Council of Europe Treaty Series
The member States of the Council of Europe, the other States party to the European Cultural Convention, and other States, signatory hereto,
Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic and social progress;
Conscious that sport should play an important role in the protection of health, in moral and physical education and in promoting international understanding;
Concerned by the growing use of doping agents and methods by sportsmen and sportswomen throughout sport and the consequences thereof for the health of participants and the future of sport;
Mindful that this problem puts at risk the ethical principles and educational values embodied in the Olympic Charter, in the International Charter for Sport and Physical Education of Unesco and in Resolution (76) 41 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, known as the "European Sport for All Charter";
Bearing in mind the anti-doping regulations, policies and declarations adopted by the international sports organisations;
Aware that public authorities and the voluntary sports organisations have complementary responsibilities to combat doping in sport, notably to ensure the proper conduct, on the basis of the principle of fair play, of sports events and to protect the health of those that take part in them;
Recognising that these authorities and organisations must work together for these purposes at all appropriate levels;
Recalling the resolutions on doping adopted by the Conference of European Ministers responsible for Sport, and in particular Resolution No. 1 adopted at the 6th Conference at Reykjavik in 1989;
Recalling that the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe has already adopted Resolution (67) 12 on the doping of athletes, Recommendation No. R (79) 8 on doping in sport, Recommendation No. R (84) 19 on the "European Anti-doping Charter for Sport", and Recommendation No. R (88) 12 on the institution of doping controls without warning outside competitions;
Recalling Recommendation No. 5 on doping adopted by the 2nd International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials responsible for Sport and Physical Education organised by Unesco at Moscow (1988);
Determined however to take further and stronger co-operative action aimed at the reduction and eventual elimination of doping in sport using as a basis the ethical values and practical measures contained in those instruments,
Have agreed as follows:
Article 1 Aim of the Convention
The Parties, with a view to the reduction and eventual elimination of doping in sport, undertake, within the limits of their respective constitutional provisions, to take the steps necessary to apply the provisions of this Convention.
Article 2 Definition and scope of the Convention
Article 3 Domestic co-ordination
Article 4 Measures to restrict the availability and use of banned doping agents and methods
Article 5 Laboratories
Article 6 Education
Article 7 Co-operation with sports organisations on measures to be taken by them
Article 8 International co-operation
Article 9 Provision of information
Each Party shall forward to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, in one of the official languages of the Council of Europe, all relevant information concerning legislative and other measures taken by it for the purpose of complying with the terms of this Convention.
Article 10 Monitoring group
After each meeting, the monitoring group shall forward to the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe a report on its work and on the functioning of the Convention.
Article 13 Amendments to the Articles of the Convention
The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the Parties, the other member States of the Council of Europe, the other States party to the European Cultural Convention, the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention and any State which has acceded or has been invited to accede to it of:
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.
Done at Strasbourg, the 16th day of November 1989, in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each member State of the Council of Europe, to the other States party to the European Cultural Convention, to the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention and to any State invited to accede to it.
DATE OF ENTRY INTO FORCE : 1 JANUARY 2009.
The use of any drug should be limited to medically justified indications
All Prohibited Substances shall be considered as "Specified Substances" except Substances in classes S1, S2, S4.4 and S6.a, and Prohibited Methods M1, M2 and M3.
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited.
1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
1-androstendiol (5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol); 1-androstendione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione); bolandiol (19-norandrostenediol); bolasterone; boldenone; boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione); calusterone; clostebol; danazol (17α-ethynyl-17β-hydroxyandrost-4-eno[2,3-d]isoxazole); dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one); desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-17β-ol); drostanolone; ethylestrenol (19-nor-17α-pregn-4-en-17-ol); fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androstano[2,3-c]-furazan); gestrinone; 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one); mestanolone; mesterolone; metenolone; methandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one); methandriol; methasterone (2α, 17α-dimethyl-5α-androstane-3-one-17β-ol); methyldienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one); methyl-1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one); methylnortestosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one); methyltrienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one); methyltestosterone; mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione); norboletone; norclostebol; norethandrolone; oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone; prostanozol ([3,2-c]pyrazole-5α-etioallocholane-17β-tetrahydropyranol); quinbolone; stanozolol; stenbolone; 1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one); tetrahydrogestrinone (18a-homo-pregna-4,9,11-trien-17β-ol-3-one); trenbolone and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously:
androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione); dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one); prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone and the following metabolites and isomers:
4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol); 5-androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone; 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one;
[Comment to class S1.1b:
Where an anabolic androgenic steroid is capable of being produced endogenously, a Sample will be deemed to contain such Prohibited Substance and an Adverse Analytical Finding will be reported where the concentration of such Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers and/or any other relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete’s Sample so deviates from the range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production. A Sample shall not be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance in any such case where an Athlete proves that the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers and/or the relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete’s Sample is attributable to a physiological or pathological condition.
In all cases, and at any concentration, the Athlete’s Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance and the laboratory will report an Adverse Analytical Finding if, based on any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS), the laboratory can show that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin. In such case, no further investigation is necessary.
When a value does not so deviate from the range of values normally found in humans and any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, but if there are indications, such as a comparison to endogenous reference steroid profiles, of a possible Use of a Prohibited Substance, or when a laboratory has reported a T/E ratio greater than four (4) to one (1) and any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, further investigation shall be conducted by the relevant Anti-Doping Organization by reviewing the results of any previous test(s) or by conducting subsequent test(s).
When such further investigation is required the result shall be reported by the laboratory as atypical and not as adverse. If a laboratory reports, using an additional reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS), that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin, no further investigation is necessary, and the Sample will be deemed to contain such Prohibited Substance. When an additional reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not been applied, and the minimum of three previous test results are not available, a longitudinal profile of the Athlete shall be established by performing three no-advance notice tests in a period of three months by the relevant Anti-Doping Organization. The result that triggered this longitudinal study shall be reported as atypical. If the longitudinal profile of the Athlete established by the subsequent tests is not physiologically normal, the result shall then be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding.
In extremely rare individual cases, boldenone of endogenous origin can be consistently found at very low nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) levels in urine. When such a very low concentration of boldenone is reported by a laboratory and the application of any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, further investigation may be conducted by subsequent test(s).
For 19-norandrosterone, an Adverse Analytical Finding reported by a laboratory is considered to be scientific and valid proof of exogenous origin of the Prohibited Substance. In such case, no further investigation is necessary.
Should an Athlete fail to cooperate in the investigations, the Athlete’s Sample shall be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance.]
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone, zeranol, zilpaterol.
S2. HORMONES AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances and their releasing factors, are prohibited:
1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (e.g. erythropoietin (EPO), darbepoietin (dEPO), hematide);
2. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factors (e.g. IGF-1), Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs);
3. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH), prohibited in males only;
and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
[Comments to class S2:
Unless the Athlete can demonstrate that the concentration was due to a physiological or pathological condition, a Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance (as listed above) where the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites and/or relevant ratios or markers in the Athlete’s Sample satisfies positivity criteria established by WADA or otherwise so exceeds the range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production.
If a laboratory reports, using a reliable analytical method, that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin, the Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance and shall be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding.]
S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists including their D- and L-isomers are prohibited.
Therefore, formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol and terbutaline when administered by inhalation also require a Therapeutic Use Exemption in accordance with the relevant section of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions.
Despite the granting of any form of Therapeutic Use Exemption, the presence of salbutamol in urine in excess of 1000 ng/mL will be considered an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of a therapeutic dose of inhaled salbutamol.
S4. HORMONES ANTAGONISTS AND MODULATORS
The following classes are prohibited:
1. Aromatase inhibitors, including, but not limited to: anastrozole, letrozole, aminoglutethimide, exemestane, formestane, testolactone.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to: clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but not limited to: myostatin inhibitors.
S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include:
Diuretics, probenecid, plasma expanders (e.g. intravenous administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol) and other substances with similar biological effect(s).
Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlortalidone, etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone, thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide), triamterene, and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) (except for drosperinone and topical dorzolamide and brinzolamide, which are not prohibited).
[Comment to class S5:
A Therapeutic Use Exemption is not valid if an Athlete’s urine contains a diuretic in association with threshold or sub-threshold levels of an exogenous Prohibited Substance(s).]
M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including but not limited to perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products).
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Controls is prohibited. These include but are not limited to catheterisation, urine substitution and/or alteration.
2. Intravenous infusions are prohibited except in the management of surgical procedures, medical emergencies or clinical investigations.
M3. GENE DOPING
The transfer of cells or genetic elements or the use of cells, genetic elements or pharmacological agents to modulating expression of endogenous genes having the capacity to enhance athletic performance, is prohibited.
Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists (e.g. GW 1516) and PPARδ-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR) are prohibited.
In addition to the categories S1 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined
the following categories are prohibited in competition:
All stimulants (including both their (D- and L-) optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2009 Monitoring Program*.
a. Non Specified Stimulants:
Adrafinil, amfepramone, amiphenazole, amphetamine, amphetaminil, benzphetamine, benzylpiperazine, bromantan,
cropropamide, crotetamide, dimethylamphetamine, etilamphetamine, famprofazone,
fencamine, fenetylline, fenfluramine, fenproporex,
furfenorex, mefenorex, mephentermine,
mesocarb, methamphetamine (D-), methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine,
modafinil, norfenfluramine, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine,
phentermine, 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon), prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance.
b. Specified Stimulants (examples):
Adrenaline**, cathine***, ephedrine****, etamivan, etilefrine, fenbutrazate, fencamfamin, heptaminol, isometheptene, levmethamfetamine, meclofenoxate, methylephedrine****, methylphenidate, nikethamide, norfenefrine, octopamine, oxilofrine, parahydroxyamphetamine, pemoline, pentetrazol, phenpromethamine, propylhexedrine, selegiline, sibutramine, strychnine, tuaminoheptane and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
* The following substances included in the 2009 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, pseudoephedrine, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances.
** Adrenaline associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.
*** Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 micrograms per milliliter.
**** Each of ephedrine and methylephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
The following narcotics are prohibited:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Cannabinoids (e.g. hashish, marijuana) are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes.
In accordance with the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, a declaration of use must be completed by the Athlete for glucocorticosteroids administered by intraarticular, periarticular, peritendinous, epidural, intradermal and inhalation routes, except as noted below.
Topical preparations when used for auricular, buccal, dermatological (including iontophoresis/phonophoresis), gingival, nasal, ophthalmic and perianal disorders are not prohibited and neither require a Therapeutic Use Exemption nor a declaration of use.
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping violation threshold (haematological values) for each Federation is 0.10 g/L.
|Aeronautic (FAI)||Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) for disciplines involving shooting|
|Archery (FITA, IPC)||Motorcycling (FIM)|
|Automobile (FIA)||Ninepin and Tenpin Bowling (FIQ)|
|Boules (IPC bowls)||Powerboating (UIM)|
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports.
Archery (FITA, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
Billiards and Snooker (WCBS)
Boules (CMSB, IPC bowls)
Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) for disciplines involving shooting
Nine-pin and Tenpin bowling (FIQ)
Sailing (ISAF) for match race helms only
Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition
Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and snowboard halfpipe/big air
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following:
Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.