special needs (the Horizons of the

Spirit Festival), under the auspices of the President of the Republic, which brought the Ministry and the General Department together with special needs children in order to display their role in song, music, handicrafts, the visual arts and other types of art;

This Festival showcased special needs activities, threw the spotlight on talented and outstanding persons in the fields of equality and intellectual creativity, and brought out the spirit of dialogue and competition between this group and society. Some 50 associations from San`a City and various governorates also took part, displaying hand-made products, with the proceeds from their sale going to the associations and their workers.

398. The Ministry of Tourism has sought to ensure the protection of children by taking the necessary legal measures to protect them from exploitation and to guarantee their right to appropriate and equal opportunities for recreational activity. In short, legally binding measures are in place, including specifications whereby tourist hotels and facilities must provide children’s recreation areas in order to receive a classification, as follows:

I. Ministerial Decision No. 38 of 2006 concerning the regulation governing the activities of tourist hotel facilities, article 29, paragraph 6, of which refers to the “consistency of the rules for the recruitment and employment of personnel in the facility with the provisions, terms and requirements of the Labour Code”. Article 32, paragraph 2, also states that “underage residents are not allowed unless accompanied by family members or supervisors.”

II. The regulation governing the activities of tourist facilities serving food and recreation grounds, article 29 of the regulation governing the activities of hotel facilities, and Decision of the Prime Minister No. 307 of 2007 concerning the regulation on specifications for the tourist classification of hotel facilities, tourist accommodation, facilities serving food and drink and tourist parks, which lay down:

(a) Mandatory specifications for the classification and assessment of tourist hotels:

• Provision of a children’s playground;

(b) Specifications for the classification and assessment of out-of-town tourist resorts:

• Provision of a club for children in the 6–12 age group;

(c) Specifications for the classification and assessment of tourist villages in coastal areas:

• Provision of a heated swimming pool and a suitably sized children’s paddling pool;

• Provision of an open-air children’s playground;

• Provision of an indoor children’s playground;

(d) Specifications for the classification and assessment of residential hotels (hotel wings, towers, apartments and furnished rooms):

• Provision of a swimming pool and a small children’s paddling pool;

• Provision of suitable crèches and a garden with play equipment;

(e) Specifications for the classification and assessment of tourist restaurants of all grades:

• Provision of a special children’s corner equipped with (non-electric) toys and staffed by a childcare worker.

(See table 61, which shows the number of parks and leisure areas throughout the country.)

399. The Ministry of Tourism carried out a number of activities with a view to the implementation of article 31 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as shown in the following table.

Governorate
Activity
San`a
The San`a Summer Tourism Festival, which runs for one month each year, from mid-July to mid-August, and includes a variety of children’s events, including:
Children’s free drawing workshops, assorted games, information technology and singing competitions, other recreational activities, clown and magician shows, and a circus. This Festival caters fully to children through the free drawing workshops, cultural and recreational activities, intellectual and sports competitions, puppet shows, children’s cinema, art parties, fashion shows and local handicraft exhibitions.
As part of its approach to disseminating tourism awareness, the Ministry of Tourism formed a committee with the Ministry of Education for the purpose of incorporating tourism concepts into the basic school curricula.
Sa`dah
During the summer holidays, the Sa`dah Tourism Office collaborated with the Youth and Sports Office in organizing a number of recreational and cultural activities at the summer centres in the seat of the governorate, which included:
• Organizing awareness, guidance and educational talks on tourism and distributing brochures to participants;
• Organizing various excursions to tourist attractions and historical sites, such as the castles at Sinara and Qashlah, and to several other places in the governorate.
Aden
The Ministry of Tourism, represented by its Aden Office, is working hard to support those projects, which provide children with opportunities for rest, leisure and engagement in play and appropriate weekly activities. The Aden Tourism Office is working equally hard to put into practice the overall plan for developing a number of coastal paths, or corniches, as tourist attractions where children can move about freely and play. These include:
• The corniche along Golden Beach to the Tawahi district;
• The corniche along Abyan Beach to the Khurmaksar district;
• Baridiyah Beach to the Khaysah district;
• Ghadir;
• Khinjan Blue Beach.

Recent projects being implemented include:
• The Greater Aden park project, the basic idea of which is to:
• Increase green space in the city centre;
• Protect the environment from pollution;
• Provide rest and recreation places for children and youngsters;
• Provide essential facilities;
• Provide adequate space for recreational play facilities, such as sandpits;
• Promote respect for the natural environment.
The plans for Greater Aden park include a number of main activity areas for children and tourists, offering opportunities for rest, leisure and engagement in play and cultural and artistic pursuits, i.e., green grassy areas planted with trees, palm trees and jasmine, and visitors’ seating and rest areas surrounded by playgrounds and fixed play areas where children can learn motor skills, such as climbing, sliding and swinging. These areas are specifically designed for children under 10 years of age. The park also features an area for playing with electric toys. The project is to be implemented as a private sector investment project and will include an electric toy train, a toy airplane, a pirate ship and miniature cars. It also includes a modern children’s park and a public park, both in the Tawahi district, the new Hafun park in the Ma`alla district, and the Hafun play garden, also in the Ma`alla district.

IX. Special protection measures

A. Children in situations of emergency

Refugee children

400. The Republic of Yemen affirms its moral obligation towards refugees and its signing of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951 and the Protocol thereto of 1967. This is apparent from its hosting of hundreds of thousands of refugees (currently numbering approximately 800,000), the majority of whom are from Somalia and a smaller percentage from Ethiopia, Eritrea, Iraq, Palestine and elsewhere. Yemen has provided them with services and delivered their essential needs, within the limits of its resources and capabilities, and is continuing to do so in a sincere effort coordinated by the National Committee on Refugee Affairs.

401. Humanitarian assistance is also provided to refugees through various government ministries and agencies, including the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Public Health and Population, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour. A relationship of cooperation has evolved between the Government and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) for the provision of services to refugees and their children.

402. UNHCR helps to provide protection and care for children in the Republic of Yemen, both directly through its officials in Yemen and indirectly through cooperation with other United Nations offices and international organizations or local civil society organizations, which serve as implementing partners with UNHCR. The most important of these organizations are:

• Save the Children, which oversees education for refugee children in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and also provides services for refugee children with disabilities;

• The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), which provides social services for refugees and their children;

• Marie Stopes International, which provides health services for refugees and their children;

• The Social Solidarity Association, the Social Reform Association and the Mutual Solidarity Organization are all community organizations that contribute to the work of providing basic services in reception centres and camps, including health services and training, skills development and small loan programmes for refugee women in order to help them protect their children.

403. UNHCR, in cooperation with the Government and a number of implementing partners in San`a and Aden, has executed a number of programmes aimed essentially at supporting children most in need of assistance, applying the criteria used in dealing with refugee children, especially children unaccompanied by a parent or guardian, in accordance with the guidelines on assistance to refugee children published by UNHCR in 2006. The guidelines contain appropriate criteria for providing assistance and protection to refugee children, for safeguarding their enjoyment of civil, economic, social and cultural freedoms and rights, and for ensuring respect for the overarching principles governing the rights guaranteed to children under the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

404. The Ministry of Human Rights, working in cooperation with UNHCR, organized a training course for enhancing awareness of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the Protocol thereto. Designed for government entities working with refugees, the course covered the specific needs of women, children and refugees.

Measures taken

Protection and humanitarian assistance for refugee children to guarantee enjoyment of their legal rights under the Convention

Food and food supplies

405. Food supplies are made available to all refugee children, in cooperation with WFP, as are the necessities of daily life, including cleaning tools, cooking utensils and items needed for their accommodation in the camps, such as bedding, blankets and the like. These supplies are provided under a system of monthly food ration cards issued in the names of women heads of household to ensure that the food reaches the children.

Education and vocational training

406. Refugee children in Yemen enjoy the right to education, just as Yemeni children do. The Ministry of Education has appointed education coordinators for the camps and, in cooperation with other implementing partners, it supports the education process, providing teachers, training and further training, as well as school buildings fit for purpose in the camps and in refugee settlements in Aden governorate. The Ministry also provides refugee pupils with school textbooks and with school meals in the case of those enrolled in basic schools. It additionally organizes short courses in vocational training institutions for refugee children over 15 years of age who have dropped out of school (see table 62 showing the number of refugee pupils attending educational and vocational facilities in camps and in neighbouring areas and villages in Lahij and Aden governorates during the 2007 school year).

407. The Government and UNHCR also have a coordinated approach to setting up nurseries for children of refugee women in cooperation with various community organizations.

Health and health care services

408. Whether living in camps or cities, refugee children enjoy health care services on an equal footing with Yemenis. Large numbers of refugees live in urban areas, such as Basatin in Aden governorate and the capital, San`a. Refugee women give birth in government hospitals, where they are treated in the same way as women who are Yemeni citizens.

409. In Kharaz refugee camp, the mortality rate among children aged between 1 and 28 days is zero, while among those aged under 5 it is 1 per cent. Working in cooperation with UNHCR and the Social Reform Association (a charitable organization) in Kharaz refugee camp in Lahij governorate and in Basatin in Aden governorate, and also through Marie Stopes International in the capital San`a, the Ministry of Health provides refugee children and their families with health care services, primary health care services, maternal and child health care (including pre- and postnatal care), reproductive health services, immunization against the five childhood diseases, health awareness and guidance, nutrition programmes for tuberculosis patients and pregnant women, transfer to government hospitals and follow-up for serious cases.

410. During the reporting period, a total of 43,053 refugees, including children and the offspring of Yemenis returning from Somalia, benefited from the health care services provided by the Social Reform Association, working in coordination with the Ministry of Health and UNHCR in Kharaz refugee camp in Lahij governorate and in the Basatin area of Aden governorate (see table 63 for a breakdown of the numbers of recipients of each type of service).

Adolescent health

411. The Government, in cooperation with UNICEF and a number of entities concerned with refugee issues, has expanded programmes for increasing AIDS awareness. Various community bodies have also played a significant role in this connection; the Social Reform Association, in cooperation with UNHCR and UNICEF, has implemented peer education programmes about AIDS in the areas of Basatin in Aden governorate and in Kharaz refugee camp in Lahij governorate. A total of 348 refugee children have participated in these programmes.

412. Two youth committees have been established, one in Aden governorate and one in Kharaz refugee camp, and a youth empowerment programme has been implemented under the supervision of Save the Children Sweden. Participants in the programme received life and leadership skills training. These committees organize, on a partnership basis, various sports, cultural and awareness activities for adolescent refugees.

413. In 2007, there were approximately 77 children with disabilities in Kharaz camp, of whom 45 were boys and 32 girls. Save the Children supervises the delivery of services to these children, which are as follows:

• CBR through three women community workers who take children with disabilities and then teach their families how to cope with them and give them physiotherapy training to help their children;

• Health care services for children with disabilities are delivered through health clinics in the camps, which provide the children with any prosthetic equipment that they may need. The Centre for Persons with Special Needs, which is attached to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour and operates in Aden governorate, provides such equipment free of charge;

• Action in coordination with schools in the camp to integrate children with disabilities into the mainstream school system.

Games and recreational activities

414. Recreational activities are available to refugee children in the camps through kindergartens and social centres, which organize sports matches, games of various kinds and television programmes that promote their access to information. UNHCR arranges recreational games and sports for children in the camps. Refugee children also participate in celebrations and festivals held on various occasions, such as World Refugee Day and the International Day of the African Child, among others.

Documentation, registration and birth certificates of refugee children

415. Most refugee children in Yemen are of Somali nationality. Pre-adolescent children are registered with their families or relatives or alone by UNHCR at the reception centres in the camps. Initial registration forms are issued to them so that they can be registered individually and obtain their own refugee card.

416. Refugee children other than Somali nationals are registered and directed to UNHCR offices to apply for refugee status.

417. With respect to birth certificates for refugee children, all those born in camps are systematically issued with a birth certificate by the camp health clinic. Refugee children born in urban areas are treated in the same way as Yemeni children in that their birth certificates are issued through the urban branches of the Department of Civil Status in the region of their birth.

Protection of refugees from violence, abuse and sexual exploitation

Children in conflict with the law

418. Refugee children in conflict with the law are dealt with in accordance with the principles and measures provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice, and domestic laws and legislation. The same legal proceedings are followed in their cases as for Yemeni children in conflict with the law; their cases are heard by juvenile courts and non-custodial measures are imposed on them or they are placed in juvenile care homes where their interests so require. They are also provided with pro bono legal aid during legal proceedings to ensure that they are protected from any violence, abuse or violation of their rights. During the period 2006–2007, 40 children were placed in juvenile homes.

Sexual exploitation

419. UNHCR and its implementing partners, including the Government and community associations, are acting to deal with the issues of violence and sexual exploitation. Measures being taken to protect refugee children from both include the following:

• UNHCR has developed guidelines for tackling sexual violence, which are the authoritative reference for UNHCR and its partners when dealing with incidents of sexual violence;

• Any refugee child who may be subjected to sexual exploitation receives medical, psychological, legal and social assistance, provided by the UNHCR Social Affairs and Protection Division in cooperation with implementing partners, including governmental and community entities. UNHCR also has lawyers to follow up such cases with the competent authorities;

• UNHCR provides continuing training for its implementing partners in this area, using the standard guidelines issued by its Geneva office in Arabic and English;

• Awareness of the issue is also disseminated directly among refugees and those who work with them, through UNHCR and its implementing partners, in order to encourage reporting of incidents involving the sexual exploitation of children to the appropriate authorities.

Refugee children unaccompanied by legal guardians or separated from their families

420. Refugee children who are either unaccompanied or separated from their families come to Yemen in order to join their relatives there, get an education or go to the Gulf States in the hope of finding work to help their families.

421. In 2007, a total of 53 refugee children who were unaccompanied or separated from their families were registered, including 18 in San`a, 19 in the Basatin area of Aden governorate (9 boys and 10 girls), and 16 in Kharaz refugee camp (9 boys and 7 girls).

422. A number of measures have been taken to protect children in this category and ensure their safety. UNHCR, working in cooperation with a number of its implementing partners, has undertaken various actions based on its current guidelines, which include:

• The appointment of a responsible person to provide these children with care and assistance. This person is the connecting link for following up and appropriately resolving cases of unaccompanied refugee children;

• The establishment of a UNHCR database and a unit for dealing with the files of children registered under this programme;

• The organization of special sessions for these children, of consultations with them and the families responsible for their care, and of continuing home visits with a view to assessing their situation and seeking first and foremost to help them.

423. As an implementing partner, ADRA devised an effective system for identifying unaccompanied children, who are hosted and placed with alternative families within the refugee community. It provides basic services for them and material assistance for the alternative families. Specialists in San`a and Aden enrol these children in schools and provide psychological guidance and follow-up services. Such children are also followed up directly by UNHCR offices and any dropouts among them who are above the minimum employment age attend language and vocational training courses so as to equip them for self-reliance in the long term.

Measures taken to guarantee respect for the principles of the Convention in the case of refugee children

424. The general principles relating to the rights of the child are observed in the provision of services and programmes for refugee children in Yemen, regardless of whether they are provided by UNHCR or by its implementing partners in the form of either the Government or community associations. The refugee child’s right to life, survival and development is safeguarded through services in the fields of health care, education, culture, free immunization against diseases, and the enjoyment of all services provided to Yemeni children.

425. Consideration is also given to the best interests of refugee children in Yemen. UNHCR has published the final version of its Guidelines on Determining the Best Interests of the Child, which are used by UNHCR and its implementing partners to determine the best interests of refugee children and take measures accordingly. Unaccompanied refugee children are never abandoned or returned to their countries of origin unless their best interests so require. The best interests of the child are also considered when choosing an alternative family for an unaccompanied child in that the ethnic characteristics of the alternative family are taken into account, as is the child’s religion.

426. With respect to the principle of non-discrimination, refugee children in Yemen are treated in the same way as Yemeni children. Measures taken to that end include the issuance of birth certificates free of charge to refugee children, as in the case of Yemeni children, and access to health care services at government hospitals in serious cases. Refugee children in conflict with the law are also treated as if they were Yemeni children.

427. Programmes for refugee children, whether delivered by UNHCR or by implementing partners, observe the principle that refugee children must be involved in planning projects and programmes and in matters relating to the various aspects of their life, be it health, education or protection. UNHCR engages refugee children of both sexes as partners in the annual evaluation of these programmes and projects.

Challenges and difficulties

428. The challenges and difficulties are exemplified in the following:

• The matter of organizing special sessions for and consultations with these children and the families responsible for their care, in addition to continuing home visits with a view to assessing their situation and seeking above all to help them;

• Harmful traditional practices such as FGM, early marriage and the denial of education to girls are widespread among the refugee population. Greater efforts, particularly in the area of awareness-raising, will be required if these practices are to be overcome;

• Refugee children drop out of school for a number of reasons, mainly either because of custom and tradition and the fact that older children have to look after the younger ones where the father is absent and the mother goes out to work, or in order to work and help their families;

• Awareness campaigns are continually needed in order to expand protection programmes, birth registration and the services and recreational activities available to refugee children, which are still limited and require much support;

• Budgets earmarked for refugees are still grossly inadequate, and because of Yemen’s current difficult economic situation, programmes for improving the income of the families of refugee children receive only minimal support from the State. The inadequacy of these budgets in turn impedes the implementation of programmes aimed at providing refugees with optimal care.

B. Children in armed conflicts (art. 38), including physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration (art. 39)

429. During the period 2004–2010, the Republic of Yemen experienced an insurgency by illegal armed groups, who launched attacks on citizens, drove them out of their home regions, stirred up sectarian strife and engaged in hold-ups, looting, acts of destruction and killing of citizens in Sa`dah governorate (in the north of the country), triggering action by the Government, which performed its duty to tackle this armed insurgency and protect lives and private and public property until military operations ceased and the unrest ended in 2008. Citizens returned to their homes and extensive relief work began in the affected areas, where services and assistance were delivered to citizens, including children.

Indicators

430. No accurate statistics of the population affected by this unrest are available. Preliminary estimates indicate, however, that some 80,000 persons were affected. Other losses were also calculated by the Government; damage was inflicted on 4,141 homes, 88 farms and 210 public facilities, including schools, health centres and water and electricity projects.

431. The recorded statistics available on the number of affected children show that there are 1,100 children in the camps set up in safe areas for displaced persons and affected families in Sa`dah governorate. Five such camps were established, among them one housing 475 families comprising 3,250 individuals, including 800 children, and another housing 138 families comprising 700 individuals, including approximately 300 children.

432. Some 500 children were homeless or took up agricultural employment. Approximately 23 children who were either orphaned or separated from their families were registered in the camps.

433. With a view to creating a mechanism for monitoring cases of children affected by armed conflict, the Charitable Medical Association carried out a UNICEF-funded psychosocial survey of such children. The survey found that 92 per cent of the sample of 1,400 individuals, including 630 children, had witnessed armed conflict; 44 per cent had been forced to disappear in order to save their lives; 43 per cent had witnessed the destruction of their homes or the homes of friends; 28 per cent had almost lost their lives; 15 per cent had been injured; 13.8 per cent had lost at least one family member; 10 per cent had been unable to find a family member considered missing; 53 per cent suffered symptoms of severe depression; and 49 per cent suffered post-traumatic symptoms.

Measures taken

434. In seeking to comply with the rules of international humanitarian law during armed conflict, the Republic of Yemen has taken a number of legislative and administrative measures, as follows:

• It ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict;

• It established the National Committee on International Humanitarian Law, which includes among its membership a number of relevant governmental and non-governmental bodies;

• It has endeavoured to disseminate the principles of international humanitarian law and of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, and a number of those concerned have received training in this area (see table 64, which shows activities carried out in this connection).

435. In the context of steps to identify and treat cases of children affected by armed conflict in Sa`dah governorate, NGOs have carried out a substantial number of activities and relief efforts. In addition to the survey and the investigative study conducted by the Charitable Medical Association, for instance, the Social Reform Association undertook a survey on malnutrition among children in affected areas, which showed that 3.8 per cent were acutely malnourished and 11.8 per cent were moderately malnourished. Children were given micronutrients distributed by the Association and supplied by UNICEF. Also taking part in the relief efforts were such charitable associations as the Yemen Red Crescent Society, the Sa`dah Women’s Association, the Yemen Women’s Union and the charitable Social Reform Association.

436. The Yemeni Government and some NGOs also took various measures, outlined below, to protect inhabitants and children and to implement urgent development activities.

437. During the periods 2005–2006 and 2007–2008, the Government, through the Ministry of Public Health and Population, undertook complementary partnership work in development and emergency assistance whereby the Ministry ran medical treatment campaigns and campaigns for the expanded distribution of free drugs, the treatment of common children’s diseases, such as diarrhoea, and inoculation against poliomyelitis. The Ministry also established three clinics for delivering treatment to displaced and conflict-affected persons.

438. In addition, the Government expedited the delivery of assistance and development efforts provided by international organizations and local NGOs, including ICRC, the Yemen Red Crescent Society and WFP, during the period 2005–2008.

439. In 2005, ICRC and the Yemen Red Crescent Society swiftly provided food supplies and assistance benefiting 3,500 displaced persons, including children. The supplies consisted of essential items for shelter, such as tents, blankets, bedding, cooking utensils and cleaning materials. Five health care centres were also supplied with first-aid items. During the ensuing years, the Yemen Red Crescent Society provided emergency assistance for 39,000 persons and members of their families, including children, consisting of items needed for accommodation and daily living in the camps for displaced persons, such as tents, blankets, bedding and water canisters. First-aid items were likewise supplied to six health centres used by 5,200 persons.

440. Four water tanks were also supplied and health clinics were equipped for dealing with children under five years of age in the camps. These clinics helped to treat common diseases in 4,500 persons, a great many of them children.

441. Further, ICRC and the Yemen Red Crescent Society both delivered assistance and household essentials, such as tents, cloths, bedding, blankets, water cans and cleaning implements, to tens of thousands of victims, in particular those returning to their own areas and their damaged homes. Some 13,000 children benefited, including those returning to stability in their places of origin in Hayran district, one of the most devastated areas. Drinking water was also supplied to 5,000 victims, including children.

442. In addition to this, water cisterns were built in the damaged Dahyan district, 4,000 water filters were distributed to displaced persons, mobile clinics were set up and ambulances were supplied, all to the benefit of 13,000 persons.

443. A number of civil society organization, notably the Saleh Foundation for Social Development, the Social Reform Association for Development and the Charitable Medical Association, provided further relief assistance, which included essential household items, food, tents, health services and treatment. They also ran breastfeeding awareness campaigns for mothers and provided other relief and emergency assistance from which thousands of adults and children benefited.

Negotiations and special measures taken by the Government and its repeated attempts to end the armed conflict and bring peace and calm to the entire country

444. The State strived to end the armed conflict by taking the following measures:

• Forming a mediation committee composed of leaders, local chiefs, dignitaries and community figures;

• Proclaiming a general amnesty;

• Forming a mediation committee from the State of Qatar, declaring military operation zones safe and calling on displaced persons to return.

New policies and programmes for addressing the impact of armed conflict in general, including the physical and psychological impact on children

445. The Yemeni Government elaborated a number of policies and programmes for addressing the impact and damage caused by the conflict in Sa`dah governorate. These included programmes for dealing with the physical and psychological impact on children, which were supported by international organizations in the form of activities implemented by various NGOs in Sa`dah governorate, in conjunction with families and the community. Some of these policies and programmes are described below.

446. Plans, operating mechanisms, structures and coordinating committees were created in order to take stock of the impact and damage and coordinate the recovery efforts. In this respect, a fund for reconstruction of the conflict-affected areas in Sa`dah governorate was established and credited by the Government with the financial resources for implementing the recovery and reconstruction programmes.

447. A number of competent committees were formed, including:

• A supreme committee for dealing with the impact and consequences of the events and with the reconstruction of the conflict-affected areas, presided over by the Prime Minister and composed of competent ministers;

• A committee for taking stock of the impact and damage caused by the conflict (earlier described in the section on indicators), which presented its findings to the Government;

• A committee for following up implementation of the long-term execution programme for recovery and reconstruction, presided over by the Minister of Local Administration and composed of officials from the Government and the local authorities in Sa`dah governorate.

448. The Government also formulated an execution programme for dealing with the impact and consequences of the events in Sa`dah governorate, which was rolled out in mid-2008. Most government agencies and bodies play a part in implementing the programme activities, as do local councils and some of the NGOs in Sa`dah governorate. Certain international organizations and donor agencies also support some of the activities, which are broken down into a number of core areas focused on the reconstruction of affected service, education and health projects and electricity, water and road projects; improving the socioeconomic situation of families affected by the armed conflict; poverty alleviation; building homes for families whose homes were damaged; and expanding the social security umbrella to include a larger number of affected vulnerable families.

449. In this respect, social security assistance was approved and disbursed to 33,154 recipients by the Social Security Fund, which falls under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour. The Fund also exceptionally approved monthly living allowances for 43 Jewish Yemenis and their children from Al Salim in Sa`dah governorate, thereby underlining the principle of non-discrimination in dealing with religious minorities in the armed conflict zone, who are treated equally with other citizens.

450. The execution programme elaborated by the Government also includes activities for protecting children and addressing the psychosocial impact on them in the aftermath of conflict. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour signed a work plan with UNICEF, in 2008, comprising a number of activities for protecting children in the armed conflict zone in Sa`dah governorate, including activities for dealing with the psychological impact on them. These activities are being implemented with the assistance of several NGOs in the governorate.

Programmes for addressing the physical and psychological impact of conflict on children

451. A number of health-promoting activities have been implemented with a view to addressing the physical impact of conflict on children. Some of these activities are outlined below.

452. The Yemen Red Crescent Society, with ICRC support, organized mobile clinics and ambulances to provide health care and medical services to displaced children in the Anad and Sam camps. New mobile clinics were also set up in Baqlat camp in February 2008. Having been renovated and supplied with equipment and medication, the Qatabir health centre now delivers treatment services to 23,000 displaced persons, including children.

453. Again with ICRC support, the Yemen Red Crescent Society provided five mobile clinics to address the needs of those living in camps as a result of being made homeless by the conflict. These five mobile clinics have been instrumental in delivering health care to children under five years of age.

454. The Ministry of Health also continued to supply medications, free of charge, for treating common diseases and diarrhoea in children and to inoculate children against poliomyelitis. Three health clinics have been established for examining and treating displaced persons and their children.

455. In addition, the Care and Rehabilitation Fund for Persons with Disabilities, which falls under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, provides financial and material assistance to persons with disabilities who are affected by armed conflict, whether children or members of their families, in coordination with the Care Society for Persons with Disabilities in Sa`dah governorate. The financial assistance provided is to cover the cost of surgery, medication, physiotherapy and functional therapy in cases of need. The material assistance entails the supply of wheelchairs, crutches, walkers, prostheses and help for treatment abroad in cases where surgery unavailable in Yemen is required.

Treatment of the psychological impact of conflict on children

456. In early 2008, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour signed a work plan with UNICEF comprising activities for dealing with the psychological impact of conflict on children. In order to ensure that these activities were carried out at the family and community levels, a number of associations were given the authority to implement them. Some of these activities are outlined below.

457. The Charitable Medical Association delivered training courses for 70 personnel from the health and education sectors, NGOs and local councils in the armed conflict zone on how to deal with persons suffering psychological problems as a result of the conflict. These trainers were sent to the conflict-affected areas to teach inhabitants and families how to offer psychological support to children and persons affected by the conflict. The final phase of the programme is targeted at 1,000 families and 5,000 children. As to those suffering from severe psychological trauma as a result of the conflict, if the initial psychological support and treatment received in their home areas is inadequate, they are referred to specialists in the capital or main towns for more specialized psychological recovery and treatment.

458. The psychological and educational support programme for displaced children between 6 and 15 years of age living in camps in Sa`dah governorate is being implemented by the Sa`dah Women’s Association, with UNHCR funding, to the benefit of 800 boys and girls affected by the conflict.

459. With a view to alleviating the effects of post-conflict psychological trauma, a number of sports, recreational and cultural activities have been arranged for displaced children in the camps, where toys and spaces for play have been organized so that the children can enjoy their right to play and do not remain isolated in the camps. The Sa`dah Women’s Association, supported by UNICEF, provided toys for 288 children and the Yemen Red Crescent Society also set up various children’s games in the camps, likewise with UNICEF support.

460. The Sa`dah Women’s Association is additionally implementing a cultural, sports and awareness programme for children and women in the camps, which involves recreational activities, including a puppet theatre and a play about protecting children against smuggling, child labour, violence and family neglect, as well as activities to raise health and environment awareness. Some 3,000 children and women affected by the armed conflict are benefiting from this programme (see table 64, which shows training courses implemented for persons working with children affected by armed conflict).

Allocated budget

461. In its budget for 2009, the Yemeni Government allocated the sum of YRI 10 billion for reconstruction of the areas damaged by the armed conflict in Sa`dah governorate.

International organizations

462. The international organizations mentioned below also contributed the following sums:

• ICRC: Unspecified;

• The European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO): $1.57 million for health and sanitation services and food supplies (on the authorization of the ECHO Director-General)

• WFP: $1.7 million for three months of food aid during 2007;

• UNHCR: Unspecified;

• UNICEF: Approximately YRI 32.2 million during 2008 for child protection and for dealing with the psychological impact on children in the aftermath of conflict, in addition to YRI 27 million for studies carried out and material assistance provided by the Charitable Medical Association during 2007.

Difficulties and challenges encountered

463. Difficulties and challenges encountered are as follows:

• The inadequacy of the government budgets earmarked for the protection and recovery of child victims of the armed conflict in Sa`dah governorate;

• The poor capacities of those working at the central and local levels in the field of planning and coordinating programmes for the protection of children during armed conflict;

• The problems of poverty, unemployment, the growth of child labour and the emergence of child smuggling in the armed conflict zones in Sa`dah governorate;

• The absence of centres specializing in the psychosocial protection and recovery of children subjected to exploitation, violence and smuggling in Sa`dah governorate.

C. Children in conflict with the law

Administration of juvenile justice

464. The Government continued to develop programmes to protect children in conflict with the law in order to guarantee the rights of every child to whom the juvenile justice system set forth in the Convention on the Rights of the Child and in other relevant international instruments applies. Measures to that end include in particular those outlined below.

Legislative measures

465. The Juvenile Welfare Act was reviewed and draft amendments to a number of articles were submitted to the House of Representatives after they had been approved by the Government. Four new articles were also drafted for addition to the Act, specifically:

• Article 1 bis, which defines a juvenile, for the purposes of the Act, as any person who was over 10 and under 18 when he or she was at risk of delinquency or considered a danger to society or committed an unlawful act;

• Article 4 bis, which defines a juvenile at risk of delinquency as a person who:

(a) Commits, participates in or facilitates the commission of any act defined in the Penal Code as a criminal offence;

(b) Commits an act associated with prostitution, indecency, depravity, immorality, gambling or drugs, or knowingly works for someone involved in such activities. In all instances, the measures prescribed in article 36 of the Act shall be imposed on juveniles below the age of 15. If the juvenile is over 15, the penalties in article 37 shall be imposed;

• Article 12 bis, which states that, in an investigation into an assault on a juvenile, testimony must be taken from the victim, in the presence of a social worker, at the home of the parents, legal guardian or testamentary tutor or at a juvenile rehabilitation and care home;

• Article 46 bis of the regulation, which sets out the rules on the following matters:

(a) The working methods of social workers, experts and probation officers;

(b) The procedures for transferring and accompanying minors from one area to another in Yemen and abroad;

(c) The conditions for granting leave and visits;

(d) The procedures for transferring minors with psychological disorders, learning difficulties or disabilities to treatment centres.

466. Concerning the amendments made to articles of the Juvenile Welfare Act, the Children’s Rights Act and the Penal Code, they lay emphasis on guaranteeing the rights of children in conflict with the law. Such children must be treated in manner that safeguards their dignity, strengthens their respect for the rights of others, takes account of the difference in the level of criminal responsibility based on the age of the child, and promotes children’s social reintegration (see the draft amendments).

467. In addition, a presidential decree concerning a regulation on the organization of the Ministry of Justice was issued, setting out the terms of reference for the technical bureau. The terms of reference include mention of children, in particular efforts to improve conditions for children in detention or placed in correctional facilities and offer legal guarantees to ensure that their treatment is consistent with domestic laws and international treaties.

468. Internal regulations for juvenile care and rehabilitation facilities were also drafted, incorporating key child rights principles and the United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty.

Progress achieved

Structures and institutions

469. Work in the area of juvenile justice has been expanded through the establishment of new authorities, institutions and procedures, represented in two new juvenile courts, staffed with two members of the juvenile prosecution service, in Hajjah and Abyan governorates.

470. A presidential decree establishing the General Department of Juvenile Police at the Ministry of the Interior was also issued. Three branches of the Department were set up, in the governorates of Ta`izz, Hudaydah and San`a, and staffed with trained women police officers. A women’s and children’s affairs section was also created as part of the technical bureau at the Ministry of Justice.

471. The work of social care facilities was similarly expanded with the establishment of two new institutions providing social guidance for girls in Ta`izz and Aden governorates and another for boys in Hajjah governorate. Two probation and child protection offices were established in Ta`izz and Hudaydah governorates.

472. The Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, in cooperation and collaboration with relevant bodies, took steps to improve conditions for children in conflict with the law and to establish the National Child Protection Network to tend to the welfare of such children. The Network’s purpose is to:

• Improve conditions for children in conflict with the law and minimize the number of children in circumstances liable to place them in conflict with the law;

• Coordinate efforts by the competent authorities to care for and protect juveniles in the framework of a joint action plan;

• Support, assist and follow up on relevant activities and projects;

• Raise public awareness of children’s rights.

473. The members of this Network include government ministries, governmental organizations and NGOs involved in caring for and protecting children in conflict with the law, in addition to such donors as SFD, UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden.

474. NGOs and civil society organizations are involved in running juvenile homes and encouraged to join in supporting and developing juvenile protection programmes, either in care institutions or in other related activities.

Training and capacity-building

476. With support from UNICEF, a training manual (the Amal manual) was developed for those working in the field of juvenile justice and has been in use since 2006.

477. Juvenile justice personnel have received training and capacity-building to improve their knowledge of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, other relevant international instruments and domestic laws. They have also received specialist training in legal, social and psychological aspects of their work. Targeting judges, members of the Department of Public Prosecutions, the police, social experts, lawyers and representatives of relevant civil society organizations, these courses covered areas including:

• Legal protection of juveniles in accordance with domestic legislation, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and United Nations rules and principles concerning juveniles;

• Skills development for persons working with juveniles in the areas of social services and provision of psychosocial support;

• Promotion of non-custodial measures and community-based measures;

• Awareness briefings and seminars for personnel working with juveniles on children’s rights under domestic legislation and international treaties;

• Participation in fact-finding missions abroad to learn from the experiences of other countries in the area of juvenile protection and care.

478. In partnership with members of the Network and with support from UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour coordinated and carried out field missions to a number of friendly sister countries (Jordan, Malaysia and Indonesia) in order to learn from their experiences and exchange expertise in the field of juvenile justice.

479. With respect to the joint database established with UNICEF support by the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, it is not yet up and running because those concerned at the Ministry of the Interior are not convinced that it is adequately secured against infiltration and hacking.

Observance of child rights principles in juvenile justice

480. From the statistics on record at the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, it is clear that the number of cases of children in conflict with the law declines as the stages progress inasmuch as fewer cases are presented to the Department of Public Prosecutions than are registered by the police and court sentencing occurs in fewer cases than are brought by the Department of Public Prosecutions. This confirms that child rights principles, in particular that of the best interests of the child, are taken into account in dealing with such cases, the aim being to guarantee an appropriate protective environment for the child’s rehabilitation and social reintegration, which also reflects the commitment.

Children deprived of their liberty, including through any form of detention, imprisonment or placement in a custodial facility (art. 37)

481. The child-related laws and the draft amendments to such laws emphasize that no juvenile under 15 years of age may be held at a police station or any other security facility but must be entrusted to the supervision of his legal guardian, testamentary tutor or authorized representative, or otherwise be placed in the nearest rehabilitation and care home for a period of not more than 24 hours, if his release is considered to pose a danger to himself or others, and referred thereafter to the Department of Public Prosecutions for his situation to be considered in accordance with the provisions of the law. Where necessary in the case of a serious offence, a juvenile over 15 years of age may be held at a police station for a period of not more than 24 hours and in a place that precludes him from mixing with other detainees who are older than him. If the charge against a juvenile is such that he must remain in custody, the competent prosecution office may order that he be placed in a juvenile rehabilitation and care home and be presented whenever requested, provided that the placement is for no more than one week, unless the court orders an extension of that period. Alternatively, the juvenile may be delivered into the care of a parent, guardian or testamentary tutor, who must safeguard him and present him whenever requested to do so. This procedure must be followed if the juvenile cannot be placed in a rehabilitation and care home.

482. With respect to the death penalty, article 31 of the Penal Code sets the age of criminal responsibility in order to protect children against the death penalty, stating that children under 18 years of age who commit an offence are not held criminally responsible. If an offence carries the death penalty, juveniles are sentenced to imprisonment for a term of between 3 and 10 years. In all cases, the sentence is served in specific locations where the offender is afforded appropriate treatment. If the age of the accused cannot be verified, it is estimated by the judge, with the assistance of an expert. The death penalty in our country has never been carried out on any child and a review is undertaken in cases where a juvenile’s age is difficult to ascertain, with the President of the Republic intervening to stay any sentence of this kind where the offender’s age has not been accurately determined.

Monitoring and follow-up

483. With support from UNICEF and Save the Children Sweden, field visits to the governorates are conducted by members of the national network for protecting children in conflict with the law in order to evaluate the situation of such children in judicial institutions (prisons, courts, guidance homes, public prosecution offices and police stations) and check that they are receiving care and protection. A report was submitted to the entities and institutions concerned in order for them to implement its recommendations.

484. The Ministry of Human Rights follows up on children in conflict with the law, visiting central prisons, social care homes and juvenile justice institutions as part of its annual plan. It also ensures follow-up through the General Department for Communications and Complaints and the activities of the Welfare and Reform Department.

485. Children take part in monitoring the conditions of children in juvenile justice institutions, as members of the Children’s Parliament conduct on-site visits and meetings with these children, both periodically and on an impromptu basis. Their recommendations are then submitted to the relevant authorities via the Democracy School.

486. For detailed statistics on the number of children and type of cases by age, gender and governorate, see the following tables:

• Tables 65 (a) and (b) showing cases heard before the juvenile courts in some of the country’s governorates;

• Table 66 showing juvenile court statistics for the period 2004–2007;

• Tables 67 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f), which show statistics on the number of juveniles in social guidance homes and type of delinquency during the period 2003–2007.

Children placed in prison

487. Children in the 15-18 age group are placed in separate wards in main correctional facilities on the basis of the age of juveniles as defined in the current laws, as the draft amendments emphasizing that children up to the age of 18 must enjoy the rights afforded under the Convention on the Rights of the Child to children in conflict with the laws have not yet been approved. A number of considerations are nonetheless taken into account when dealing with such children, including:

(a) Their segregation from adult prisoners and placement in separate wards where their privacy is respected;

(b) Access to educational, health and cultural services and skills training.

(See table 68, which shows the number of children in prison during the period 2003–2008).

Care for children living with their mothers in prison

488. Children under two years of age are kept with their mothers in prison, as it is in the best interests of children of this age to stay with their mothers. Thereafter, children are handed over to a guardian, if there is one. Prisons have a special children’s area, where there is a library housing children’s storybooks, a television and children’s toys. The Central Prison Administration in San`a pays for the children’s milk and food every month and other entities, including the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Human Rights, the Saleh Foundation and charities, provide milk, soap, biscuits and other forms of assistance (see table 69, which shows the number of children living with their mothers in prison during the period 2003–2008).

Social welfare

489. Social guidance homes provide welfare, psychological recovery and social reintegration services and activities for child offenders between the ages of 7 and 15. The programmes and services concerned consist in:

• Social welfare (accommodation, food and clothing);

• Psychological recovery;

• Education services;

• Health services;

• Religious guidance and counselling;

• Cultural, recreational and sports activities;

• Training and vocational rehabilitation.

490. There are 10 social guidance homes offering care and rehabilitation for juveniles. Seven of them are boys’ homes, located in San`a City and in the governorates of Aden, Ta`izz, Ibb, Hudaydah and Hadramawt, and three are girls’ homes located in San`a City and Aden. These homes have the capacity to take in 450 juveniles. A home for girls in conflict with the law was opened in Ta`izz governorate in mid-2008 (see table 70).

491. In 2005, approximately 956 juveniles benefited from the services provided by these homes. In 2006, the number of boys and girls benefiting was approximately 917 and in 2007 it amounted to a total of 1,304 (see tables 67 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f), which show statistics on the number of juveniles in social guidance homes and type of delinquency during the period 2003-2008).

Probation and child protection programme

492. This is one of the new action programmes first implemented in mid-2007 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, in cooperation with the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood. Two probation and child protection centres have been established as a pilot project in Ta`izz and Hudaydah governorates with the aim of:

• Protecting juveniles from exposure to the risk of delinquency and from violence, abuse and exploitation;

• Encouraging law enforcement agencies to use non-custodial measures in juvenile cases in order to facilitate the rehabilitation of juvenile offenders in the family and community setting;

• Providing aftercare for juvenile offenders who have received and served a custodial sentence and helping them to reintegrate into their families and communities, thereby making it less likely that they will reoffend;

• Promoting community participation in child protection programmes and developing community-based alternatives for protecting children from delinquency and helping to reintegrate child offenders and protect them from violence, abuse and exploitation.

493. The work of these centres is focused on community participation. The different activities carried out in this context included: (a) A survey of all community members whose participation in the programme would be an asset, including local chiefs, dignitaries and councillors, head teachers and mosque imams, with whom advisory meetings were then held to explain the idea behind the programme and the input that would be required from them towards turning around child delinquency and protecting children from violence and abuse; and (b) The subsequent organization of various training programmes for local community members participating in the programme in order to enhance their skills in protecting children from delinquency or potential violence and abuse.

494. After the programme was launched, meetings were held in Ta`izz and Hudaydah to review and assess the level of involvement of local community representatives in protecting children who fall into delinquency or are subjected to violence and abuse on the street or in the home. In approximately 80 per cent of cases of juvenile offending in the two governorates in 2008, prosecution offices and juvenile courts were found to have employed non-custodial measures. Local community members took part in monitoring the juveniles concerned in their family and community settings and also helped to protect children found to be at risk of violence, including child victims of domestic violence.

Main difficulties and problems in working with juveniles

495. Various difficulties and problems are encountered in working with juveniles, in particular:

• The adoption of the draft amendments to the Juvenile Welfare Act has been delayed in the House of Representatives;

• Juvenile care homes are understaffed;

• The budgets allocated to juveniles care homes are still somewhat limited, especially with respect to spending on vocational, cultural and recreational activities;

• The internal rules and the job descriptions for those working in juvenile homes are inadequate and the intention now is to start work on improving them;

• The aftercare programme is inadequate and, because there is no mechanism for implementing it, some juveniles reoffend owing to the lack of aftercare, which is a problem connected with the understaffing issue;

• There is no probation programme to prevent juvenile offending;

• There are few juvenile police branches in the governorates;

• There are weaknesses in the mechanism for monitoring and registering juvenile cases and violations of children’s rights, notwithstanding the existence of juvenile courts, prosecution offices and care homes in some governorates;

• There are still too many entities (especially prosecution offices) involved in placing juveniles in homes in that there are dedicated juvenile prosecution offices and yet various other prosecution offices continue to place juveniles in homes, meaning that the efforts of juvenile care homes are dispersed among juvenile prosecution offices and other prosecution services;

• NGO-run homes do not play a strong enough role in delivering protection services to juveniles at the governorate level, with the exception of San`a City and Aden;

• Many of the persons working with juveniles, particularly those working directly with them in care homes, public prosecution offices, the courts or the police service, still need continuous training, further training and sensitization.

D. Children in situations of exploitation, including physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration

Economic exploitation, including child labour

496. A national strategy for ending the phenomenon of child labour (2001–2003) was elaborated by a national committee representing the State, employers and NGOs. The first implementation phase of a national programme to combat child labour was also completed in mid-2005 and the second phase is being prepared in collaboration with the organizations supporting the project.

497. Efforts have likewise been made to address the problem of child labour in national and government policies by:

• Reviewing the National Strategy for Children and Youth, in conjunction with the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, and including the issue of child smuggling (for labour purposes) as part of the Strategy;

• Drafting a national action plan, in cooperation with the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Centre for Lebanese Studies.

498. Eight workshops were also run in eight of the country’s governorates, namely San`a, Ibb, Ta`izz, Aden, Abyan, Hudaydah, Hajjah and Mahwit, to discuss the draft national action plan to be submitted as a strategy to the Government and capacity-building for the Child Labour Unit at the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour in the area of combating child labour through:

• Training of the Unit’s personnel in the operational management of the project;

• Training of child labour inspectors in the inspection of places where there are child workers;

• Training of unit personnel and labour inspectors in the provisions of the ILO Convention Nos. 182 and 138;

• Training of governorate focal point directors in the project’s modus operandi;

• Joint coordinating meetings of Ministry stakeholders, labour federations and unions, and unit coordinators in the target governorates;

• Building and updating a national database on child labour.

Role of labour unions in combating child labour

499. Since the early 1990s, the General Federation of Labour Unions has made concrete efforts to curb child labour, working in partnership with local and regional bodies. Numerous studies and research papers were prepared on the phenomenon and can be outlined as follows:

• A study on child labour in Yemen was conducted in cooperation with ILO in 1996;

• An integrated study on the child workforce was conducted in cooperation with several international organizations and Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour;

• Various workshops on the child labour phenomenon were organized with the Norwegian Fafo Institute for Labour and Social and Research, in association with a number of international organizations;

• The Federation took part in preparing a national strategy and action plan to end child labour, in coordination with production entities and ILO, which was approved by the Cabinet;

• The General Federation set up an administrative unit at its headquarters to focus on ending child labour and take part in the steering committee for the national child labour programme of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour;

• Several sensitization workshops were held and a number of publications on the phenomenon were produced;

• The Federation is also active in this area through its participation in the efforts and activities of the National Committee on the Strategy and through its own array of activities;

• A database on child labour (www.childlabour.org.ye) was designed and set up;

• Data and information on child labour were collected and posted on the website;

• A field study on (male) child labour in agriculture and harm caused to boy workers by pesticide misuse on qat plantations and vegetable farms was carried out in the governorates of San`a, Dhamar and Bayda’;

• A field study on (female) child labour in agriculture and harm caused to girl workers by pesticide misuse was carried out in Wadi Hadramawt and Qatan;

• A two-day workshop on the mechanism for data collection and exchange was held for persons working at rehabilitation centres for child workers (in San`a City, Seiyun and Aden) and at various civil society organizations for children.

Harmonizing the national legislative framework relating to the worst forms of child labour at the domestic level with international standards

500. Action taken in this regard can be summarized as follows:

• All domestic laws and decrees were compiled, analysed and harmonized with international conventions and disparities between the two were eliminated;

• A two-day workshop for legal experts and persons involved in child labour issues was held to review and discuss the compiled legislation;

• Ministerial Decision No. 56 was issued concerning the regulation on occupations prohibited to children under 18 years of age.

Raising awareness of the child labour phenomenon

501. Action taken in this regard can be summarized as follows:

• A series of workshops (“Day without work”) were organized for child workers in the governorates of Aden, Ta`izz, Hajjah, Mahwit, Hudaydah, Lahij, Dhamar, Amran, Ma’rib and Ibb, and in San`a City;

• Several posters opposing child labour were produced and circulated to all concerned actors;

• A total of 3,000 copies of Ministerial Decision No. 56 concerning the regulation on occupations prohibited to children under 18 years of age were printed and circulated to concerned actors;

• A two-day introductory workshop on Ministerial Decision No. 56 concerning the regulation on occupations prohibited to children under 18 years of age was held for employers in the informal sector, local authorities, civil society organizations and child workers;

• A two-day workshop was organized for students from 15 schools in San`a City and the Children’s Parliament on Ministerial Decision No. 56 and the danger of dropping out of school in order to enter the labour market;

• An introductory workshop on Ministerial Decision No. 56 was held for civil society organizations and partners;

• A training workshop on Ministerial Decision No. 56 was held for child labour inspectors.

502. Several programmes were implemented to protect child workers, exemplified in the following:

• Protection for children entering the labour market, especially those most vulnerable to risk, through follow-up of the implementation of Decision No. 56 of 2004 of the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour, which prohibits the employment of children under 14 years of age in arduous and hazardous occupations and in unsafe places;

• Monitoring of pre-employment medical examinations, regular tests, rest breaks, working hours, leave and other legal requirements relevant to the regulation of child labour in keeping with the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international conventions on child labour;

• Awareness-raising through seminars, posters and the press;

• Appointment of child labour coordinators in one governorate where the child labour problem is rife;

• Periodic follow-up and information-gathering through monitoring places where there is child labour;

• A survey of the child labour phenomenon in San`a City in 2006;

• Training and further training for 15 child labour inspectors;

• Visits to 5,041 child workers at their places of work in the governorates;

• Return of 341 child workers to school;

• Transfer of 505 children to performing light work suited to their physical capacities and reduction of workload for others;

• Performance of medical examinations and referral of several cases to health centres for treatment;

• Training in television maintenance for 25 child workers.

503. Various segments of the community (child workers and their siblings and families, employers, civil society organizations, school students and local authorities) were targeted by the programme during the period 2006–2007 through work and activities undertaken by the Child Labour Unit at the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, in partnership with the rehabilitation centres for child workers in San`a City, Aden and Seiyun (see table 71).

Sexual exploitation of children

504. For further information, please consult Yemen’s report on implementation of the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.

505. The Children’s Rights Act provides for the protection of children from all forms of exploitation, regarding these as criminal acts and prescribing penalties for those who perpetrate them. To that end, attention has been directed to ensuring that the draft amendments introduce measures to protect children’s rights and to protect children themselves from all exploitation, particularly exploitation in begging, or from endangerment as a consequence. These proposed amendments therefore state as follows:

• Article 262 bis 4: (a) A term of up to 7 years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on any person who, through enticement, encouragement or any form of assistance, compels a male or female under the age of 18 to engage in acts of indecency, debauchery or prostitution; (b) The penalty shall be a term of up to 10 years’ imprisonment if the offender is an ascendant or brother of the victim or a person responsible for the victim’s upbringing or supervision; (c) The penalty shall be a term of up to 12 years’ imprisonment if the offender used any form of coercion, intimidation or deception;

• Article 262 bis 5: A term of up to 7 years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on any person who takes a child under the age of 18 across the national borders for the purpose of sexually exploiting or facilitating or instigating the sexual exploitation of the child. The penalty shall be a term of up to 10 years’ imprisonment if the offender is an ascendant or a brother of the child or a person responsible for his or her upbringing or supervision or if the offender used a form of deception or coercion;

• Article 262 bis 6: A term of up to 5 years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on any person who entices, encourages or assists a male or female below the age of 18 to leave the family home in order to engage in acts of indecency, debauchery or prostitution;

• Article 262 bis 7: A term of up to 5 years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on any person who uses an image, depiction or name of a child below the age of 18 in any publication, information medium or advertisement for the purpose of arousing sexual impulses or of inviting, inciting or encouraging others to engage in immoral and indecent acts. The penalty shall be a term of up to 7 years’ imprisonment if the image or depiction shows the child’s sexual organs.

All forms of exploitation

506. Attention has been afforded to the control of begging from the legislative standpoint in the draft legal amendments, most notably in:

• Article 262 bis 8: A term of up to 3 years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on any person who, other than out of necessity, exploits a child below 18 years of age in begging by offering, inducing or coercing the child to engage in this activity. The penalty shall be doubled if the person exploits a mental or physical disability of the child or lives off the proceeds from such exploitation, or if the child suffers physical or psychological damage as a result;

• Article 262 bis 9: A term of up to 3 years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on a parent who knowingly hands over his or her child below 18 years of age for the purpose of the child’s exploitation in begging. This shall apply likewise to persons acting in loco parentis. The penalty shall be a term of up to 5 years’ imprisonment if the child handed over is below 10 years of age or has a mental or physical impairment;

• Article 262 bis 10: A term of up to 5 years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on any person who inflicts a disability on a child below 18 years of age in order to exploit that child in begging or a person with authority over a child who hands the child over to another to inflict a disability with a view to exploiting the child in begging. This shall be without prejudice to the right of the victim to retaliation (qisas), blood money (diyah) or an indemnity for a bodily wound (arsh), as the case may be.

Street children

507. The phenomenon of street children in Yemeni society has appeared only recently and is essentially due to the increasing poverty rates, the mounting burden of living costs on families and the spread of unemployment. Added to these are the social problems arising from disparities caused by economic and financial programmes, rural underdevelopment and the return of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis as a result of the Gulf War.

508. The Government, with the participation of civil society, deals with the problem of street children through protection and rehabilitation programmes and family and social reintegration. The efforts made in this regard include the establishment of three safe childhood centres for the protection and rehabilitation of street children and coordination with civil society associations in the management and operation of these centres. The safe childhood centres offer social welfare, psychological recovery and social reintegration services for street children through a diverse range of integrated activities, which start by drawing children off the street into the centre and offering them rehabilitation (health, educational, cultural, recreational, sports and vocational) and which culminate in the return of the children to their families or their natural environment or, as in the case of orphans, for example, in placement in an alternative environment such as a social care home. Children who use the services of these centres are either homeless, come from broken homes or are victims of domestic violence who have run away from home.

509. There are now three centres operating in this domain, in San`a City, Aden and Ta`izz, and they are directly managed and supervised by NGOs entrusted with the task by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour. A total of 1,026 street children used the services of the centres during the period 2002-2005.

510. The safe childhood centres aim to provide protection, care and rehabilitation services to homeless street children so that they can reconcile with themselves, their families and their communities. Social, psychological, educational, health, religious, cultural, technical, sports and recreational programmes and activities are provided for this purpose.

511. These centres also examine the children’s social and psychological profile to prepare them for returning to their families. Intensive rounds of visits are paid to the children’s families to verify their socioeconomic circumstances and help them to accept their children back into the family. The provision of food and appropriate accommodation is also guaranteed to street children, in addition to health care, educational opportunities, protection and assistance.

512. The centres offer the children accommodation and proper food containing all the essential nutrients needed at their age. They also give regular health examinations to residents, check their hygiene, supervise their medications and follow up on those who have received medical assistance. Each child has a health file.

513. A number of educational activities are carried out in the centres, covering the following points:

• Integration of children into government schools near the centre;

• Provision of school supplies;

• Visits to schools and child monitoring;

• Remedial activities for children at the centre and help with homework and memorizing information;

• Creation of an education file for each child;

• Assessments to determine the level of academic attainment of students enrolled for study at the centre, where a literacy class was set up for children over the legal age for formal schooling;

• Computer training to help the children to acquire new skills, and the establishment of a centre library designed specifically for children to use for reference purposes and for reading all kinds of books;

• Organization of children’s cultural competitions and the award of incentive prizes and honours for children enrolled in schools and in classes at the centre.

514. In order to provide the children with protection and assistance, the social and psychological activities at the centres focus on protecting the children, gradually rebuilding their personalities and rehabilitating them in all aspects. These social and psychological activities are divided into two categories:

• Activities at the centres, which involve examining the children’s circumstances and making proposals accordingly;

• Field activities outside the centres aimed at completing the information about the child’s community and environment and working towards the child’s reintegration into the family.

515. The centres also familiarize children with their rights and encourage and empower them to express themselves, equipping them with the skills and knowledge that they need to protect themselves from exploitation and abuse. Qualified personnel are on hand to protect the children and offer them instruction and guidance on their rights and on how to safeguard and assert them.

516. There are also many NGOs working for the protection and rehabilitation of street children. Either subsidized by the Government or self-funding, these NGOs are particularly active in this domain (see table 71, which shows the number of users of safe childhood centres during the period 2006–2008).

517. With regard to comprehensive social services, two centres in San`a and Aden aimed at providing comprehensive care to families and children delivered educational, social, health and manual work services to total of 1,371 children and women. In addition, 373 children were enrolled in schools close to the centres in San`a and Aden governorates in 2007.

518. During the period 2006–2008, a joint agreement was also implemented between the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour and the Arab Council for Childhood and Development in support of a street children’s project involving the following activities:

• A field survey of street children, which was conducted in partnership with eight governorates;

• A national workshop to discuss the findings of the survey and to produce recommendations in conjunction with those who make and carry out decisions;

• A training workshop for 30 persons who work with street children;

• Four training workshops for 100 media personnel and communication officers on child protection, with a focus on the rights of street children;

• Production of public information materials (television and radio programmes, posters and leaflets) on the subject of street children.

Sale, trafficking and abduction (child smuggling)

519. In terms of its causes, aims and methods, child smuggling in the Republic of Yemen is a very different problem than in Western States, the Americas and East Asia, with circumstances and factors at play that are in contrast to those known to obtain in certain countries notorious for child trafficking. A review and analysis of reports produced by the reception centre at Harad shows, together with the findings of a study conducted in 2004, that approximately 90 per cent of child smuggling cases in Yemen involve the exploitation of children for labour and for the smuggling of goods. In the other 10 per cent of cases, children are exploited for begging inside the territory of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Children may be exposed to a number of adverse psychosocial influences and face dangers during the outward and return journey, or while staying in the border areas of neighbouring States or returning to their home region.

520. The Yemeni Government therefore takes the view that this phenomenon is largely one of the irregular migration by children and not child trafficking. Reports from the Harad reception centre show that, between May 2005, when the centre began operating, and August 2006, 862 children, all of them boys, were hosted by the centre and had been deported by the Saudi authorities. In 2007, the number was 622 children, also all boys. This figure serves as an indicator of the level of public awareness concerning the seriousness of this phenomenon and the problems potentially faced by children as a result of smuggling.

521. The Government has made numerous efforts to tackle this phenomenon, some of which are described below.

Plans and strategies

522. The National Strategy for Children and Youth (2006–2015) was adopted in August 2007 and its implementation plan was adopted in October 2007. The plan focuses on MDG 3 and the Convention on the Rights of the Child and takes 12 thematic areas as priority issues to be addressed with respect to children and youth. One of these thematic areas includes a component on protection for deprived children, which entails the following:

• Creating a database to help further understanding of the situation of deprived children;

• Developing common areas of understanding and promoting collective action (governmental bodies and civil society organizations) in order to help deprived children;

• Introducing social protection measures;

• Strengthening judicial and legal reforms in favour of juveniles, such as raising the age of criminal responsibility, and the provisions on alternative penalties;

• Working to eliminate violence against children by monitoring and documenting cases and rehabilitating and reintegrating victims.

523. A national plan to combat child smuggling was endorsed by the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood at its annual meeting, chaired by the Prime Minister, on 23 August 2008. The plan regulates the full range of activities and programmes which all governmental institutions and NGOs are required to carry out to protect and care for children who are exploited in smuggling. The plan envisages a number of interventions focused on developing legislation and laws; strengthening coordination, cooperation and partnership; training, capacity-building and know-how; and raising awareness and disseminating information.

Development of legislation

524. Draft amendments were developed in order to align the laws on children’s rights with the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international norms. They also included the addition of new provisions explicitly criminalizing child smuggling, the exploitation of children in begging and the sexual exploitation of children and prescribing penalties for smugglers and exploiters. Moreover, a new section (section IV) entitled “Child exploitation offences” was added to the Penal Code and comprises three subsections, one of which deals with the control of child smuggling, as follows:

• Article 262 bis: A term of up to five years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on any natural or legal person transferring a child below the age of 18 to another State for the purpose of the illegal exploitation of that child. The penalty shall be a term of up to seven years’ imprisonment if the perpetrator uses deception or coercion. A term of from 3 to 10 years’ imprisonment shall be imposed if the transfer was accompanied by a sexual assault or the infliction of bodily harm. This shall be without prejudice to the imposition of the fixed penalty (hadd) [under Islamic law] or the penalties of retaliation (qisas), payment of blood money (diyah) or an indemnity for bodily injury (arsh), as the case may be;

• Article 262 bis 1: A term of up to five years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on a parent who knowingly hands over a child below the age of 18 to another person in order to have the child taken across the national border to another State. The penalty shall be doubled in the event of a repeat offence or if the child who is handed over is a girl or below the age of 10. This provision shall apply likewise to the legal guardian and the testamentary tutor;

• Article 262 bis 2: A term of up to three years’ imprisonment shall be imposed on any person who in any way assists in the preparation, facilitation, commission or instigation of any of the offences listed in the two preceding articles of this section. The penalty shall be a term of up to five years’ imprisonment if the accessory to, or instigator of, the offence is a public official abusing his or her official position or a person responsible for the child’s education or supervision;

• Article 262 bis 3: The person transferring the child, the person receiving the child, the accomplice to and the instigator of the offence shall be deemed to have participated in any offence committed against the child or occurring during the transfer or in the country of destination. The penalty shall be that prescribed by the present Act for participation in an offence.

525. Concerning the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, the following approval procedures were taken:

• It was presented to the Ministries of the Interior and Defence for consideration before its submission to the Cabinet;

• It was presented to the Cabinet for endorsement and referred to the House of Representatives;

• It was presented to the House of Representatives for discussion and approval, with the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood taking part in its discussion by the House Committee on Public Freedoms and Human Rights;

• It was endorsed and ratified by Yemen in 2004;

• The initial report on implementation of the Protocol was submitted to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in January 2008.

Strengthening coordination and partnership

526. The following measures have been taken to strengthen coordination and partnership:

(a) A technical committee composed of line ministry representatives reporting directly to their ministers was established to combat child smuggling. It meets on a monthly basis and works in coordination with the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood;

(b) A number of consultations were held, the first of which took place in Riyadh in June 2006, the second in San`a in July 2006 and the third in Riyadh in October 2007, with the aim of taking measures to curb child smuggling.

Studies

527. The following studies were undertaken:

• A field study on child smuggling, entitled “Study of the situation in the governorates of Hajjah and Mahwit”, was carried out in May 2004;

• Two rounds of discussion on the findings of the study were held with all relevant government entities, NGOs and international organizations, representatives of the State, and official, private and foreign media;

• A feasibility study on social reintegration programmes for child victims of smuggling was conducted during the period 2005–2006;

• A procedural assessment on the child smuggling problem is due to be conducted during the present year.

Information and awareness-raising

528. This aspect comprises a range of awareness activities and programmes that have been, or are still being, implemented by the Supreme Council for Motherhood and Childhood, in conjunction with the Ministry of Information, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, the Ministry of Human Rights and partner civil society organizations, notably the Democracy School and the Shawthab Foundation for Childhood and Development, as follows:

• Discussions in the audiovisual and print media to provide information and raise awareness concerning the problem, the dangers associated with it and ways of preventing it;

• Ongoing programmes and messages on Hajjah Radio and slots on San`a Radio;

• Publication of newspaper articles and reports;

• Making of a documentary film to raise awareness of the child smuggling problem among the target audience of schools, families and local communities;

• Production of an animated film on the impact and dangers of child smuggling;

• Organization of local awareness campaigns in the target regions and districts;

• Involvement of children in campaigns to raise awareness of the problem in some governorates;

• Organization of an awareness workshop for children to discuss the subject of child smuggling and produce a wall poster of their drawings;

• Coordination of efforts with the House of Representatives in working to curb the problem and win parliamentary support for the fight against child smuggling;

• Publication of a compilation of children’s drawings on the theme “No to violence and no to smuggling”.

Developing and tightening security and judicial measures

529. The following actions have been taken to develop and tighten security and judicial measures:

• The Ministry of the Interior and its security posts in border towns have stepped up controls and surveillance and thwarted many child smugglers in their attempts before they reached the border;

• Cases of children returned to airports and border points, amounting to 510 in 2005, were counted and documented;

• Procedures have been tightened up for including children in adults’ passports, particularly children who come from areas known for child smuggling: before 2004, there was an average of 30 cases of such children annually, whereas not a single case was recorded between 2005 and May 2006;

• Branches of the Ministry of Interior have referred a number of persons accused of child smuggling to the Department of Public Prosecutions and the courts: during the period 2004–2005, the number of such persons amounted to 94;

• Child smuggling cases are treated as urgent matters by the Department of Public Prosecutions and the courts, which have handed down numerous convictions to child smugglers (terms of imprisonment ranging from six months to three years). In 2005, 22 individuals involved in child smuggling were convicted;

• Consultations were held with the Department of Civil Status and Civil Registration on mechanisms for improving and developing the birth registration system, which will help to curtail the practice of forging the identity documents of children and smugglers;

• The Department of Moral Guidance at the Ministry of the Interior has run child smuggling awareness campaigns for police officers, which have helped to familiarize them with the methods used, the factors at play and the forms that child smuggling takes, thereby furthering the efforts to control and thwart child smuggling.

Protection, psychological recovery and reintegration of victims of child smuggling

530. Social protection centres for children have been established in the regions of Harad and San`a City. These centres offer psychosocial support and reintegration assistance to child smuggling victims who are sent back from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia overland (through Harad) or by air (San`a airport) or who are intercepted by the security services during smuggling operations. Since their establishment in 2008, the centres in Harad and San`a City have hosted some 2,506 children (see table 73).

531. The San`a and Harad centres work efficiently and provide rehabilitation services to child smuggling victims. During 2008, the Harad centre received 500 children and the San`a centre received 83 children, of whom 60 were placed with families, 12 entered vocational training, 4 absconded and 6 are still at the centre. The children were provided with assistance and returned to their families after guarantees and undertakings had been given that the children would be cared for and protected from exploitation. Children with no one to support them were placed in orphanages in their governorates of origin. Commitments to keep the children in a safe environment were honoured through aftercare programmes for child victims.

532. Under the Alternatives to Combat Child Labour through Education and Sustainable Services in the Middle East and North Africa (ACCESS-MENA) project, child victims are provided with assistance to enable them to integrate into schools and to prevent them from dropping out of education. School uniforms and school bags were issued to 4,101 students and youth cultural and recreation centres were set up at the schools concerned, offering programmes and activities designed to appeal to children so that they complete their rehabilitation by coming to school. Psychological help and guidance were provided in order to protect children from smuggling and targeted schools were renovated and supplied with their own electricity generators. A youth cultural centre was also established in the Aflah al-Sham district, with funding from UNICEF. Teams were formed to offer protection and create a safe environment for children in that particular district, as it is here that most child smuggling occurs.

533. The running of the Harad reception centre was entrusted to the Saleh Foundation, strengthening the active engagement of prominent civil society organizations in child protection programmes.

534. Child protection teams were also established at the subdistrict level in Aflah al-Sham district of Hajjah governorate as an experiment that could be extended to other districts if it proved successful. A children’s sports and recreation centre was established in the district and supplied with the equipment and resources needed to help promote awareness among the region’s young people and dissuade children from leaving the district.

Improving socioeconomic conditions and developing local communities

535. Action is under way to improve socioeconomic conditions and develop local communities through the following:

• Ongoing programmes to combat poverty and expand the social safety net umbrella to the target areas;

• Approval of over 100,000 new cases by the Social Welfare Fund during 2007, including 500 families in border areas;

• Start-up of remedial education classes aimed at limiting the number of children in the city of Hajjah who drop out of education (ACCESS-MENA project).

Training and capacity-building

536. Several training programmes for specialists have been run on combating child smuggling. UNICEF supported a training programme run by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) for staff at a protection centre for smuggled children. The managers at the centre and social workers from social welfare centres and safe childhood centres received training in the following areas: protection and psychological recovery; social reintegration; employment procedures in centres and homes offering protection to smuggled children; and the development of skills for identifying child victims of smuggling. A total of 120 individuals received training, with support from UNICEF and IOM.

537. Two training courses on dealing with child smuggling have been run for members of the police working at ports of entry. Under the ACCESS-MENA project, training courses were also run for head teachers and social workers in eight schools in Hajjah governorate, which had been targeted under a programme to combat child smuggling in five districts. Training in child-centred methodologies was provided to 15 trainers working in the target areas, who in turn trained 189 teachers in the target schools.

Difficulties and challenges

538. The difficulties and challenges are as follows:

• The inaccuracy and paucity of information on the problem in Yemen and Saudi Arabia;

• The fact that the child smuggling problem is little dealt with in the work of the joint committees of the two countries;

• The fact that the Cabinet has not yet approved the draft amendments to the various laws;

• The lack of a practical framework for extradition of the criminals behind child smuggling;

• The multitude and variety of ways and means for returning children via different ports of entry;

The inadequacy of material and human resources.

Tables

Table 1

Number of civil society organizations working on children’s issues

Year
1989–2002
2003–2007
Number of civil society organizations working on children’s issues
84
49

Table 2

Statistics on types and numbers of NGOs working on children’s issues from 1989 to 2007

Type of NGO
Number
Association
Foundation
Organization
Board
Centre
101
18
1
1
1

Table 3

Total pledges made during, before and after the donor conference

($ millions)

At a conference meeting

State/donor institution
Before the conference
Donors in London
After the conference
Total pledges
GCC States
33 100
230 000
Nil
263 100
1
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

18 100
100 000
118 100
2
Sultanate of Oman

10 000

10 000
3
Qatar

500 000

500 000
4
Kuwait

20 000

20 000
5
United Arab Emirates
15 000
50 000

65 000
6
Kingdom of Bahrain

Nil

Nil
Multilateral international and regional institutions
Nil
183 200
8 500
1 917
7
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development

70 000
8 500
78 500
8
Islamic Development Bank

20 000

20 000
9
World Bank*

400

400
10
OPEC Fund for International Development

2 000

2 000
11
United Nations

9 000

9 000
12
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

7 000

7 000
13
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

3 200

3 200
14
Arab Monetary Fund

22 000

22 000
15
European Commission

10 000

10 000
States with which Yemen has bilateral relations
Nil
57 800
18 600
86 400
16
United Kingdom

23 000

23 000
17
Republic of Korea

4 000

4 000
18
Netherlands

9 100

9 100
19
Germany

19 000

19 000
20
France


13 000
13 000
21
Italy

12 000

12 000
22
Japan **

1 500

1 500
23
Spain


2 600
2 600
24
United States of America


2 100
2 100

Denmark


900
900
Total pledges
33 100
471 000
27 100
5 312 000

* Represents the commitment amount pledged by the World Bank, a portion of which covers the funding gap.

** Sums pledged annually by Japan.

Table 4

Total sums allocated to sectors by States and international donor institutions

Sector
Spending gap
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Sultanate of Oman
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Islamic Development Bank
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
World Bank*
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
European Commission
United Nations
Germany
United Kingdom
France
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Japan
Denmark
United States of America
Republic of Korea
Netherlands
Total
Percentage of allocation to the gap
Agriculture
734.71
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
26.30
52.00
0.00
16.00
0.00
40.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
5.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
139.30
0.19
Fisheries
76.2
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
14.00
0.00
13.00
0.00
14.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
41.50
0.54
Education
990.3
228.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
39.00
40.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
38.00
63.11
0.00
0.00
7.00
0.00
5.20
24.00
37.30
490.21
0.50
Health
388.03
48.00
0.00
00.200
0.00
27.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
32.00
10.00
0.00
21.10
4.71
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.80
0.00
18.80
357.91
0.92
Roads and improvements
1 524.02
370.00
10.00
0.00
140.00
26.20
190.00
20.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
756.20
0.50
Transport
260.4
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
215.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
000.
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
215.00
0.83
Electricity
729.5
210.00
15.00
0.00
80.00
37.00
0.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
73.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
364.88
0.57
Water
367
40.00
10.00
0.00
40.00
34.00
124.00
20.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
40.80
37.28
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
18.80
0.00
0.99
Petroleum
260.6
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
203.55
0.00
Institutional reform
435.46
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
14.00
0.00
0.00
26.00
90.00
2.73
36.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.70
11.00
0.00
16.10
536.30
0.47
Social safety net
534.64
175.00
10.00
0.00
50.00
10.00
150.00
25.00
0.00
0.00
9.50
0.00
6.90
88.90
0.00
11.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
359.84
1.00
Total
6 300.85
071.001
53.00
200.00
385.00
200.00
785.00
79.00
29.00
32.00
100.00
90.00
101.13
230.01
73.00
11.00
12.00
7.70
21.00
24.00
91.00
41.50
0.56

* Excluding previous commitment ($120 million)

Table 5

Public spending, 2000–2005 (percentage of GDP)

Item
2000
2005
Realized
Initial
Target
Total current spending, including:
25.5
28.5
27.5
Salaries, wages and the like
9.1
8.8
9.9
Goods and commodities
3.0
2.8
3.0
Maintenance
0.6
0.4
0.8
Current transfers, including:
9.1
3.3
11.4
Subsidy, including for:
5.7
1.7
0.1
Primary materials*
0.6
0.0
0.0
Electricity*
0.0
0.2
0.0
Petroleum products*
5.1
1.5
0.0
Interest payments
2.2
1.7
1.9
Other current spending
0.5
0.6
0.5
Investment expenditure
5.8
8.4
7.1
Government borrowing and share capital participation
1.3
1.9
0.0
Debt repayments
0.6
0.6
0.0
Total public spending
31.6
39.4
36.0

Table 6

Percentage of components of the functional distribution of public spending to GDP, 2000–2005

Item
2000
Estimated
2005
Relative importance of public spending
2000
2005
Public services
7.5
7.0
23.5
25.3
Security and safety affairs
1.9
2.2
6.0
7.9
Economic affairs
7.6
3.2
23.7
11.5
Environment protection
0.0
0.7
0.1
2.4
Housing and local community affairs
1.6
1.7
5.0
6.2
Health sector
1.3
1.5
4.0
5.4
Recreation, culture and religion
0.5
0.6
1.4
2.0
Education sector
5.7
5.9
17.7
21.2
Social protection
0.1
01
0.4
0.4

Table 7

Allocations for 2008 by sector and funding source

Description
Allocations for 2008 by sector ($ millions)
Government
External
Self
Local
Total
All sectors
1 403
1 404
321
7
3 135
Productive sectors
46
131
122
Nil
299
Infrastructure sectors
597
767
142
7
1 513
Human development sectors
178
294
6
Nil
478
Social and government services sectors
83
92
27
Nil
202
Public administrative services sector
499
120
24
Nil
643

Table 8

Birth registration figures from the Department of Civil Status, 2003–2008

Number of births from 2003 to March 2008


Description
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Grand Total
Item
Governorates
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
1
San`a City
19 023
15 748
34 771
17 966
15 821
33 787
27 890
13 793
41 683
32 406
27 161
59 567
29 012
23 858
52 870
3 988
3 049
7 037
130 285
99 430
229 715
2
San`a
543
201
744
3 193
665
3 858
2 511
2 479
4 990
5 065
3 067
8 132
3 318
2 126
5 444
500
261
761
15 130
8 799
23 929
3
Aden
4 382
3 828
8 210
4 223
3 659
7 882
4 572
4 044
8 616
4 332
3 989
8 321
4 516
4 064
8 580
1 490
1 260
2 750
23 515
20 844
44 359
4
Ta`izz
7 093
6 391
13 484
7 336
6 827
14 163
9 449
8 580
18 029
10 722
9 656
20 378
12 033
9 608
21 641
1 970
1 454
3 424
48 603
42 516
91 119
5
Hudaydah
3 512
3 066
6 578
3 413
2 335
6 748
2 751
2 253
5 004
8 147
8 366
16 513
7 738
7 536
15 274
933
753
1 686
26 494
25 309
51 803
6
Ibb
3 340
4 218
7 558
4 888
3 928
8 816
7 088
5 126
12 214
10 991
9 143
20 134
8 955
6 778
15 733
1 329
1 025
2 354
36 591
30 218
66 809
7
Abyan
4 126
1 973
6 099
4 759
3 166
7 925
5 013
3 284
8 297
25 486
10 080
35 566
7 766
6 230
13 996
1 601
1 476
3 077
48 751
26 209
74 960
8
Hadramawt
7 093
6 891
13 484
7 052
7 559
14 611
9 449
8 580
18 029
7 883
10 235
18 118
11 348
10 927
22 275
2 148
2 099
4 247
44 973
46 291
91 264
9
Dhamar
8 154
906
9 060
5 936
3 649
9 585
9 089
1 115
10 204
14 211
11 615
25 826
10 602
8 019
18 621
786
539
1 325
48 778
25 843
74 621
10
Shabwah
3 140
2 251
5 491
4 470
1 938
6 408
2 321
2 107
4 428
4 607
3 485
8 092
6 499
4 831
11 330
1 461
1 136
2 597
22 498
15 848
38 346
11
Hajjah
370
90
460
619
211
830
600
151
751
3 642
1 350
4 992
2 942
1 314
4 256
377
161
538
8 550
3 277
11 827
12
Bayda’
3 641
2 100
5 741
3 301
2 181
5 482
3 905
2 864
6 769
3 725
3 715
7 440
4 232
3 147
7 379
811
651
1 462
19 615
14 658
34 273
13
Lahij
3 163
2 758
5 921
4 206
1 234
5 440
3 874
2 698
6 572
8 567
6 613
15 180
7 116
5 811
12 927
1 282
1 096
2 378
28 208
20 210
48 418
14
Sa`dah
6
1 011
1 017
4 470
1 938
6 408
2 194
1 852
4 046
1 468
1 169
2 637
2 172
1 778
3 950
268
224
492
10 578
7 972
18 550
15
Mahwit
618
439
1 057
2 946
1 947
4 893
968
734
1 702
2 589
1 657
4 246
2 638
1 627
4 265
259
168
427
10 018
6 572
16 590
16
Mahrah
729
698
1 427
1 369
744
2 113
1 306
860
2 166
2 050
1 773
3 823
1 080
794
1 874
280
207
487
6 814
5 076
11 890
17
Ma’rib
462
310
772
521
340
861
790
516
1 306
859
667
1 526
801
600
1 401
368
179
547
3 801
2 612
6 413
18
Jawf
64
21
85
90
37
127
189
40
229
284
167
451
193
79
272
49
46
95
869
390
1 259
19
Amran
1 954
488
2 442
1 586
1 025
2 611
1 627
910
2 537
3 354
2 456
5 810
2 176
1 516
3 692
249
165
414
10 946
6 560
1 506
20
Dali`
2 407
1 476
3 883
5 995
3 678
9 673
3 234
1 821
5 055
5 589
3 493
9 082
4 491
2 444
6 935
920
447
1 367
22 636
13 359
35 995
21
Raymah
none
none
none
none
none
none
184
132
316
515
367
882
671
509
1 180
130
118
248
1 000
1 126
2 126

Total
73 820
54 964
128 284
88 339
63 882
152 221
99 004
63 939
162 943
156 492
120 224
276 716
130 299
103 596
233 895
21 199
16 514
37 713
568 653
423 119
991 772

Source: Department of Civil Status and Civil Registration

Percentage registered in 2005, compared with 2006: Males - 58 per cent

Females - 88 per cent

Table 9

Special programmes on family and children’s issues and air time devoted to them



2003–2004

Channel One
Channel Two
Total
Item
Items and programmes
Air time
Percentage (1)
Air time
Percentage (1)
Air time
Percentage (2)
1
Mother and family programmes
387.32
4.4
32.31
1
419.63
5.4
2
Social programmes
357.26
4.1
30.31
9
387.57
5
3
Health programmes
127.23
1.5
28.43
9
155.66
2.4
4
Economic programmes
43.05
0.5
17.34
5
60.39
1
Total
914.86
10.5
108.39
3.3
1 023.25
13.8

Table 10

Themes covered by media programmes aimed at families and children



Developing cultural and scientific knowledge and raising national awareness
Song and music
Introducing traditional games to children` in the country’s governorates
Presenting a diverse range of information on the country’s governorates
Conducting interviews on location in order to learn about children’s thoughts and desires
Discovering children’s talents
Rights of children and children with disabilities
Welcoming in the new school year
Getting children to know each other
Total
Item
Type of programme
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
Air time
Percentage
1
Children’s club
229
22.4
172
16.8
5
0.5
70
6.8
55
5.4
15
1.5
6
0.6
4
0.4
4
0.4
560
54.8
2
Friends’ competition/ match
122
11.9
65
6.4
78
7.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
265
25.9
3
Competition/ national
139
13.6
59
5.5
00
00
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
198
19.4

Total
490
47.9
296
29
83
8.1
70
6.8
55
5.4
15
1.5
6
0.6
4
0.4
4
0.4
1 023
100.1

Table 11

Types of radio and television programmes and their objectives and mission

Item
Subject
Themes
1
Religious
• Deepening faith in God and teaching prayer and worship
• Stories of the life of the prophets and apostles
• Fatwas and hadith
• Polite conversation and table manners
2
Practical, scientific and informational
• Scientific and educational lessons
• Learning about scientists and inventors
• Scientific secrets of the universe
3
Historical
• Yemen’s ancient historical monuments;
• Yemen’s history across the ages
• Various historical subjects
4
Art of song and music
• Children’s songs (Yemeni and Arab)
• Listeners’ requests
5
Secrets of the life of creatures in the wilderness and seas
• Stories about different animals
• Life of domesticated animals and how to look after them
6
Birds
• Life of birds and how to look after them
• Stories about birds and different bird species
7
Seas
• Mysteries of the seas and different sea creatures
• Pearls and precious stones from the sea
8
Tourism
• Introduction to domestic tourism, monuments and climates
• Tourism trips
9
The Yemeni homeland
• Patriotism, unity and the Yemeni revolution
• Introduction to Yemen’s famous ancient regions, cities and dynasties
10
Other
• Various children’s competitions
• News and sports programmes


Table 12

Total number of broadcasting hours for children’s radio and television programmes



2003
2004



Broadcasting
hours

Average broadcasting

Broadcasting hours
Percentage increase or decrease
Item
Service
Q S
Percentage
Q S
Q S
Q S
1
General + second programme
2 001 42
33.83
5.29
1 679 6
322 36+
19.21
2
Channel One
3 327 46
56.24
1.8
2 987 55
340 51+
11.41
3
Channel Two
587 36
9.93
1.37
339 51
247 45+
72.90
4
Local radio
15 120






Total
5 930 244
100
7.73
5 004 112
909 132+
103.52

Table 13

Number of Channel One broadcasting hours, 2003–2006


Broadcasting hours
Item
Channel (Yemen Satellite and Channel One)
Planned
Actual
1
Programmes for specific groups
700
660.27
2
Programmes dealing with social problems and phenomena
183.20
203.8
3
Programmes and items on social themes
5.35
5.35

Total
888.55
869.7


Table 14

Issues covered by radio and television stations


Individual channel
Channel One
Channel Two
Radio San`a
Radio Aden
Total
Item
Substantive themes
Air time
%
Air time
%
Air time
%
Air time
%
Air time
%
1
Social issues and phenomena, coping techniques and question and answer sessions
1.45
7.5
14.01
24.3
0.06
1.2
2.26
10.6
17.18
17.5
2
Guidance for mothers on sound nutrition, health care and home economics
-

6.48
11.8


8.08
35
14.49
15
3
Cultural and scientific knowledge development and national awareness-raising
1.09
11.5
8.10
14.2
0.16
3.3
2.03
8.9
11.38
11.8
4
Education issues and problems, educational activities and emphasizing the role of women and the family in fighting ignorance


10.33
18.3




10.33
18.3
5
Art and music


6.30
11.3
2.11
26.5
1.36
7
10.17
10.4
6
Instilling values and good behaviour and developing religious awareness






6.08
26.8
6.08
26.8
7
Raising moral, instilling a sense of national duty and covering productive and military activities
3.42
37.1


1.40
20.3


5.22
5.4
8
Engaging with national guidance campaigns and preventive, environmental and agricultural awareness-raising


1.33
2.7
3.35
43.5


5.08
5.2
9
Covering visits on location, encounters, interviews, training exercises, seminars and documentary films
3.52
38.8
0.48
1.4
0.04
0.9


4.44
4.8
10
Raising awareness of security, traffic and public safety issues


3.38
6.3
0.21
4.3


3.59
4
11
Getting children to know each other, finding out their thoughts and desires, and promoting a love of reading and inquiry


1.18
2.3


1.19
5.8
2.37
2.7
12
Introducing children to traditional games and all kinds of information about the country’s governorates


2.33
4.4




2.33
2.6
13
Meetings and interviews with persons concerned with children’s issues, children’s rights and family matters


0.42
1.2


1.22
6
2.04
2.1
14
The Social Welfare Fund and issues relating to benefits and allowances


1.07
1.9




1.07
1.1
15
Various other themes
0.30
5.1






0.30
0.5
16
Total
9.58
100
57.41
100
8.13
100
22.55
100
98.47
100


Table 15

Air time devoted to family and children’s programmes on local radio and television channels

Item
Channel/radio
Air time
1
Yemen
136
2
Yamaniyah
152
3
General Programme One
26
4
General Programme Two
34
5
Radio Ta`izz
9
6
Radio Hudaydah
16
7
Radio Seiyun
6
8
Radio Hajjah
7
9
Radio Lahij
2
10
Radio Abyan
7
11
Radio Ibb
16

Total
411 hours

Table 16

Number of government orphanages in the Republic of Yemen

Item
Name of home
Governorate
Capacity
Oversight entity
Support entity
Remarks
1
Orphanage
San`a City
1 500
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Education
Orphanage also used by some 1,500 children on a non-residential basis
2
Orphanage
Tawilah/ Mahwit
400
Ministry of Education and board of trustees
Ministry of Education + Sharjah Association + board of trustees
Orphanage’s services also used by 600 children from neighbouring villages who are not orphans
3
Orphanage
Hajjah
120
Ministry of Social Affairs
Ministry of Social Affairs

4
Orphanage
Ta`izz
100
Ministry of Social Affairs
Ministry of Social Affairs and private governing board

5
Orphanage
Hudaydah
100
Ministry of Social Affairs
Ministry of Social Affairs

6
Orphanage
Mahwit
79
Ministry of Social Affairs

Began operating in 2004
7
Orphanage
Amran
150
Ministry of Social Affairs
Not yet operating
Constructed with support from the Social Fund but does not yet have the financial resources and staff to start operating
8
Orphanage
Dhamar
150
Ministry of Social Affairs
Not yet operating
Constructed with support from the Social Fund but does not yet have the financial resources and staff to start operating
9
Orphanage
Hadramawt
300
Ministry of Social Affairs in support of the Islamic Charitable Association
Recently began operating on a small scale and currently has about 30 orphans in residence
Constructed with support from a benefactor
10
Amal Girls’ Orphanage
Ta`izz
50
Ministry of Social Affairs in support of the Rahmah Foundation, which is involved in humanitarian work and caring for girl orphans
Began operating in May 2008
Constructed with support from the Social Fund

Table 17

Orphan homes and centres in the Republic of Yemen run jointly by the Government and NGOs or by NGOs only

Item
Name of home/centre
Governorate/ location
Capacity
Oversight entity
Support/funding entity
(a) Run jointly by the Government and NGOs



1
Orphanage
Ibb
120
Ministry of Education + Ministry of Social Affairs + NGO board of trustees
Ministry of Education + Ministry of Social Affairs + board of trustees
2
Centre of the President of the Republic for Orphan Care
San`a City
300
Higher Board of Trustees presided over by the Minister for Social Affairs + the Reform Association + the Orphan Development Foundation
Has special status (the State contributed part of the land and to some of the construction work and the Reform Association and the Orphan Development Foundation contribute to the administrative, oversight and running costs)
3
Qatar Girls’ Orphanage
Aden
48 girl orphans (phase I)
Qatar Girls’ Orphanage management, under the direct oversight of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour
The State provided land owned by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, construction funded by the Islamic Da`wah Association and various benefactors from Qatar, and running costs by the Qatar Orphanage Foundation (a Yemeni, not Qatari, NGO)
(b) NGO-run




1
Dar al-Shawkani for Orphans
San`a City
300
Shawkani Charitable Foundation
Shawkani Charitable Foundation + the Sharjah Association + Ministry of Social Affairs + NGOs from the Gulf States
2
Dar al-Shawkani for Orphans
Aden
100
Shawkani Charitable Foundation
Shawkani Charitable Foundation + NGOs from the Gulf States
3
Dar al-Hijrah for Orphans
Bani Dabyan – San`a
90
Shawkani Charitable Foundation
Shawkani Charitable Foundation + NGOs from the Gulf States
4
Dar al-Sadiq for Orphans
San`a City
55
NGO governing board
NGO governing board + benefactors
5
Dar al-Liwa for Girl Orphans
San`a City
30
Saleh Foundation for Social Development
Saleh Foundation for Social Development
6
Dar al-Abtal for Orphans
San`a City
30
Saleh Foundation for Social Development
Saleh Foundation for Social Development
7
Dar al-Rahmah for Orphaned Girls
San`a City
50
Rahmah Foundation for Human Development
Rahmah Foundation for Human Development + Ministry of Social Affairs (Social Welfare Fund)
8
Dar Fursan for Children
San`a City
50
Rahmah Foundation for Human Development
Rahmah Foundation for Human Development
9
Dar Sinan for Orphans
San`a City
50
Rahmah Foundation for Human Development
Rahmah Foundation for Human Development
10
Bayt al-Usrah Centre for Orphans No. 1
San`a City
50
Insan Charitable Foundation
Insan Charitable Foundation
11
Bayt al-Usrah Centre for Orphans No. 2
San`a City
50
Insan Charitable Foundation
Insan Charitable Foundation
12
Bayt al-Usrah Centre for Orphans No. 3
Aden
30
Insan Charitable Foundation
Insan Charitable Foundation
13
Rahmah Girls’ Orphanage
Ta`izz
160
Ihsan Association
Ihsan Association
14
Ikram Orphan Centre
San`a City
23
Ikram Orphan Foundation
Ikram Orphan Foundation
15
World Assembly Orphan Rehabilitation Centre
San`a City
167
World Assembly of Youth
World Assembly of Youth/day-care centre
16
World Assembly Orphan Rehabilitation Centre
Ta`izz
123
World Assembly of Youth
World Assembly of Youth/day-care centre
17
World Assembly Orphan Rehabilitation Centre
Hadramawt
118
World Assembly of Youth
World Assembly of Youth/day-care centre
18
Children’s Social Centre
San`a City
30
Tawasul Development Foundation
Tawasul Development Foundation + Rahmah Foundation/day-care centre

Table 18

Number of beneficiaries from the services of the Social Welfare Fund as at the end of 2007

Categories
Number of cases (families)
Number of beneficiaries
Amount provided annually
Child orphans
29 563
116 946
184 956 000
Widows with children
228 484
1 170 104
1 596 229 600
Divorced women with children
24 883
105 870
160 918 400
Absent or missing provider
15 481
80 368
107 835 200
Imprisoned provider
2 014
11 080
14 353 600
Total
300 426
1 484 368
2 064 292 800

Table 19

Number of child beneficiaries with disabilities by service provided according to the statistics of the General Department for Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR) for 2007


Number of beneficiaries

Year
Social welfare
School rehabilitation
Total
Remarks
2003
89
850
939

2004
1 609
2 640
4 249

2005
2 249
4 080
6 329

2006
2 266
4 717
6 983

2007
2 390
6 111
8 501

Total
8 603
18 398
27 001

Table 20

Number of persons with disabilities in the governorates, 2007

Item
Governorate
Males
Females
Total
1
Aden
319
187
506
2
Ta`izz
86
67
143
3
Abyan
103
58
161
4
Ibb
620
398
1 018
5
Hudaydah
356
220
546
6
Lahij
109
69
178

Total
1 553
999
2 552

Table 21

Number of persons who benefited from CBR during 2007

Item
Governorate
Males
Females
Total
1
Aden
70
80
150
2
Ta`izz
319
187
506
3
Abyan
65
53
118
4
Ibb
375
270
646
5
Hudaydah
109
69
178
6
Lahij
627
403
1 030

Total
1 566
1 062
2 628

Table 22

CBR programmes for persons with disabilities



Number of beneficiaries
Type of disability
Item
Workshops
Males
Females
Motor
Deaf and mute
Partially deaf
Minor learning difficulties
1
Carpentry
25
-
3
10
66
-
2
Women’s sewing
-
25
5
15
5
-
3
Weaving
14
-
-
8
-
6
4
Computing
8
-
4
4
-
-
5
Leatherwork
15
-
8
-
-
7
6
Aluminium
20
-
5
5
6
4

Grand total
82
40
25
42
17
23

Table 23

Number of children at the Early Intervention Centre

Item
Type of disability
Males
Females
Remarks
1
Cerebral palsy
13
7

2
Down’s syndrome
9
5

3
Moderate mental impairment
11
3

4
Mild motor + speech defects
6
6


Grand total
39
21

Table 24

Number of males and females in the Education Section



Preparatory
First
Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth
Sixth
Seventh
Eighth
Ninth
Item
Months
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
T
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
1
September to January
2
7
12
8
13
10
11
16
14
6
10
13
6
5
6
1
-
3
2
-
2
February to June
1
7
11
8
13
10
11
15
13
6
10
13
5
5
6
1
-
3
2
-
Grand total
3
14
23
16
26
20
22
31
27
12
20
26
11
10
12
2
-
6
4
-

Table 25

Beneficiaries of services from centres for the blind during 2007

Name of centre
Literary section
Vocational section
San`a Centre
149
-
149
Males
Females
Total
Aden Centre
33
21
54
-
-
-
Hadramawt Centre
11
14
25
-
-
-
Total
193
35
228
-
-
-

Table 26

Family planning methods distributed to all governorates during the period 2005–2007

Item
Type
Unit
2005
2006
2007
1
Oral contraceptive
Strip
2 160 000
1 805 169
4 313 720
2
Contraceptive injection
Vial
142 788
233 610
332 925
3
Male condoms
Piece
714 816
906 768
1 849 536
4
Coil
Number
25 000
28 200
84 700
5
Implants (Implanon)
Unit
2 467
289
3 580
6
Suppositories
Tube
35 990
736

Table 27

Comparison of family planning methods used during the period 2006–2008

Item
Type
2005
2006
2007
1
Implanon (implants)
289
3 580
8 954
2
Contraceptive injection
233 610
332 925
257 900
3
Male condoms
906 768
1 856 736
1 269 092
4
Coil
28 200
82 050
95 770 + 4 450 from Chinese assistance
5
Oral contraceptives
1 805 169
4 319 060
2 703 542

Table 28

Number of persons living with AIDS by gender in the Republic of Yemen

Year
Total cases
Number of males
Number of females
Unknown
1987
1
1
None
None
1988
3
1
2
None
1989
3
3
None
None
1990
6
5
1
None
1991
4
3
1
None
1992
44
34
3
7
1993
25
19
6
None
1994
26
20
5
1
1995
52
29
23
None
1996
96
56
36
4
1997
204
89
112
3
1998
189
106
83
None
1999
111
55
37
19
2000
110
64
46
None
2001
107
65
42
None
2002
151
69
33
49
2003
247
165
57
25
2004
214
149
65
None
2005
228
160
68
None
2006
254
158
96
None
2007
258
166
82
None
Total
2 323
1 417
798
108

Table 29

Groups targeted by AIDS awareness during the first half of 2006 at the central and governorate levels

Item
Targeted group
Targeted number
1
Health workers
1 093
2
Barbers
322
3
Secondary school students of both sexes
23 515
4
Members of the Yemen Women’s Federation, women’s associations and literacy classes
199
5
Armed forces, security forces and traffic personnel
889
6
Sports clubs
1 150
7
Students at health, technical and trade institutes
400
8
Women prisoners
1 019
9
University students
1 659
10
Hotel workers
50
11
Worshippers and mosque imams
1 300
12
Fishers
200
13
Lorry drivers
120
14
Camps
3 217

Total
37 635

Table 30

Persons targeted by AIDS and STI training

Item
Targeted group
Targeted number
Targeted governorates
1
Health and social workers
899
Raymah, Mahwit, Dali`, San`a, Hajjah, Ibb, Mahrah, Hudaydah, Amran and Abyan
2
Health workers, programme coordinators in the governorates and relevant entities
25
All governorates in the Republic
3
Mosque imams and preachers
72
Hudaydah, Aden and Dhamar
4
Health and social workers
162

Table 31

Overall poverty incidence during the period 2007–2010

Years
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Rural areas
Urban areas
38.8
35.7
31.8
27.7
23.4
19.5
16.4
13.9
11.3
8.0
Total
34.3
31.2
27.7
23.9
19.8

Table 32

Service and development projects implemented by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour during 2007



Total cost
Actual spending during the year (YRI thousands)
Item
Projects, programmes and activities implemented
YRI thousands
Central
Local
External
Total
1
Occupational health and safety programme
2 700
2 700
-
-
2 700
2
Equipment for productive family centres
15 000
1 610
-
-
1 610
3
Programme to curb child labour
20 000
1 000
-
19 000
20 000
4
Comprehensive care and child protection programme
18 626
5 000
-
13 626
18 626
5
Rehabilitation programme for children with disabilities
2 000
2 000
-
-
2 000
6
Safe birth programme
2 500
2 500
-
-
2 500
7
Programme for the integration of women into development
2 985
2 000
-
985
2 985

Table 33

Status of microfinance programmes as at the end of December 2007



Number of (active) clients






Borrowers

Savers


Accumulated
figures

Item
Programme
Total
Women (%)
Total
Loans portfolio (YRI millions)
Loans portfolio at risk (%)
Number of loans
Loan amounts (YRI millions)
Area of operation
1
National Microfinance Foundation
8 522
98
10 786
179
8.1
27 970
1 143
San`a City, Ta`izz, Ibb, Qa`idah, Dhamar, Yarim, Abas, Hajjah, Lahij
2
Aden Microfinance Foundation
1 968
85
4 173
33
Unknown


Dar Sa`d, Burayqah, Ma`alla, Tawahi, Khurmaksar, Kraytar – Aden, Lahij
3
Microfinance Development Programme
3 435
30
894
94
1.4
17 507
663
San`a, Ta`izz, Aden, San`a City
4
Azal’s San`a Microfinance Loan Programme
2 520
88
2 223
55
1.2
13 746
459
San`a City
5
Self-help savings and loan project – Abyan
2 121
100
2 365
55
None
7 739
266
Abyan
6
Savings and Loan Programme – Hays
796
91
1 488
8
Unknown
6 801
252
Hays, Khukhah, Zubayd, Jabal Ra’s
7
Income-generating Project Development Programme – Hudaydah
3 804
79
None
46
25
28 824
660
Hudaydah, Bahil, Bayt al-Faqih, Murawa`ah, Zayidiyah, Zahrah
8
Wadi Hadramawt Finance and Savings Programme
1 172
28
1 332
39
3
4 246
237
Hadramawt (Seiyun, Tarim al-Sawm)
9
Awael Microfinance Company
3 147
100
None
56
1.5
24 559
478
Ta`izz (al-Camp, Jamal al-Rahdah Street, Sinah and Sabr)
10
Microfinance Programme (SFD)
519
67
None
7
20
8 936
174
San`a City
11
Income-generating projects
-
-
-
-
-
8 909
311
Various regions
12
SMED
1 957
6
None
988
4
6 696
4 271
San`a City, Ta`izz, Aden, Hudaydah, Makalla, Ibb

Total
29 961
77
23 261
1 560

184 373
9 564

Table 34

Indicators for phase II of the Integrated Intervention Programme

Governorate
District
Subdistrict
Number of inhabitants
Number of villages
Raymah
Jabin
Khadm
6 808
11
Dhamar
Wasab al-Safil
Bani Mu`anis
6 058
4
Ta`izz
Mawiyah
Asawidah
6 251
7
Hudaydah
Lahiyah
Ba`jiyah
8 231
5
Amran
Khamr
Ghashm
9 628
4
Ibb
Qafr
Bani Mubariz
7 849
9
Lahij
Tawr al-Bahah
Tawr al-Bahah
5 228
7
Total


56 279
50

Table 35

Number of kindergartens in school years 2001/02–2008/09 by supervisory authority (governmental - NGO/private)

Years
2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2007/08
2008/09
Governmental
46
53
62
74
76
96
80
94
NGO/private
126
168
182
232
282
312
360
440
Total
172
221
244
307
358
408
440
534

Table 36

Number of kindergarten teachers in school years 2001/02–2008/09[22]

Years
2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2007/08
2008/09
Males
23
21
28
38
42
41
15
67
Females
863
943
1 015
1 141
1 366
1 415
1 453
1 714
Total
886
964
1 043
1 179
1 408
1 456
1 468
1 781

Table 37

Number of kindergarten pupils in school years 2001/02–2008/09[23]



2005/06
2007/08
2008/09


Number of pupils
Number of pupils
Number of pupils
Stage
Setting
Males
Females
Total
Males
Females
Total
Males
Females
Total
Basic
Urban
2 026
1 331
3 357
1 686
1 045
2 731
7 541
21 428
28 969

Rural
4 053
2 040
6 093
3 657
1 799
5 456
6 471
10 602
17 073

Total
6 079
3 371
9 450
5 343
2 844
8 187
14 012
32 030
46 042
Secondary
Urban
216
100
316
174
76
250
1 027
1 659
2 686

Rural
270
97
367
279
115
394
1 042
670
1 712

Total
486
197
683
451
191
644
2 069
2 329
4 398
Urban total
2 242
1 431
3 673
1 860
1 121
2 981
8 568
23 087
31 655
Rural total
4 323
2 137
6 460
3 936
1 914
5 850
7 513
11 272
18 785
Grand total
6 565
3 568
10 133
5 796
3 035
8 831
16 081
34 359
50 440

Table 38

Number, type and academic level of pilot schools for gifted and high-achieving pupils and target governorates


Number and type of schools

Governorate
For boys
For girls
Total
Academic level
San`a City
1
-
25
Basic grade 7
Aden
-
2
50
Secondary grade 1
Ta`izz
-
1
25

Total
1
3
100

Table 39

Number of students in the 10–20 age group enrolled in alphabetic literacy centres in school years 2001/02–2007/08

Years
Males
Females
Total
Percentage of total students
2001/02
33 649
28 582
33 649
37.08
2002/03
38 516
33 777
38 516
35.41
2003/04
44 535
38 466
44 535
40.01
2004/05
44 222
40 591
44 222
32.83
2005/06
44 766
41 211
44 766
36.00
2006/07
34 824
31 938
34 824
27.09
2007/08
51 628
47 864
51 628
30.85

Table 40

Growth in numbers of literacy centre personnel during school years 2001/02–2007/08


Teachers
Mentors
Administrators and supervisors

Years
Males
Females
Total
Males
Females
Total
Males
Females
Total
Grand total
2001/02
4 316
3 487
829
359
139
220
1 471
414
1 057
5 876
2002/03
4 903
3 973
930
378
97
281
1 520
388
1 132
6 653
2003/04
5 552
4 516
1 036
459
132
327
1 703
449
1 257
7 556
2004/05
5 836
4 976
860
572
157
415
1 959
518
1 441
8 554
2005/06
6 264
5 324
940
533
149
384
1 848
526
1 318
8 550
2006/07
1 176
5 166
780
6 848
928
6 556
12 841
7 304
7 417
3 238
2007/08
7 140
6 457
683
488
130
358
1 951
612
1 339
9 456

Table 41

Girls’ education training courses and workshops delivered in 2007

Numbers targeted
Activities delivered
6 518
• Training courses for education department personnel, social workers and parent council members on the importance of girls’ education
1 546
• Training courses for instructors and women social workers on girls’ education
528
• Training courses and workshops for parent council members on child-friendly schools
8 592
Total number of training course attendees

Table 42

Growth of girls’ enrolment in basic and secondary education during school years 2002/01–2008/09

Stage
2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2008/09
Basic
1 314 387
1 427 208
1 530 306
1 622 022
1 607 779
1 760 672
1 828 775
Secondary
145 442
160 624
177 979
185 218
172 813
194 041
206 512
Total
1 459 829
1 587 832
1 708 285
1 807 240
1 780 592
1 954 713
2 035 287

Table 43

Comparison of basic education enrolment rates for males and females in 2001/02 and 2008/09

Years
Males
Females
Total
Ratio of females to males (%)
Absolute gap
2001/02
2 257 878
1 314 387
3 572 265
58.21
41.79
2008/09
2 498 675
1 828 775
4 327 540
73.19
26.81

Table 44

Total admissions for all ages to basic grade 1 during schools years 2001/02–2007/08, percentage of females to males and the gender gap[24]


Pupils of all ages admitted to basic grade 1
Total admission rate
Gender gap
Years
Males
Females
Total
Males %
Females %
Total
%
Percentage of males to females
Total gender gap
2001/02
364 080
269 597
633 677
106.4
83.7
95.4
0.74
0.79
2002/03
386 078
290 380
676 458
12.5
89.9
101.6
0.75
0.80
2003/04
405 576
309 510
715 086
118.1
95.7
107.2
0.76
0.81
2004/05
416 893
334 683
751 576
121.2
103.4
112.6
0.80
0.85
2005/06
371 105
306 719
677 824
107.8
94.6
101.4
0.83
0.88
2006/07
390 359
335 082
725 441
113.2
103.2
108.4
0.86
0.91
2007/08
409 878
344 337
754 215
118.7
106.0
112.5
0.84
0.89

Table 46

Number of trainers and military personnel in the school workforce by gender and training programme for years 2001/02–2008/09

Description
Teacher training programmes for the basic education level
Further teacher training programmes for the basic education level
Training programmes for head and deputy head teachers at the basic education level
Professional development and capacity-building programmes for training, planning and follow-up teams
Training programme for teachers of basic grades 10 to 12
Training for basic education instructors
Training for social workers
Awareness programmes
Kindergartens
Programmes combating violence against children
School laboratory technicians
Total
School year
Programme
Trainers
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainders
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainers
Trainees
Trainer
2001/02
Male
557
36 609
1 053
10 386
1 787
1 610
Female
111
29 952
158
1 833
125
269
Total
669
66 561
1 211
12 219
1 912
1 880
2002/03
Male
929
47 924
109
8 060
1 038
Female
232
18 637
1 102
4 154
1 334
Total
1 161
66 561
none
none
1 211
12 219
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
2 372
2003/04
Male
1 578
39 386
352
9 651
384
1 930
Female
395
9 846
88
2 413
96
483
Total
1 973
49 232
none
none
440
12 064
none
none
none
none
none
480
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
2413
2004/05
Male
757
21 302
1 000
25 505
611
5 136
21
41
123
none
2 409
Female
120
3 677
93
1 135
90
1 125
100
20
97
609
323
Total
877
24 979
1 093
22 730
701
6 261
121
61
220
609
2 732
2005/06
Male
21 341
55 910
777
53
271
356
2 039
106
214
22
none
206
none
22 808
Female
1405
12 608
53
0
178
94
895
8
120
16
none
65
none
1 641
Total
22 746
68 518
none
none
830
53
none
449
450
2 934
none
none
114
334
None
None
none
None
38
none
271
none
24 449
2006/07
Male
5 967
57 224
66
0
1 386
14 862
571
219
2 030
16
66
155
11 73
8 380
Female
354
11 615
12
915
88
1 576
963
45
976
6
197
13
363
1 471
Total
6 321
68 839
78
915
1 474
16 338
1 534
264
3 006
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
22
263
168
1 536
9 861
2007/08
Male
3 621
30 143
26
122
648
6 480
14
5
49
201
1 398
4 590
Female
4 149
42 704
148
1 070
704
7 147
21
5
99
266
1 620
5 293
Total
7 845
72 847
174
1 192
1 352
13 627
none
none
none
none
35
none
none
none
none
none
none
None
10
148
467
none
9 883
Grand total
Male
34 826
05+3E
92
122
5 325
70 002
-
490
2 386
4 069
625
7 307
106
235
41
123
-
-
43
115
562
2 571
44 006
Female
6 766
05+1E
160
1 985
2 286
18 258
-
223
1 070
1 871
111
1 346
8
220
20
97
-
609
27
296
344
1 983
10 792
Total
41 592
05+4E
252
2 107
7 611
88 260
none
713
3 456
5 940
736
8 653
114
455
61
220
none
609
70
411
906
4 554
54 798

Table 45 (1)

Items of educational equipment, supplies and learning resources distributed to schools in years 2003/04–2008/09

School year
Learning resources
Fascimile machines
Video equipment
Receiver equipment
Videotaping equipment
Science and teaching workshops and laboratories
Computer equipment
Printers
Electronic storage devices
Fitted lockers
Twin-door lockers
Whiteboards
Swivel chairs
Ordinary chairs
Radios
Office desks
DVDs
Educational supplies and photocopiers
Solar power equipment
2003/04
220
20
260
220
20
96
858
24
35
2004/05
268
78
807
500
1 070
422
820
1 500
2 502
835
500
647
2005/06
924
620
2 505
61
500
13 480
38
2006/07
61
65
720
5592
597
2007/08
470
7 916
918
200
3 050
2008/09

Total
220
20
321
285
20
2 478
15 064
2 346
235
500
1 070
422
820
4 002
2 563
1 335
500
17 177
38


Table 45 (1)

Items of school equipment distributed to schools in years 2001/02–2008/09

School year
Double desks and chairs
Single chairs
Single desks
Offices
Lockers
Teachers’ chairs
Meeting tables
Printing machines
Computing equipment
School radio station facilities
Recording equipment
Photography equipment
Withdrawal machines
Air conditioners
Basic workshops
Secondary workshops
Sports equipment
Televisions
Libraries
2001/02
10 098
2 805
1 224
57
58
189
11
2
18
22
18
1
none
2002/03
20 185
4 971
2 116
191
245
847
74
15
122
2 728
67
157
3
2003/04
98 934
19 034
7 332
947
1 132
4 020
223
22
200
229
148
12
8
807
2004/05
80 746
17 934
8 948
1 090
1 359
4 135
349
71
630
276
618
51
17
61
2005/06
46 771
6 131
4 238
1 868
4 016
5 716
737
217
761
4 904
854
354
1 246
2 198
1 526
1 063
1 586
245
none
2006/07
886 112
886 112
886 112
250
1 092
154
238
1 269
none
2007/08
102 063
102 063
102 063
910
392
2008/09
25 604
988
Total
1 224 909
1 064 654
1 011 033
4 153
6 810
14 907
1 394
327
1 731
10 307
2 797
575
1 274
2 352
1 764
1 063
1 586
2 382
392

(1) Reports of the General Department of Educational Resources and Technologies, education survey results, 2003-2007; mid-term report on the basic education development project, 2007.

Table 47

Public education expenditure compared with general public expenditure and GDP for the period 2003–2007

(YRI millions)[25]

Years
Education expenditure
General public expenditure (%)
GDP (%)
2003
105 815
15.8
5.1
2007[26]
173 000
20
6.8
2008
201 600
11.1
5.9

Table 48

Total annual posts allocated to units of the State’s administrative apparatus and percentage allocated to public education during years 2003–2007[27]

Entity
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Total
Units of the State’s administrative apparatus
13 575
13 855
12 780
9 389
12 358
61 957
Ministry of Education
9 113
8 704
6 246
5 466
5 622
35 151
Percentage allocated to education
67.13
62.82
48.87
58.22
45.49
56.73

Table 49

Proportion of enrolment in technical education (two years + three years) to enrolment in university education

Year
2002/03
2006/07

Gender
Technical education
University education
Technical to university (%)
Technical education
University education
Technical to university (%)
Percentage change
Male
2 813
134 996
2.08
10 44
133 488
7.82
5.74
Female
414
46 354
0.89
1 907
54 419
3.50
2.61
Total
3 227
181 350
1.78
12 351
187 907
6.57
4.79

Table 50

Number of students enrolled in and graduated from intermediate institutes for years 2002/03–2006/07


Enrolment

2002/03
2006/07
Name of institute
Males
Females
Total
Percentage
Males
Females
Total
Percentage
Centres for Persons with Special Needs and the Blind
758
242
1 000
7.0
463
134
597
3.0
National Institute of Administrative Sciences
7 498
1 634
9 132
63.6
7 937
2 636
10 573
53.7
Amin Nasher Higher Institute of Health Sciences
2 144
954
3 098
21.6
3 873
991
4 864
24.7
Institute of Fine Arts
-
-
-
0.0
218
114
332
1.7
Community health institutes
1 006
117
1 123
7.8
2 738
578
3 316
16.9
Grand total
11 406
2 947
14 353
100
15 229
4 453
19 682
100

Graduation

2002/03
2006/07
Name of institute
Males
Females
Total
Percentage
Males
Females
Total
Percentage
National Institute of Administrative Sciences
844
215
1 059
52.0
2 875
1 455
4 330
63.1
Amin Nasher Higher Institute of Health Sciences
507
282
789
38.7
1 124
163
1 687
18.71
Institute of Fine Arts
-
-
-
0.0
28
81
109
1.6
Community health institutes
170
19
189
9.3
956
185
1 141
16.6
Grand total
1 521
516
2 037
100
4 983
1 884
6 867
100

Table 51

Breakdown of technical education and vocational training expenditure during the period 2003–2007

(YRI millions)

Type of expenditure
2003
%
2004
%
2005
%
2006
%
2007
%
Growth rate
Current
1 958
46.1
2 080
51.5
2 764
54.3
3 485
35.5
3 946
17.0
19.6
Investment
2 289
53.9
1 956
48.5
2 329
45.7
6 322
64.5
19 200
83.0
94.9
Total
4 247
-
4 036
-
5 093
-
9 807
-
23 146
-
62.4

Source: General State Budget Volumes, 2008.

Table 52

Growth in number of mainstream schools by level and type during school years 2001/02–2008/09[28]

Type of school

2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2008/09
Basic
Boys
1 108
1 029
906
831
818
688
689

Girls
484
536
554
582
617
594
599

Mixed
8 323
8 728
9 224
9 632
10 050
10 319
10 528

Total
9 915
10 293
10 684
11 045
11 485
11 602
11 816

%
74
75
77
77
77
75.9
75.4
Secondary
Boys
105
122
120
122
126
126
127

Girls
30
38
40
43
46
47
44

Mixed
129
133
140
142
151
150
150

Total
264
293
300
307
323
323
321

%
2
2
2
2
2
2.1
2
Mixed
Boys
394
300
293
283
293
332
344
Girls
306
285
292
301
322
350
397
Mixed
2 598
2 570
2 384
2 474
2 552
2 683
2 783
Total
3 298
3 155
2 969
3 058
3 167
3 365
3 524
%
24
23
21
21
21
22
22.5
Grand total
13 477
13 741
13 953
14 410
14 975
15 290
15 661

Table 53

Growth in number of mainstream schools by level and supervisory authority (governmental – NGO/private) during school years 2001/02–2008/09[29]

Type of school and supervisory authority

2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2008/09
Basic
Governmental
9 826
10 199
10 565
10 879
11 285
11 364
11 513
NGO/private
89
94
119
166
200
238
303
Total
9 915
10 293
10 684
11 045
11 485
11 602
11 816
Secondary
Governmental
251
280
288
297
313
312
311
NGO/private
13
13
12
10
10
11
10
Total
264
293
300
307
323
323
321

Governmental
3 213
3 056
2 866
2 914
3 001
3 184
3 319
NGO/private
85
99
103
144
166
181
204
Total
3 298
3 155
2 969
3 058
3 167
3 365
3 524
Total governmental
13 290
13 535
13 719
14 090
14 599
14 860
15 143
Total NGO/private
187
206
234
320
376
430
518
Grand total
13 477
13 741
13 9533
14 410
14 975
15 290
15 661


Table 54

Growth in number of classroom teachers in mainstream schools by level of school and gender during school years 2001/02–2008/09[30]

Description

2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2008/09
Basic
Males
100 612
101 715
104 441
104 673
110 089
112 192
113 501
Females
28 727
29 021
30 779
31 934
34 992
37 632
41 696
Total
129 339
130 736
135 220
136 616
145 081
149 824
155 197
Secondary
Males
13 973
14 001
13 961
14 033
13 719
13 963
14 201
Females
4 093
4 135
4 345
4 526
4 923
5 132
5 400
Total
18 066
18 136
18 306
18 559
19
19 095
19 601
Basic + secondary
Males
16 259
16 297
16 019
16 312
18 107
17 707
18 857
Females
1 618
1 705
1 972
2 014
2 263
2 518
3 152
Total
17 877
18 022
17 991
18 326
20 377
20 255
22 009
Total
Males
130 844
132 013
134 421
135 018
141 915
143 862
146 559
Females
34 438
34 861
37 096
38 483
42 178
45 282
50 248
Grand total
165 282
166 874
171 517
173 501
165 470
189 144
196 807

Table 55

Growth in number of pupils in mainstream schools by level of school and gender during school years 2001/02–2008/09[31]

Description

2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2007/08
2008/09
Basic education
Males
2 257 878
2 337 961
2 425 445
2 450 282
2 364 074
2 429 009
2 498 675
Females
1 314 387
1 427 208
1 530 306
1 622 022
1 607 779
1 760 762
1 828 775
Total
3 572 265
3 765 169
3 955 751
4 082 292
3 971 853
4 189 681
4 327 450
Secondary education
Males
375 996
388 739
411 016
409 796
352 977
356 866
374 317
Females
145 442
160 624
177 979
185 298
172 813
194 041
206 512
Total
521 438
549 363
588 995
590 114
525 790
560 907
580 829
Grand total
4 093 703
4 314 532
4 544 746
4 667 408
4 497 643
4 750 588
4 908 279


Table 56

Growth in kindergarten enrolment rates by child gender, and teacher-to-child ratio and average class density during school years 2001/02–2008/09[32]



Children enrolled in kindergartens
Total enrolment (%)


Years
Number of classes
Males
Females
Total
Males
Females
Total
Average number of children per class
Teacher-to-child ratio
2001/02
513
6 588
5 917
12 505
0.36
0.33
0.34
24.4
14.1
2002/03
624
7 813
6 958
14 771
0.41
0.35
0.39
23.7
15.3
2003/04
610
8 336
6 978
15 304
0.42
0.37
0.39
25.1
14.7
2004/05
758
9 903
8 090
17 993
0.46
0.40
0.43
23.7
15.3
2005/06
952
11 438
9 600
21 038
0.53
0.47
0.50
22.1
14.9
2006/07
1 089
11 956
10 069
22 025
0.54
0.48
0.52
20.2
15.1
2007/08
1 089
12 838
10 964
23 802
0.55
0.49
0.52
21.9
16.2
2008/09
1 442
13 684
12 208
25 892
0.56
0.50
0.53
18.0
14.5

Table 57

Growth in number of administrative personnel in mainstream schools by gender and level of school during school years 2001/02–2007/08[33]

Description

2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2008/09
Basic
Males
15 091
15 341
16 198
17 758
19 140
15 925
16 777
Females
2 889
3 252
3 786
4 084
4 118
3 658
4 192
Total
17 980
18 593
19 984
21 842
23 258
19 583
20 969
Secondary
Males
1 374
1 553
1 552
1 570
1 535
1 291
1 355
Females
382
461
508
502
414
367
368
Total
1 756
2 014
2 060
7 072
1 949
1 658
1 723
Basic + secondary
Males
11 292
10 794
10 505
11 304
11 628
10 045
10 890
Females
2 775
2 885
3 063
3 300
3 576
3 068
3 741
Total
14 067
13 679
13 568
14 604
15 204
13 113
14 631
Total
Males
27 757
27 688
28 255
31
32 303
27 261
29 022
Females
6 046
6 598
7 357
7 886
8 108
7 093
8 301
Grand total
33 803
34 286
36
38 518
40 411
34 354
37 323


Table 58

Growth in number of administrative personnel in mainstream schools by gender and level of school during school years 2001/02–2007/08

Gender
2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
2005/06
2006/07
2007/08
Male
99
86
90
106
130
205
127
Female
322
329
350
346
382
323
0
Total
421
415
440
452
512
528
127

Table 59

Sports activities performed during the period 2001–2007 by type of activity and gender

Year
Gender
Football
Athletics
Volleyball
Table tennis
Chess
Total
Grand total
Basic
Secondary
Basic
Secondary
Basic
Secondary
Basic
Secondary
Basic
Secondary
Basic
Secondary
2001
M
250
250
200
-
-
180
-
-
-
-
450
430
880
F
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

2002
M
250
-
-
220
-
250
-
150
-
-
250
620
870

F
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

2003
M
350
250
200
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
550
250
950

F
-
-
-
-
First Secondary School Girls’ Games (volleyball –tennis – chess – table tennis)
-
-
150

2004
M
350
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
350
-
1 070

F
-
250
-
200
Second Secondary School Girls’ Games (volleyball –tennis – chess – table tennis) (270)
-
-
720

2005
M
-
250
-
220
-
200
-
-
-
-
-
670
850

F
-
-
-
-
Third Secondary School Girls’ Games (volleyball –tennis – chess – table tennis)
-
-
180
0
2006
M
380
-
220
-
-
-
180
-
150
-
930
-
1 100

F
-
-
-
-
Fourth Secondary School Girls’ Games (volleyball –tennis – chess – table tennis)
-
-
170

2007
M
-
450
-
-
-
150
-
-
-
-
-
600
950

F
-
-
-
-
Fifth Secondary School Girls’ Games (volleyball –tennis – chess – table tennis) (350)
-
-
350

Total
M
1 580
1 200
620
440
-
780
180
150
150
-
2 530
2 570
5 100

F
-
250
-
200
-
-
-
120
-
-
-
1 570
1 570
Grand total
1 580
1 450
620
640
-
780
180
270
150
-
2 530
4 140
6 670


Table 60

Participation in sports events abroad and rankings achieved by Yemen during the period 2001/02–2007/08

Item
Activity
Year
Host country
Games
No. of countries
Rankings achieved by Yemen
1
First Arab Basketball Championship
2000
Lebanon
Basketball
11
Seventh
2
First Arab Handball Championship
2001
Jordan
Handball
-
Three bronze medals
3
Second Arab School Football Championship
2001
Lebanon
Football
9
Sixth
4
Fourteenth Arab School Games
2002
Lebanon
Athletics and football
13
Third in football and bronze medal in athletics
5
First Arab School Volleyball Championship
2003
United Arab Emirates
Volleyball
12
Fifth
6
Fifteenth Arab School Games
2004
Saudi Arabia
Football and table tennis
15
Fourth
7
First Gulf School Championship for Girls
2006
Bahrain
Table tennis
7
Fourth
8
Third Arab School Football Championship
2007
Yemen
Football
13
First

Table 61

Number of parks and leisure areas country-wide

Number
Type of facility
Region
Source
4
Park and relaxation area
Hudaydah
Tourism survey – Ministry of Tourism
3
Park
Ibb
Tourism survey – Ministry of Tourism
6
Park
Aden
Tourism survey – Ministry of Tourism
2
Garden
Hadramawt
Tourism survey – Ministry of Tourism
29
Park – garden - relaxation area – tea room
Ta`izz
Tourism survey – Ministry of Tourism
3
Park – restaurant – tea room
Dhamar
Tourism survey – Ministry of Tourism
6
Park
San`a City
Tourism survey – Ministry of Tourism
5
Garden – health resort
San`a City
San`a City Tourism Office report

Table 62

Number of refugee children attending educational and vocational training facilities in camps and in neighbouring areas and villages in Lahij and Aden governorates during the 2007 school year


Number of refugee children benefiting

Educational facility
Boys
Girls
Total
Remarks
Salam primary school and school for refugees in Kharaz camp
954
762
1 716

Khalid bin al-Walid secondary school in the village of Huwayrib, near Kharaz camp
87
58
125

Kindergarten in Kharaz camp


150

Primary school in the Basatin district of Aden city
1 679
839
2 518
School also attended by children of Yemenis returnees from Somalia
Kindergarten at social centre


45
Run by ADRA
Short vocational training courses at government-run vocational training institutions for refugee children in and outside the camp
38
27
65
Supervised by ADRA

Table 63

Health services provided to refugees


Number of children

Type of health services
Social Reform Association in Lahij governorate
Remarks
Consultations for patients attending Basatin health centre in Aden city
10 415
Including marginalized children of returnees
Consultations for women attending mother and child centres in Basatin, Aden city
8 714
Including women returnees from Somalia
Consultations for children attending mother and child centres in Basatin, Aden city
6 551
Including children of returnees from Somalia
Consultations for patients attending the medical centre in Kharaz camp, Lahij governorate
6 214

Consultations for women attending the mother and child centre in Kharaz camp
4 026

Referrals to government-run hospitals in Aden and Lahij
428

Total
43 053

Table 64

Training courses implemented for persons working with children affected by armed conflict

Item
Activities
Number targeted and areas of specialization
Date and place of implementation
Organizing/ support entity
Remarks
1
Training workshop for Yemeni teachers on international humanitarian law
32 secondary school teachers
San`a
Ministry of Education and ICRC
Programmes aimed at secondary school students, starting from 2003, for 32 teachers from 16 secondary schools in Sa`dah governorate and Hadramawt
2
Seminar on international humanitarian law and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
44 judges and public prosecutors
San`a, 4–6 January 2004
Higher Institute of Judicial Studies and the ICRC mission

3
Seminar on the protection of war victims under Islamic law and international humanitarian law
40 scholars, academics, religious leaders and members of local human rights organizations
Aden, 24–25 April 2005
Yemen Red Crescent Society, University of Aden and ICRC

4
Fifth regional meeting to explore international humanitarian law, hosted by Yemen
Representatives of Ministries of Education and NGOs from 13 Arab countries
San`a, 13–21 November 2007
Ministry of Education, Yemen Red Crescent Society and ICRC

5
Training for 3 doctors on the treatment of post-war psychological trauma in children
3 doctors from the armed conflict zones in Sa`dah governorate
Sharm al-Shaykh, Egypt – 18–21 November 2007
Ministry of Education, Yemen Red Crescent Society and UNICEF (San`a)
The Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour worked in conjunction with UNICEF to select the trainees and arrange for them to attend the course.
6
Workshop to teach children about armed conflict through drawing


Ebhar Foundation
After the workshop, the Foundation organized an exhibition of the children’s drawings from the workshop.
7
Training for 8 doctors, psychologists and social workers from the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, and the Social Reform Association at a workshop on the management of psychological trauma in children, adolescents and the community in time of disaster
8 doctors, psychologists and social workers at the Social Reform Association, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour
Alexandria, May 2007
Alexandria Association for Child Protection and support bodies, namely:
• UNICEF, for participants from the Social Reform Association;
• Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, for its own participants;
• Ministry of Health, for its own participants

8
Training for duly qualified teachers, health workers and local community representatives in Sa`dah governorate in how to deal with children in the governorate’s armed conflict zones who are suffering post-traumatic stress disorder
70 teachers, health workers and representatives from civil society organizations
Sa`dah, 2007-2008
Yemeni Charitable Medical Association, supported by UNICEF

9
Training for teachers in providing psychosocial support for child victims of armed conflict in the camps for displaced persons in Sa`dah governorate
25 trainees
2008
Sa`dah Women’s Association, supported by UNICEF

10
Organization of 10 child rights awareness campaigns for teachers and health workers in the armed conflict zones in Sa`dah governorate

2008
Islamic Relief Worldwide

11
Preparation of a counselling guide for personnel undergoing training in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and discussion of the guide at a workshop attended by various experts

June 2008
Yemeni Charitable Medical Association, supported by UNICEF

12
Organization of a training workshop on child protection in emergencies
35 individuals from various governmental, non-governmental and international entities
San`a, 19-21 August 2008
Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, supported by UNICEF

Table 65 (a)

Cases heard by juvenile courts in some of the country’s governorates (San`a City, Aden, Ibb and Ta`izz)

Name of governorate
San`a City
Aden
Ibb
Ta`izz
Type of offence
2005
2006
2007
2005
2006
2007
2005
2006
2007
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Assault
12
9
8
7
6
12
-
-
-
27
76
2
31
17
Financial
5
17
-
26
15
45
8
5
8
23
46
6
63
11
Indecency
13
16
14
16
18
22
-
5
3
17
27
-
17
2
Risk of delinquency
-
-
-
10
4
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
Total
30
42
22
59
43
88
8
10
11
67
149
8
112
31

Table 65 (b)

Cases heard by juvenile courts in some of the country’s governorates (Hajjah, Abyan and Hadramawt)

Name of governorate
Hajjah
Abyan
Hadramawt
Type of offence
2005
2006
2007
2008
2005
2006
2007
2008
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Assault
3
5
4
1
1
6
4
2
15
16
6
-
8
-
Financial
3
3
7
-
2
3
-
1
12
23
18
31
20
1
Indecency
-
-
3
1
1
1
1
-
9
10
5
10
4
-
Risk of delinquency
9
3
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
1
5
6
-
Total
15
11
16
2
4
10
5
3
37
52
30
46
38
1

Classification of offences

Assault: Murder; inflicting a permanent disability; causing injury by accident; abuse; causing intentional injury; violation of privacy; traffic accident; abduction; public order offence; bombing; threatening behaviour.

Financial: Theft; pickpocketing; damage to property; destruction.

Indecency: Unlawful intercourse; sodomy; rape; lewd act; remaining alone with persons other than direct blood relatives (if a woman); breach of faith.

Risk of delinquency: Begging; drinking alcohol; making and selling alcohol; minor offences.

Table 66

Juvenile court statistics, 2004–2007



Cases heard



Item
Court
Carried over
Incoming
Total
Concluded
Remaining
Completion percentage
Juvenile court statistics for 2004
1
San`a City
None
137
137
12
25
82
2
Aden
11
44
55
48
7
87
3
Ta`izz
5
105
110
88
22
80
4
Ibb
10
63
73
61
12
84
5
Hadramawt
3
28
31
26
5
84
6
Dhamar
4
45
49
46
3
94
7
Hudaydah
None
23
23
17
6
74
8
Abyan
None
8
8
7
1
88

Total
33
453
486
405
81
83
Juvenile court statistics for 2005
1
San`a City
25
135
160
108
25
68
2
Aden
7
54
61
52
9
85
3
Ta`izz
30
76
106
92
14
87
4
Ibb
7
54
61
60
1
98
5
Hadramawt
5
22
27
23
4
85
6
Dhamar
6
13
19
17
2
89
7
Hudaydah
12
76
88
77
11
88
8
Abyan
1
4
5
3
2
60

Total
93
434
527
432
95
82
Juvenile court statistics for the first half of 2006
1
San`a City
54
156
220
193
17
92
2
Aden
9
44
53
47
6
89
3
Ta`izz
14
75
89
69
20
78
4
Ibb
1
49
50
39
11
78
5
Hadramawt
4
34
38
28
10
74
6
Dhamar
2
5
7
7
0
100
7
Hudaydah
11
63
74
57
18
76
8
Abyan
2
10
12
9
3
75

Total
97
436
533
448
85
84
Juvenile court statistics for the first half of 2007
1
San`a City
18
65
83
69
14
83
2
Aden
6
46
52